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Vol II.] (MONTHLY) • [1890. 

Edited by Rev. H. J. Heuser, 

I^cftstor 0/ Exegesit and Inirod, to S. Script., Theol. Seminary, Overbrvok. 

" Ut EccUtia ttdifieationem accipiat." 

1, Cor. xtv. 5. 




MAY 6 li,55 




American Ecclesiastical Review. 




II. AD MARTYRES, (Mgr. Corccran.) - - - - la 

in. THE TABERNACLE KEY ..... 15 













M. H. ROSARY. 196 

V. TWO MEDI/EVAL HYMNS (First article). - . 200 




DAY. 241 

II. TWO MEDIiEVAL HYMNS (Second article). - - 247 







TRIS. 358 















Vol. II. — January, 1890.— No. i. 


IT is recorded in the Hindu lawbooks that the daily read- 
ing of the sacred writings prolongs life, gives wisdom, 
and brings renown. * If this be true, we of the clergy should 
certainly enjoy a full measure of years, wisdom, and glory ; 
for the daily recitation of the canonical Hours literally ful- 
fils the above- mentioned condition. As to securing length 
of life, the Hindu prophet should probably have added that 
he meant reading with reflection, in which case the proposi- 
tion is as likely to be true of temporal as of eternal life, since 
statistics are frequently adduced to prove that intellectual 
activity is highly favorable to longevit}'. A similar assur- 
ance may be found in the words of the Psalmist himself. 
" Vitam petiit a te," he says, " et tribuisti ei longitudiiiem 
dierum in saeculum et in saeculum sasculi — sjloriam et mag- 
num decorem impones super eum." * We are held to read 
the sacred books " attente ac devote." This is difficult more 
especially as regards the Psalms. Nevertheless, the greater 
portion of the office is taken from the Psalter, and whilst, 
moreover, the other parts of the Office vary at intervals, the 
T^salms or a certain number of them are constantly repeated. 

> F^inda Books IV., 92; cited from Amberger, Pastor .Theol., II., 453. 
• Ps. XX. 4- 




The explanation of this remarkable predominance of the 
Psalms in the Office is to be found in the fact that, according 
to Bellarmin and others, they contain a summary, as it were, 
of the entire Old Testament. * We find here the Mosaic ac- 
count of the history, ordinances, and trials of the chosen 
people , likewise the prophecies and exhortations of the later 
writers. There is described in them, says the same authority, 
the preaching-, miracles, passion, resurrection, and ascension 
of Christ, as well as the propagation and future fate of the 
Church, and this almost as clearly as the same facts are set 
forth in the Gospels. They are a compend of theology, says 
St. Basil,' containing, like a great and common storehouse, not 
only the mysteries of faith but the most perfect rule of life. 
What is there, he asks, that you could not learn from the 
Psalms? — " Non fortitudinis magnificentiam ? Non justitias 
sinceritatem ? Non temperantias gravitatem? Non pruden- 
tias perfectionem ? Non pcenitentias modum ? Non patientias 
mensuram? Non quidquid dicere possis bonorum?" He 
would have parents teach them literally to their children, in 
the hope that afterwards, coming to the age of independent 
reason, the remembrance of the psalm might serve them as a 
rule of life and a compend of sacred history.' He tells us how 
learned and apostolic men kept the Psalms before them at all 
times, at home and abroad. " Psalmorum oracula et domi 
canunt et in foro circumferunt." And in truth the reading of 
the Psalms conveys all we have said and more to those who 
have mastered their sense. Recalling them devoutly day by 
day, they become a rule of life, which creates dispositions 
and habits of mind in conformity with the life of Christ, the 
reality foreshadowed by David, and the pattern of the priest. 
They are thus not only a prayer but a sacramental fact, con- 
taining in its daily realization the grace of final perseverance. 

1 Est enim liber Psalmorum quasi compendium et summa totius veteris Instru- 
menti. Prsef. in Psalm. 
* D. Basilii Mag. homil. in princip. Ps. i. 


Some of the Christian Fathers have called the Psalms the voice 
of the Church. In them she is at one time represented as 
clad in sackcloth and ashes, pouring out in company with her 
repentant children the doleful strains of the *' Miserere." 
Again she walks with confident step, trusting in the mercies 
of the Most High, who will not desert her, "quia apud Domi- 
num misericordia et apud eum copiosa redemptio." Then 
there are hours of longing after an increase of justice; even as 
the hart panteth after the living waters, so does the soul thirst 
after the love of God. And last of all she chants forth solemn 
songs of gratitude and joy, when the heart leaps, amid the 
sound of cymbal and cithern, in presence of the Ark of the 
Covenant ; when the spouse bursts out in canticles of gladness, 
impatient to contain her joy since she has found Him whom 
her soul loveth. " These Psalms," says St. Ambrose, " are 
the praypr of the assembled Church, a profession of her faith, 
true and sincerest devotion, a chant of praise and joy. They 
subdue anger, are a relief in affliction," ' etc. 

It was on this account, namely, that the Psalms are a form 
of divine teaching, containing precepts of right living as well 
as a pattern of prayer, that in the ancient Church clerics, 
without exception, were required to know by memory the 
entire Psalter, before they could be promoted to sacred 
orders. ' And the Church fulfils the daily task of her triple 
mission when she enjoins upon her priests and religious the 
daily recitation of the Psalms. They express the progressive 
steps of the spiritual life in well-arranged order, marking, as 
ascetical writers mostly divide it, the purgative or penitent, 
the illuminative or justified, the unitive or sanctified state of 
the soul. 

It is supreme wisdom, then, to study the meaning of the 
Psalms as they are read in the Breviary, which is to say, in 

' S. Ambros., En. in I. Ps. 

^ Sollicite constituitur et decernitur, at nnllus cajascumqae dignitatis ecclesiasticse 
deinceps percipiat pradum, qui non totum psalteriam vel canticoram perfecte noverit 
supplementum. Cone. Tolet. VIII., An. 653. 


their application to the priestly life. Scrutamini Scripturas, — 
" Search the Scriptures, for you think in them to have life 
everlasting." ' Barren the soil and only hardened by the 
daily beating, if it be not turned over at times by reflection, 
if no pain be taken to dig a trench, through which the salu- 
tary waters of devotion may flow, enriching the soil, that from 
it may grow the tree, " lignum quod plantatum est secus 
decursus aquarum, quod fructum suum dabit in tempore suo." * 


But if there be such wealth of knowledge, beautv, and de- 
votion in the songs of the Royal Priest who once had charmed 
the heart of God Himself, how can they escape our attention ? 
The answer is simple. The Psalms have their peculiar difl&- 
culties. We need no other proof of this than the endless 
number of interpreters and commentators which this portion 
of all others in Holy Writ has had, from the beginning to our 
own day. Lelong, the learned Oratorian, who wrote nearly 
two hundred years ago, counted six-hundred and thirty 
commentators who had explained the Psalms alone, this num- 
ber not including those who wrote either on the entire 
Scriptures or on parts of the Psalter. Among the Christian 
Fathers there is hardly one who did not write some such 
commentary. ' St. Augustine says that even the order in 
which they are placed is full of the deepest mystery, and 
many interpreters agree that the present collocation of the 
Psalms is designed to show forth the progressive life of the 
soul which we have above indicated. For the rest, the book 

* John V. 39. 

2 Ps. 1.3. 

^ Comely, in his " Introductio in Libros Sacros," counts more than twelve hun- 
dred commentators on the Psalms, up to the time of Lelong. In our own day we 
have among the principal writers on the Psalms : Patrizi, S. J., Cento Salmi tradotti 
letteralmente dal teste ebraicoe commentati. Romoe, 1875 ; — Le Hir, Les Psaumes. 
Paris, 1876; — Les^tre, Le livre des Psaumes, Paris, 1883 ; — Thalhofer, Erklaerungd. 
Psalmen, ed. 4, Ratisbon, 1880;— Wolter, O. S. B., P.sallite sapienter, Erklaerung d. 
Ps. Freiburg, 1871, etc. 


is full of intricate difficulties in matters of grammar, etymolo- 
gy, history, and mystical allusions. The original text is a 
dead tongue for more than two thousand years, so that the 
exact meaning of many words can be gathered only through 
the medium of other Hebrew writings, parallel passages, or 
conjecture. Then the mystery in which the divine oracles 
are of their very nature shrouded, being spiritual parables or 
prophesies, impervious in various degrees to those who are 
carnal and who live for the present only. Add to this the 
oriental character of the expressions and figures used in 
illustration. The eastern mind rapidly grasps the full pur- 
pose of what seems to us only indicated. Its imagery is 
often in strange contrast with our own. Hence meet us 
certain extravagances, as it would seem, in diction, sometimes 
repeating the same idea two or three times and oftener ; 
sometimes bounding by elipsis from thought to thought 
without seeming connection ; sometimes placing words and 
sentences in such juxta-position as to make one the apparent 
contradiction of the other. Much of this is to be found 
throughout all Holy Scripture and intended so by the Holy 
Ghost, " ut animos non tantum manifesta pascant, sed etiam 
secreta exerceant veritate ; " 1 and Our Lord Himself speaks 
mostly in parables, for the reason that those interested in His 
doctrine might think, and that those who would not think 
might not understand. 


The disposition of the Psalms in the Breviary corresponds 
in general to the character of the ecclesiastical season or 
festival which the Church celebrates. Apart from this, the 
entire Psalter is so divided as to cover the seven days of the 
week, just as the rest of the Sacred Scriptures are portioned 
out to be read in the course of the entire year. Examining 
the canonical hours by themselves, what strikes us at once is 
the grouping into numbers of three, five, twelve. Each of these 

• S. Aug. Epist. ad Volus. 


numbers denotes, as the sacred text itself in many places amply 
suggests, a special kind of perfection. It it needless to dwell 
on the idea of perfection in the number three. God himself, 
man, His image, and the fundamental history of Christian 
symbolism, have stamped the trinity as the expression of 
totality, completeness, and perfection. Jurisprudence recog- 
nizes the law of Neratius Priscus, " Tres faciunt collegium." 
To use three words was to express the sum of things, " Pax, 
te tribus verbis volo" said Plautus, and the expression "Om- 
ne trinum perfectum " has become a current proverb. The 
number five is applied to the perfection of man in the use of 
his senses. The right use of our senses is in itself a proclaim- 
ing of the praises of the Creator. Hence, say the interpreters, 
Solomon sings canticles five thousand in number. Comment- 
ing on the number of five thousand in Ezechiel, ^ Cornelius a 
Lapide says that they followed God by devoting to him the 
perfect use of their senses, and concludes, "erat ergo hie nume- 
rus quinque millium augustus, sacer, triumphalis." — The num- 
ber twelve was likewise received in the oracles of old as the 
expression of universality or perfection. It means, as Rabanus, 
and after him many others, among them St. Thomas, explain, 
divine perfection applied to man. It arises out of the relations 
/multiplication) of three (the Holy Trinity), and four (the four 
ends of the world, to which the mystery of the Holy Trinity 
was to be brought in baptism). " Duodenarius, consurgens ex 
ternario et quaternario, in se ductis ac multiplicatis, significat 
eos praedicaturos Trinitatis fidem per quatuor mundi partes ; 
significatur in duodecim filiis Jacob, duodecim principibus 
filiorum Israel, duodecim fontibus Helim, duodecim lapidibus 
rationalis, duodecim panibus propositionis, duodecim explora- 
toribus, duodecim lapidibus unde factum est altare, duodecim 
lapidibus sublatis e Jordane, duodecim bobus sustinentibus 
mare asneum, duodecim stellis in corona sponsae, de quibus in 
Apocalypsi, duodecim fundamentis civitatis, duodecim por- 

' Ezech. xlviii. 15. 


tis." ' — What a magnificent exposition of the priestly vocation ! 
He is to preach continually the mystery of his faith, to be the 
foundation of the holy city, the stars in the crown of the holy 
Spouse, the gate whereby the faithful may enter the "king, 
dom come." And this is the image of God, in the perfect 
and harmonious use of his senses, leading the people of every 
nation to the knowledge of the triune God. 

Looking at the body of the ferial office, we find the hundred 
and fifty Psalms disposed in regular order of succession through 
the Nocturnes, Prime, and Vespers, omitting a few here and 
there which are reserved for special use, as we shall see. The 
office of Sunday, the first day of the week, begins its first night- 
hour or nocturn with the first psalm, and ends with the 
twentieth. The next five psalms are recited, one for each 
day of the week, taking the second place at the hour of Prime 
in the ferial office. * Then the Nocturnes resume the regular 
order with the twenty-sixth psalm on Sunday night, and end 
with the hundred and eighth psalm on Friday night. After 
that they are continued through Vespers of the week, begin- 
ning with the hundred and ninth psalm on Sunday, and 
ending with the hundred and forty-seventh on Saturday. 
Thus the Psalmist, and the priest who accompanies him, begins 
and ends his journey with its various lessons and aspirations, 
picturing the life of penance, justification, and sanctification, 
from Matins at the commencement of the week, to Vespers at 
its termination, " Exitus matutini et vespere delectabis." ' 

For Lauds, the Little Hours, and Complin, selections are 
made from the Psalms. Of these some never vary. They 
are daily repeated, which suggests their importance in some 
special sense. Others, whilst reserved for these short hours, 
recur only at certain intervals, or for special occasions. 
Those that are daily repeated, whatever the "ordo" may 

• Comment. Corn, a Lap. in Matt. x. 2. 

» Here the numeric order is not exactly observed, it being as follows : Ps. xxiii., 
xxiv., XXV., xxii., xxi. 
3 Ps. Ixiv. 8. 


alter in regard to the rest, are the last three psalms of the 
Psalter, * said under one conclusion at the end of Lauds. They 
are a call upon all creatures to praise God. Next we have 
for daily recitation the fifty-third psalm of Prime, said at the 
rising of the sun ; then the hundred and eighteenth psalm, 
which is very long, and runs through all the hours of Prime, 
Terce, Sext, and None ; lastly, the psalms of Complin, which 
are the fourth, the thirtieth, the ninetieth, and the hundred 
and thirty-third. In the other psalms we see, as it were, the 
whole course of our life on earth, so that at the end of each 
week, finishing the seven days' work of our inward creation, we 
may say : Vitam meam annuntiavi tibi.* But in these psalms, 
which we have just mentioned, and which are repeated every 
day, the daily life of the priest is expressed. They are a con- 
stant admonition : In domo Domini omnibus diebus vitas meae.' 
Thus in the fifty-third psalm, with which the hour of Prime 
begins, following upon the prayer of thanksgiving made at 
Lauds, the priest recalls, as it were, the day's troubles, temp- 
tations, and tasks, expresses his confidence in the help of the 
Lord, and forming his morning intention, promises to render 
sacrifice: Insurrexerunt in me — ecce Deus adjuvat me — vo- 
luntarie sacrificabo tibi, quoniam bonum est. The beautiful 
history connected with this psalm brings out its special 
adaptation as part of the morning's meditation. David is in a 
desert near the village of Ziph, hiding from Saul. Hearing 
that the latter and his minions, who have closely watched 
David day and night, are upon him, he seeks refuge upon a 
rock. His enemies surround him. He seems to be lost for a 
certainty, when a messenger informs Saul that the Philistines 
are entering his kingdom, and he hastens away, leaving David, 
who renders thanks and vows sacrifice to the Lord.^ Later 
on David gets Saul into his power in this very place, but he 

1 Ps. cxlviii., cxlix., cl. 

« Ps. Iv. 9. 

3 Ps. xxvi. 4. 

■• Cf. I. Reg. xxiii. 19 ; xxvi. I. 


does not avenge himself, out of reverence for the Anointed 
of the Lord, who, though his enemy, is yet the rightfully or- 
dained King of Israel. ' The image of the rock as the Church, 
which defies the snares of the persecutors, because God 
guards it; the enemies of Christ eventually defeating them- 
selves, and the action of the Church, not avenging herself 
when she has the power, because she respect?, even in her 
enemies, the authority of the anointed or rightfully ordained 
civil rulers; this and its application to the life of the priest 
individually as her representative, must be plain at sight. 

The hundred and eighteenth psalm, which covers the 
Little Hours from Prime to None, is a peculiar exemplification 
of what David avows, when he says he kept Goo's law before 
him constantly: Tota die meditatio mea est. * There are a 
hundred and seventy-six verses in this psalm, and almost in 
every one the word " Thy Law " is repeated ; whether he uses 
the terms, " lex, testimonia, mandata, verbum, judicia, justi- 
ficationes," they are but modifications of one and the same 
thought; Lord, my happiness is bound up with the keeping 
of Thy law, hence I will remember it, observe it, and proclaim 
it all the day long : Nam et testimonia tua meditatio mea est. ' 
Quia lex tua meditatio mea est. * Mandata tua meditatio mea 
est.** Other interpreters see in this psalm an exhortation to 
watch over the purity of the law and not allow it to be changed 
by the false reasoning of men. Even the Hebrew writer seems 
anxious to call the attention of the reader to the importance 
of studying and meditating this psalm. He divides it into 
twenty-two parts and makes the eight verses of each part begin 
with the same letter of the alphabet. " The four psalms of 
Complin; the prayer of the Church at eventide, and which she 
closes with the canticle, " Nunc dimittis ; " the last memory of 

» I. Sam. xxvii. 1-25. ' Ps. cxviii. 

' Vers. 24, 99. 

* Vers. 77, 92, 97. 174. » Vers. 143. 

« Hujus artificii non alia est causa prxter illam, quod lectorum attentionem pra- 
parare eorumque meraoriam juvare voluerit Psalmographas, ne prolixitas rudiores 
moraretur, etc. Bellirifjer in Ps. cit. 


the Old, and the joyous announcement of the New Covenant 
give us a review, so to say, of the day gone by, a repetition of 
all the acts of the soul engaged in the Christian and priestly 
vocation. These are the union of sorrow for committed faults 
with confidence in God's forgiving mercy: " Deus justitias mege, 
miserere mei," ' and " In te, Domine, speravi, non confundar." ' 
More than this. The soul which trusts God henceforth dwells 
with Him : " Qui habitat in adjutorioAltissimi, in protectione 
Dei coeli commorabitur,"^ and that union is consummated in 
constant thanksgiving, in calling others to the service of God 
and bringing blessings upon them. '* Ecce nunc benedicite 
Dominum, omnes servi Domini. — Benedicat te Dominus ex 
Sion. " * This last psalm is said to be a form of blessing used 
by the Levites who held the nightwatches in the temple. 

The Psalms of Lauds as recited on Sundays and festivals 
are an expression of gratitude for the benefits God has con- 
ferred upon man in his creation and redemption. Ps. xcii. 
pictures the creation : " Firmavit orbem terras." Then fol- 
lows immediately Ps. xcix., which is an act of gratitude for 
this benefit of creation : "Jubilate Deo omnis terra." The 
next two psalms, Ixii. and Ixvi. united, under one conclusion, 
recognize the New Law, by which the gentiles are to be saved. 
" Lsetentur et exultent gentes, quoniam judicas populos in 
asquitate, et gentes in terra dirigis." Then follows the can- 
ticle of the Three Children, as if in gratitude for the universal 
grace. Lauds end with the three last psalms of the Psalter, 
wherein heaven and earth are called upon to thank the Lord 
for his benefits : " Laudate Dominum — sol et luna— omnis 
terra — ecclesia sanctorum — omnis spiritus laudet Dominum." * 

In the ferial office of Lauds, which is recited mainly during 
the penitential seasons, the inward creation, the renovation of 
the heart in sorrow for sin, takes the place of the outward 
creation. Accordingly ferial Lauds begin with the Psalm 

1 Ps. iv. I, 2. " Ps. XXX. I. 

3 Ps. xc I. * Ps.cxxx.iii I, 4. 

" Ps cxlviii., cxlix., cl. 


" Miserere," ' which is invariably the beginning. Then follows 
for each day a different psalm, expressing a longing for the 
promised Messiah and the graces which will accompany His 
coming.' The following will give the idea of the successsive 
thoughts. Monday, Promise of the heir Christ. ' Tuesday, 
Longing for the illumination of the nations. ' Wednesday, 
Vocation anc^ conversion of the gentiles. * Thursday, Prayer 
for confirmation of the same. * Friday, Strong urging upon 
God's mercy, lest our sins may yet reverse His designs. * 
Saturday, Confidence and gratitude in the acknowledgment 
of that mercy. ' A canticle taken from other parts of the Holy 
Scripture follows upon each of these psalms, and Lauds end 
as usual with the three last psalms of the Psalter. If any one 
wish to verify the correspondence of these psalms and their 
meaning as we have just explained it, and which we cannot 
here detail at greater length, he need only read some of the 
headings of these psalms, found in the Septuagint version, ex. 
gr., Ps. v., " Pro ea quae haereditatem consequitur ;" — Ps. Ixiv., 
" Canticum transmigrationis ;" — Ps. Ixxxix.,** Oratio Moysis;" 
— Ps. xci., *• Psalmus cantici in die sabbati." 

It remains only to mention the ninety-fourth psalm, which 
has been used as an Invitatory at the beginning of the Canoni- 
cal office. By it the monks in former times were called 
together for the recitation of Matins, and they gave their 
answer in the words of the Psalmist. This Psalm as found 
in the Breviary has retained its ancient form of the Itala ver- 
sion, and differs somewhat from the translation of the Vulgate 

In conclusion we will say to the well disposed reader that 
the study of these psalms in detail, the general purpose and 
drift of which we have barely been able to indicate, will make 
the recitation of the Breviary a most useful exercise of the in- 
tellectual faculties. And who will doubt that with this exer- 
cise the heart must needs join its voice, making it the sublimest 

^ Ps. xci. 

» Ps. 1. 

» Ps. V. 

» Ps. Ixii. 

* Ps. Ixiv. 

* Ps. Ixxxix. 

« Ps. cxlii. 


method of mental and oral prayer that can be found. This is 
the true reason why, as Bellinger ' well expresses it, Psalmos et 
ab Hebrasis et a Christianis, privatim ac publice, omni aetate 
fuisse cantitatos et nocturna diurnaque manu versatos ; qui- 
bus non modo urbes pagique, sed et deserta atque invia perso- 
narent, piasque in lacrymas ipsa agrestia pectora collique- 

Psallam, et intelligam in via immaculata. * 

Psallam spiritu, psallam et mente. =* 

' Liber Psalm, praef. 

2 Ps. c. 2. 

3 I. Cor. 14-15. 

Multa sunt quae me in ecclesias greraio justis.sime tenent : 
tenet consensio populorum et gentium ; tenet auctoritas mi- 
raculis inchoata, spenutrita, charitateaucta et vetustatefirma- 
ta ; tenet ab ipsa sede Petri Apostoli, cui pascendas oves suas 
post Resurrectioncm Dominus commendavit, usque ad pras- 
sentem episcopatum, successio sacerdotum ; tenet postremo 
ipsum Catholicae, quod non sine causa inter tam multas hereses 
ista Ecclesia sola obtinuit. 

St. Augustinus (Lib. Contra Epist. fundam., cap. 4). 


THE following Latin hymn is from the pen of the late 
Mgr. Corcoran. He loved the beautiful lines of the 
early Christian poets as much as he admired the classic 
beauty of the Augustan writers, and it was his way thus to 
relieve his mind from more serious labor, or to while away 
the hours of night when pain prevented him from sleep. 
There is no doubt that he never intended it for publication ; 
but most of our readers will be glad to have it without al- 
teration. The opening lines recall the well known hymn of 
Prudentius, Salvete flores martyrum^ in honor of the Holy In- 
nocents, as well as that of the passion, also found in the Roman 
Breviary, which begins Salvete Christi vulnera, and the author 
of which has remained unknown to this day. We note at the 
foot of the page the corrections which are added in brackets 
in the original manuscript. 

Salvete sancti ccelites,' 

Regis superni milites, 

lUustris heroum cohors, 

Summis recepta sedibus ? 

Post bella gesta fortiter ' 
Et inclytam victoriam 
Palmam et laboris praeraia 
Aequo tulistis judice. 

Exhausta post pcricula 
Et turbidi fluclus maris 
Portum occupastis fortiter 
Et limina intrastis poli.* 

• Martyres « Peracta post certamina ' Et tuta Olympi limina. 



Vobis coronani glorias 
Et sempiteina gaudia 
Deus bonorum providus, 
Largitor omnium, dedit. 

Jucunda defessis quies, 
Perenne * datur otium, 
Dum larga " vos inebriant 
Beatitatis flumina. 

At nos miselli ac perditi 
Haeremus in medio raari. 
Hostes premunt nos undique, . 
Dolos ubique dum struunt. 

O casta Mater Numinis, 
Tua sub umbra supplices, 
Ut nos benigna proteges 
Fletus precesque fundimus. 

1 interna. * Secura. 


A NUMBER of questions having been asked regarding the 
obligation of Decree N. 266, Tit. v., of the Second Plen- 
ary Council of Baltimore, according to which the key of the 
Tabernacle is invariably to be kept by the priest who has 
charge of the church or chapel, we shall treat the subject 
in its entirety, giving the ecclesiastical law, with such com- 
ment as appears justified according to the interpretation of 
liturgical writers. 

The Tabernacle should be provided with a strong lock and 
key. The key, of a solid material, should be gold or silver- 
plated, ' and when not in actual use is to be kept under the 
personal custody of the parish-priest or whoever supplies his 
place in the administration of the church or chapel." It 
should be distinguished by a small cord of silk, and never at- 
tached to other keys.* 

*' Apart from the different decrees," says Catalanus, * " which 
have been published by various Councils in regard to the 
care of the key which guards the Most Blessed Sacrament, 
■' there are also numerous decrees of the Sacred Congrega- 
tions." He then proceeds to give some of these, showing 
that it is not permissible to entrust the care of the Tabernacle 
key, even for a short space of time, to the custody of any, 
be they clerics (even in sacred orders), or religious, or persons 

1 De Herdt, Praxis iii., 180, 6; Baruffald. xxiii., 62. According to the statutes of 
the Archdioc. of New York it is to be gold plated, Cf. Cone. Prov. Neo Ebor. IV., 
X.. 6. 

» Nequaquam (tamen) prohibeatur Rector ipse ecclesite, vel curator animarum, 
sive Parochus, quoniinus easdem (claves> muneri«- alicujus pr?estnndi causa aliquando 
sacerdoti, quem in officio parochialis cura adjutorem habet.— C«rem. 
Episc. Comment. Cata'an*, Lib. i., 2, 6. 

* Instr. sur le Kit., Jo!y de Choiii, I., 71. < Loc. cit. 



of rank, unless they be priests who have the right to celebrate 
the most holy mysteries. Father Lehmkuhl, in the last 
edition of his Theologia Moralis, says : " The key (or keys) of 
the Tabernacle must be kept under the careful custod}', not 
indeed of a lay person, but of the priest himself, as the S. 
Congregation has repeatedly decided, and of which the Sov. 
Pontiffs have reminded us. By the Sacristan, to whom the 
Constitutions of the Roman Pontiffs say that the custody of 
the key belongs, they mean not a lay sacristan, but a priest of 
the church, or, if there are several priests attached to the 
same, the one who presides." He then refers to the decrees 
in Gardellini's collection, which are in force "except where 
perchance a special prvilege of exemption exists." ' 

The Decrees imply in all cases that wherever the Blessed 
Sacrament is preserved a priest is to be continually at hand 
to watch over it. Hence the obligation of celebrating daily, 
or in cases of necessit}^ at least three times a week, in all 
churches and chapels where the Blessed Sacrament is kept. 
It may be objected that the observance of the above regula- 
tion regarding the personal keeping of the Tabernacle key 
will expose a priest oftentimes to great inconvenience. This 
is undoubtedly true, especially where a priest has a number 
of charges which require his attendance in separate places. 
Nevertheless the Church exacts these precautions in order to 
secure the constant and thoughtful reverence which we must 
admit is due to the Most Blessed Sacrament. After all, it is 
nothing more than the care we use with regard to matters of 
great importance or material value in general ; and in every 
state of life we find similar responsibilities, which exact from 
men, whether as heads of families or as directors of business 

' Clavis tabernaculi (vel claves) debet esse sub diligenti custodia, eaque non laici 
sed ipsius sacerdotis, ut pluries S. Congregatio-decrevit et S. Pontifices monuerunt. — 
Sacristam autem, cui aliquando Constitutiones R. Pontificum dicunt castodiam clavis, 
competere, non sacristam laicuni esse, sed presbyterum, i. e., ecclesiae, si cui plures 
sacerdotes adscripti sunt, prsefectum, evidenter coUigitur ex decretis apud Gardell. 
N. 563 et 949 ; nisi forte aliud speciale privilegium existat. Theol. Mor., vol. ii., 
n. I j2, nota 6. 


trusts, a like constant and personal attendance. We confess 
to a slight feeling of reluctance to state thus plainly the disci- 
plinary law of the Church in view of the custom in many 
places, where the Tabernacle key is kept in a safe or box in 
the sacristy to which lay persons have ready access, under 
plea of convenience. 

But what are. we to do in the case of convent chapels, 
which are sometimes at a considerable distance from the 
church, and where it appears to be not only reasonable but 
in a measure a necessity to leave the key under the custody of 
the Religious, in order to avoid difficulties and delays through 
forgetful ness, misLiying, or, perhaps, loss of the key. Some 
years ago a Jesuit Father, who had been commissioned to 
make the Directory for the two provinces of his order, 
Lyons and Toulouse, laid before the S. Congregation of 
Rites, among other doubts, the following : " There is an old 
custom among the Religious, according to which the key of 
the Tabernacle is not kept by the chaplain, but within the en- 
closure of the monastery, even in cases where the house of 
the chaplain is near the monastery. Can this custom be re- 
tained ? " The answer was decided and peremptory : " No." * 
The late bishop of Alton, in the Addenda of his Pastoral In- 
structions,* says: " That the Tabernacle key may not be lost by 
carrying it to and fro, the chaplains of sisterhoods may lock 
it up in a drawer at the sacristy or chapel of the convent and 
keep the custody of the key of this drawer. If the latter key 
be lost, it will not necessitate the breaking open of the Taber- 
nacle, as would be the case if the former were lost." Similar 
suggestions are made by other writers on the same subject. 
They suppose that every altar where the Blessed Sacrament 
is kept has a priest sufficiently near to assure his regular at- 

» Dubium. Invaluit usus apud Moniales at clavis Tabernaculi non penes Capella- 
nnm sed inter septa monasterii asservetor, etiam cnin domus Capellani finitima est 
monasterio; an servari possit talis usus ? Resp. S. R. C. Negative. Deer. aath. 
5728, Soc. Jes. ad vlii., die 11 Maji, 1878. 

* Past Instr. 1880, pag. 269. n. 355. 


tendance. If, as may happen in the case of hospitals and 
public institutions, the duty of saying Mass and attending to 
the Blessed Sacrament devolve upon several priests succes- 
sively, who reside in separate places, this way of keeping the 
Tabernacle key in a lock box at the chapel, and of which each 
could have a key, would seem the most practical. A strang- 
er wishing to officiate and having need of opening the Tab- 
ernacle would, of course, have to go to the trouble of 
obtaining the key to the lock box from the responsible priest, 
but this trouble, comparatively small in a matter that concerns 
the greatest of treasures on earth, seems to have been in- 
tended by the Church, who could not but have foreseen the 
difficulties to which we have alluded. ' 

It is obvious, then, that the Tabernacle key should not be 
kept in the safe which is found in many sacristies for the use 
of the sacred vessels, because, since the priest would in this 
case have to keep the key of the safe, it would be impossible 
to open the tabernacle if at the time of an accident to the 
church he who holds the key of the safe happens to be 
absent. It appears, moreover, from the decrees already 
refered to that the Tabernacle key should not be handled un- 
less in case of necessity by any lay person. Hence the sacris- 
tan, except he be a priest, should not place the key into 
nor draw it from the Tabernacle door. ' Nor should the key 
be left on the altar between masses, but returned to the place 
of its custody. All this speaks in favor of a lock-box in the 
sacristy, of which the priest carries the key, as the most 
convenient mode of observing the ecclesiastical ordinances 

^ Claves Tabernaculi nee relinqui debent in sacristia nee a laico servari sed a solo 
saeerdote. S. C. R., 22 Feb. 1593. 

Clavis Tabernaculi, ubi reponitur Hostia eonseerata in fer. v. Coense dominicx, non 
est danda laieo quantumvis nobili. S. Cong. Rit. 30 Jun. 1616. 

Monialibus non committitur elavis Tabernaeuli SS. Sacramenti, sed penes eum 
saeerdotem semper esse debet, ad quern spectat eura illud administrandi. S. Cong. 
Coneilii in Vallisoletana, 12 Januar. 1604. — Vd. Miihlb. Deer. auth. iii., 2., pag. 36Z 

« Cf. Pa<:t. Instr. Alton., 1875, n. 4$, 


and consulting the reverence due to the most august sacra- 
ment. ' 

Propterea se nobis comedendum proponit is, qui semper 
est, ut cum ipsum in nobis ipsis acceperimus, illud fiamus 
quod ille est. Dicit enim : Caro mea vere est cibus, et san- 
guis meus vere est potus. Qui ergo banc amat carnem, non 
est amicus suae carnis, et qui in hunc sanguinem est affectus, 
mundus erit a sensili sanguine. Caro enim verbi, et sanguis 
qui est in hac carne, est suavis iis, qui gustant, appetendus lis 
qui desiderant, et iis qui diligunt amabilis. 

St. Gregorius Nyss. (In Eccles. HomiL 8). 

Implorandum est divinum auxilium non lente, non mente 
aberrante temere. Qui enim sic facit, is tantum abest ut impe- 
traturus sit quod petit, ut etiam sibi Dominus irascatur, .... 
et oratio ejus fiat in peccatum. Etenim si qui coram principe 
Stat et ipsum alloquitur, magno cum metu stat, et cum corporis 
extrinsecus, tum mentis etiam intrinsecus attentos oculos 
tenet ; quanto majore cum metu censendum est, oportere nos 
stare in conspectu Dei, tota mente in ilium intenta, neque 
usquam alio ? 

St. Basilius (Constitut. Monast. c, i). 

' Ii is hardly necessary to add that here, as in all other positive laws, the conscien- 
tious judgment of the Pastor must decide how far he may use the liberty of epikeia 
under particular difficulties. But as the S. Congregation makes no statement of in- 
dividual exceptions we do not feel authorized to do so. 


WE confess to repeated pangs of remorse during the past 
year for not having brought before our readers this 
subject, concerning which the Holy See has of recent times 
shown so much solicitude. The mouth -pieces of liturgical 
reform, more especially in France, Italy, and Germany, have 
never ceased to keep the necessity of immediate action in this 
respect before the clergy ; and no one who has even super- 
ficially attended to the controversy which has arisen in con- 
sequence can have escaped receiving the impression that 
something more is involved in this matter than a mere 
question of difference in musical taste or aesthetic sentiment. 
Pius IX began the movement. In his brief of May 30, 1873, 
he stated that he wished all the churches to conform to the 
same method of singing, namely the Roman method. ^ Leo 
XIII made it one of his first affairs not only to speak but to 
act in the matter. ' As the procuring of a complete series of 
newly revised liturgical books, such as the Sovereign Pontiff 
desired as a direct help to carry out the wished-for reform, in- 
volved an outlay of a large fortune, the leading Catholic pub- 
lishers were invited to undertake the task. It was understood 
to be a financial risk, since, although some of the liturgical 

• Approving the edition (1873) o^ ^^^ Roman Gradual he recommends it to the 
Ordinaries of the different Dioceses : " Eo vel mngis quod sit nobis maxime in votis at 
cum in cseteris quae ad sacram Liturgiam pertinent, tum etiam in cantu una cunctis 
in locis ac dicecesibus eademqiie ratio serve tur, qua Roniana utiiur ecclesia." 

* In a brief of Nov. 15, 1878, recommending the new edition of the Antiphonary, 

he declares that the end at which hfrsteadily aims is the establishment of the Roman 

liturgical chant throughout the Catholic world : " Id potissimnm spectantes ut sic 

cunctis in locis ac dicecesibus, cum in cneteris quoe ad sacram Liturgiam pertinent, 

tum etiam in cantu, una eademque ratio servetur, qua Romana utitur ecclesia, 



books would have a ready sale, others, requiring great expense 
in the getting up, fill but a limited need, such as the folios and 
more precious editions, of which perhaps a single copy may 
find use here and there in a cathedral church. Nevertheless, 
all these had to be printed, and in a manner worthy their des- 
tination. The great houses in France, several of whom have 
obtained a praiseworthy reputation for undertaking gigantic 
publications of first class works without definite prospect of 
realizing their outlay by an immediate sale, were expected to 
put hand to the work. However, Chevalier Pustet of Ratis- 
bon was, it seems, the only one who came forward in the mat- 
ter, and the Sovereign Pontiff has certainly had reason to 
show his high appreciation of the generous and intelligent 
way in which the work has been carried out. The new 
editions of the Liturgical books, significantly styled " typicae," 
were principally published for the purpose of bringing about 
uniformity in the chant. Of this the S. Congregation, under 
whose auspices they are issued, takes care to assure us in its 
prefaces to these works. And although some of the editiones 
typicce contain no chant, they simply follow in the order of 
those works which are used in the public worship. What 
strengthens us in this conviction is the fact that the text of the 
typical editions, for example of the Breviary, is not absolutely 
free from what might be called errors. We do not, of course, 
mean typographical errors, but rubrical, and such as a reprint 
would not be expected or obliged to follow. But the nota- 
tion is perfect throughout, and no deviation from it in any 
liturgical work used in the churches could be justified. 

It had been advanced, both in France and Germany, that 
the new regulations were not being observed, nor the new 
editions used in the city of Rome itself. To confute this 
assertion Father De Santi, editor of the Civilta Cattolica and 
professor of liturgical chant at the Roman Seminary of the 
Apollinari, published a letter, which under date of March 8, 
of last year, appeared in the Semaine Religieuse, wherein he 
states that the prescribed norm as well as the books are used 


not only in Rome but throughout nearly the whole of Italy. 
He refers especially to the churches of St. John Lateran, St. 
Mary Major, St. Lawrence in Damaso the Rotonda, and 
others. There can be no doubt that the most strenuous 
efforts have been and are still being made at Rome tending 
in this direction. The Ephemerides Liturgicce, the organ of 
the liturgical academy over which the Cardinal Vicar of Rome 
presides, has during the few years of its existence hardly, we 
might say, issued a number, in which there are not to be found 
one, often two articles on the subject of the reformed chant, 
carrying the matter back to the minutest and most scientific 
details. Other journals with a similar tendency throughout 
the Catholic world have taken up the glove in likewise de- 
fending the liturgical chant, and the advocates of the " Ceci- 
lian " music in this country have spared neither labor nor 
expense to evoke a like zeal amongst us. If they have met 
here as elsewhere much prejudice and opposition, it cannot 
be justified by the fact that now and then a few fanatics were 
found to be louder in their denunciations of what was corrig- 
ible than in their proofs of the validity of their claims to offer 
something better. As a matter of fact, the overwhelming 
array of men skilled in the science and art of music, and who 
do not lack appreciation of what is truly classic, has been on 
the side of reform in liturgical music, since the purely classic 
models do not suit and rather injure the aim of the Church 
in her public service. 

But assuming that the prescribed music is not only in har- 
mony with the liturgy, but the very best means in the esti- 
mation of competent judges of effecting true devotion, which 
is of course the principal aim of the religious ceremonies — how 
are we to go about introducing it ? We wish to be in har- 
mony with the ordinances of the Church, but it is questionable 
whether it can be done ir\this country, where on the one hand 
the means for obtaining the requisite training are limited, and 
the prevailing taste as well as custom is against it ? As for the 
requisite training, we would suggest that it requires but very 


limited means to carry it out, if only definitely determined 
upon. Of this we shall say more a little later on. For the 
present we would merely refer to some facts perhaps not 
generally known. The Fathers in charge of the Sioux In- 
dians, having had the matter at heart, have succeeded in 
introducing the liturgical method of singing into the mission 
churches. " They all sing during the service, and that with 
earnestness and devotion. Before and after high mass and 
before the catechetical instructions they sing in their own 
language, but during the high mass nothing but the Roman 
chant is sung, and that with great precision. At Vespers 
they follow the Roman Vesperal to the letter. Many a red- 
skin has during the winter learned how to read, just for the 
purpose of being able to sing with the rest of the congrega- 
tion from the book on Sundays." We have similar reports 
from India and China, where the young Christian congrega- 
tions take part in the liturgical service, which is thus rendered 
extremely edifying. The Trappist Fathers in Marian-Hill, 
South Africa, find it possible to train the Zulu-CafFers into 
excellent choirs for Church service, as may be learned from 
the interesting papers which are printed at the abbey by the 
black pupils. And if any one doubt that this music can be 
made really attractive, let him go to churches where it is 
practised, as with the Paulist Fathers, or some of our Jesuit 
and secular churches and seminary chapels. It is certainly 
not the work of a day, nor can it be done by radical means. 
Gradually, part by part, changes can be effected to suit the 
circumstances of place and time. Two things alone are es- 
sential. First of all, we must get a clear notion of what is to 
he dotu\ and secondly, we must definitely set about to make 
improvements by steadily, if slowly, changing the old ways. 
As for the power of prejudice and the prevailing taste in 
our churches against this solemn kind of chant, France may 
be referred to as the best example of how this may be over- 

Some years ago, when theatrical performances in the choirs 


of many French and Belgian churches were still ^ la mode, 
the Bishop of Tournay, among others, having made up his 
mind to act in harmony with Rome on the subject, formulated 
certain regulations for his clergy relative to the singing in the 
churches of his diocese and published them in synod. This was 
in August, 1886. The rules laid down were very clear, and the 
Bishop, knowing that there were many practical difficulties 
in the way, allowed ten years for the exact and complete car- 
rying out of the new statutes. Meanwhile, however, he kept 
continually urging the matter, and in June, 1888, he issued a 
pastoral letter, pointing out a method of proceeding so as to 
effect the desired change. A catalogue containing a selection 
of works suitable for the Church service and embracing every 
grade to suit the various capacities accompanied the pastoral 
letter sent to all the clergy. In the course of this letter the 
Bishop urges upon ecclesiastics of every grade first of all 
the study of plain chant, which, he says, if rightly understood, 
will be undoubtedly preferred b}' all devout men, as it was by 
the great Christian artists themselves, for the service of the 
Church. Referring to the editions to be made use of, he says : 
*' On this subject we have no longer to discuss the question 
of excellence or superiority. In compliance with the wishes 
of the Holy See, desirous of establishing greater uniformity 
in the liturgical ceremonial, we have declared obligatory in 
our diocese the use of the books officially approved by the . 
Sacred Congregation of Rites, and have appointed January 
I, 1896, as the latest date for the accomplishment of the 
change in all our churches. Let us hope that with the help 
of j'our good will the object will be attained long before that 
time. In the judgment of those who have had experience in 
the matter, the difficulties are not so great as many imagined 
they would be." 

In regard to the mode of executing the plain chant, he 
proposes that those who are experts in the matter act as teach- 
ers of the others. " Be careful, " he says, " that the singers 
acquire a good pronunciation of the text, that the use of the 


voice be natural, and the singing free from all ridiculous aflfec- 
tation, without lacking expression, and neither too slow nor 
too fast." In some cases, he has no doubt, the priest will 
find it convenient personally to form and supervise a choir 
calculated to enhance the splendor of the religious ceremo- 
nies. But he does not allow women to sing or even play the 
organ in the public churches, and the diocesan statutes oblige 
the pastors to see to the training of boys for the soprano and 
alto parts in polyphonic music. " Do not permit," he says, 
** under pretext that they are easier and more pleasing to the 
congregation, those light and frivolous compositions which 
have unfortunately become fashionable ; masses and anthems, 
produced all too abundantly by musicians with little learning 
and often with little faith. Be on your guard against singing 
in the holy temple such airs as are suitable only for the the- 
atre and worldjy assemblies, even if thereby you could draw 
more people to the church. Do not permit during the di- 
vine service the rendition of those vocal or instrumental solos 
which serve only to exhibit the talent of an artist, to the det- 
riment of true devotion, and to gratify the feelings of person, 
al vanity at the expense of Christian virtue." 

To the organist he gives the following lesson. *' We ear- 
nestly exhort organists to be deeply impressed with the 
■dignity and holiness of their office. Their position is one of 
the utmost importance in this question of the restoration of 
sacred music. We may even say that all improvement, all 
progress is impossible without their vvholesouled co-operation. 
If an organist pander to a worldly and frivolous spirit, the 
faithful will take from our holy offices only an earthly and 
sensual impression. But if, on the contrary, he seek by con- 
stant study and preparation to elevate his talent toward the 
sober and truly religious regions of sacred art, it will be 
productive in time of magnificent results. One thing is wor- 
thy of notice : Musical taste is ordinarily formed among the 
people in their childhood, according to what they hear in the 
church. If the child be accustomed to hear the sacred melo- 


dies devoutly sung, with solemn organ accompaniment, he will 
receive an impression never to be effaced ; his taste will de- 
velop in harmony with his devotion ; his attraction for the 
ceremonies of religion will grow and be strenghtened, and 
thus it may prove to him an efficacious means of perseverance." 
We have only given a sample of one of the French Bishops' 
action in this matter. Several others have gone forward with 
even more decided steps, notably the Bishop of Nevers, 
who thereby deserved for himself the high encomium of Car- 
dinal Bartolini, prefect of the Sacred Congregation. " Libri 
chorales," he says in his pastoral instruction to the diocesan 
clergy, " sine mora in ecclesia cathedrali nostra, in seminariis 
et in schola cantus, caeteris derelictis adhibeantur. — Statim ac 
in quavis ecclesia libri omnes ad divinorum officiorum can- 
tum adhibiti renovandi erunt, nullos alios comparare liceat, 
nisi libros Ratisbonensis editionis." And what has been late- 
ly done in France had already been done in Germany as in 
England and Ireland. The Bishops of Ireland in Plenary 
Council, in 1875, ' decreed : " Libri chorales et liturgici nuper 
Ratisbonas a Pustet, bibliopola catholico, editi, in missis et 
vesperis cantandis tam in seminariis quam in ecclesiis posthac 
quam primum adhibeantur. Hi nempe libri a Smo. Dno Pio 
XI plurimum com mendantureo quod ineisadnormam veterum 
manuscriptorum Ecclesiae Romanas verus et genuinus cantus 
Gregorianus tradatur." In our own case the last council of 
Baltimore is equally definite. It not only renews the statutes 
under this head of the Second Plenary Council, but makes it 
moreover incumbent upon pastors to direct the selection of the 
music in their churches and in very strong terms forbids them to 
tolerate profane music zvithin the temple of God. * It ordains 
that during the mass no singing be allowed which mutilates 

1 Ep. Hib. Syn. Plen. 1875, Deer, xv., n. 73. 

* Insuper iisdem pastoribus, dum revocamus in mentem munus ipsis impositum 
dirigendi selectionem musicse in suis ecclesiis, districte mandamus ut nunquam tole- 
rant templum Dei profanis melodiis resonare ; et nonnisi eum cnntum in illo admit- 
tant qui sit gravis, pius et vere ecclesiasticus. Cone. Plen. ISait. III. 117. 


the words of the liturgy, or repeats or changes them in such a 
way as to destroy their significance. The music is to be expres- 
sive of devotion and harmonize with the ecclesiastical season 
and the feasts of the Church. When Vespers are sung, they 
are not to be curtailed, but the psalms are to be recited in full. 
The concluding paragraph is perhaps the most important, 
because it points the way how to bring about the change : 
*' We earnestly desire that the rudiments of Gregorian chant 
be taught and practised in our parochial schools, so that, the 
number of those who are able to sing the psalms well grow- 
ing gradually, it may eventually come to pass that the greater 
part of the people learn to sing all together, according to the 
ancient usage of the Church, which still exists in some places, 
the Vespers and like offices of the Church. Thus all will be 
edified, according to the words of St. Paul : Speaking to 
yourselves in psalms and hymns, and spiritual canticles."* 

This is certainly plain enough. But it is only legislation. 
It needs be carried out, and here we find the difficulty. Who 
is to train our children, since the liturgical music requires a 
different treatment from that which the children ordinarily 
learn, and which, of course, cannot and ought not to be dis- 
carded. There is required first of all the reading of the Latin 
text according to a uniform S3'stem of pronunciation ; next 
the proper accentuation of the words, the divisions of musical 
clauses and sentences making a proper rhythm, time, tone 
cadences, all of which require the most exact attention, to 
make the Gregorian music really what it it is intended to be. 
Then there are the different parts of the chant as regards 
their liturgical conception, which has to be brought out in the 
singing. In many cases an understanding of the words or 
the sense of a passage is almost essential to their proper ren- 
dition. Herein it is like oratory: you must know and feel 
what you say. Hence St. Gregory spent hours in personally 
teaching the children and had priests teach them the liturgical 
chant. How can this be done in all our schools ? We have 

> Ibid. nn. Ii8, 119. 


heard an eminent priest who seemed anxious to further this 
work make a suggestion which seemed to us quite practicable. 
Let a competent teacher be engaged to visit the different 
schools in turn and give the children lessons in Gregorian 
chant and the singing of Vespers and other portions of the 
service. It need not interfere with the regular singing lessons 
given by the ordinar}- teachers, for that is a different thing. 
The latter will, of course, be present at the instructions in 
chant, and will soon see their way to facilitating the matter, or 
become apt teachers themselves. In most cases the chant 
lessons would have to be given only for a time, and the 
work once inaugurated can be easily carried on with a 
moderate amount of vigilance to observe the main rules. 
The practice is always a help, and the method is perpetuated 
by tradition. Indeed, this last factor is most important, and it 
is said that the Gregorian as the Palestrina music cannot be 
self-taught, but must be learned by tradition. These temporary 
teachers could likewise supply all necessary instruction as re- 
gards books to be used, etc. It is evident that this method of 
introducing practically what is of obligation, as we have just 
shown, would require some organized action on the part 
of the Diocesan School Boards or others who have the respon- 
sibility of carrying out the Church legislation in this matter. 
No doubt the members of the " Cecilia Society " could be 
induced to lend their aid to such a project, and pastors would 
gladly accept it if the initiative were once made. Children's 
voices have a freshness about them which adds a peculiar 
charm to their singing, especially when in harmony with 
men's voices. Of course, we suppose that they are trained to 
observe all that this kind of music exacts. If the change be 
introduced gradually there is no doubt that eventually the 
most fastidious congregation would prefer this sort of devotion 
to the diversion of a mixed choir of the modern type. It 
would save in the end much worriment and expense. Those 
incessant squabbles, arising out of personal vanity or or- 
ganized resistance to the voice of the pastor, which have 


sometimes caused division in a parish, to the destruction 
of souls, need not be apprehended. Anyhow, it is the 
ordinance of the Church, which no one can ignore or violate 
without dishonoring^ the cloth he wears. And it is hardly 
likely that a Catholic congregation will be found which as a 
whole would not readily co-operate in this work if it be rightly 
explained to them in a temperate way and acted out with 
wise moderation, according to the weight of prejudice which 
may actually exist against it. 


" I ^HE dictum of Aristotle, "omnes homines natura sua 
-■- scire desiderant," which Thomas a Kempis consecrated in 
higher service, expresses the first, highest, strongest tendency 
of man's rational nature. With the craving for the end goes 
the search for the means, and of these in our day none more 
ready, none more effective than reading. The school and the 
pulpit do much to satisfy the universal thirst for knowledge, 
and consequent!}' for its instrument ; but the influence of the 
one is limited to a brief period of life, that of the other reaches 
comparatively few. The press, however, makes its power felt 
on all and persons of every age. The Philosopher's truism 
might with some qualification be now made to run : Omnes 
homines legere desiderant — every one — the boy of budding rea- 
son, the man in waning life, maid and matron, the toiler and the 
idler, servant and master, unlearned and learned — all, every- 
where, at home, on the streets, in the public vehicle, show 
symptoms of the reading fever. If the appetite were always a 
normal one, well regulated as to degree and object, there 
could be no better sign of the mental health of society. Un- 
fortunately we know too well how this, as many another hu- 
man tendency, good in itself, is made to serve the basest pas- 
sions. The question in these times presses upon every priest, 
how he can influence the effects of the press in regard to souls 
committed to his care. The question is broad and merits ex- 
tended treatment. We purpose here simply to throw out a 
suggestion. The priest's influence should be felt 


by combating the spread of bad literature. Here a hint 

might be taken front one of the rules of a Belgian press 



league, whose members bind themselves " never to purchase 
liberal, anti-Catholic, or licentious journals, and in the railroad 
cars, at the news stands and book stores, to ask for Cath- 
olic books and papers, even when they are not actually 
needed." Though the latter half of the rule has a positive 
rather than a negative tendency, we quote it here as forming 
an integral part of the first obligation of the sodality. It 
suggests, too, a similar clause in another foreign association, 
whose constituents agree "to patronize when travelling only 
such hotels as have Catholic papers on file." These rules 
might with advantage be made the theme of an occasional ser- 
mon or lecture — illustrated by the designation of the kind of 
books and periodicals which Catholics should avoid. 


Libraries connected with the Sunday school, sodalities, etc., 
occur at ojice as general means of putting good reading mat- 
ter within reach of the people. The establishment of a fund 
for the purchase of books to be circulated amongst the poor 
Protestants, etc., is a plan evident and not difficult to inaugu- 
rate. But these general methods largely depend for their 
success on the apt character, the timeliness especially, of the 
literature circulated. And here it is that difficulties arise. 
How is a priest, for instance, far away from central book- 
marts, to be guided in the selection of what is best in the con- 
stant literary advance? Experience has taught him how 
unsafe it is to trust to the captious catalogue of publishers' 
notices in choosing books for his own use, to say nothing of 
such as are to go with his endorsement into the hands of his 
people. He knows full well that the name of a Catholic firm 
does not guarantee the safe moral character of its printed stock. 
To make personal examination — and this necessary careful 
scrutiny can often for various reasons not be delegated to lay 
persons — requires a large outlay of time on which in case of 
many a priest more urgent duties lay claim. Moreover, even 
where the priest has ample opportunity and time to make his 


own selections, pecuniary means to procure them sometimes 
fail. These difficulties simply mean that individual force ac- 
complishes little. But what cannot be done by a member can 
be effected by an organism. Hence the need of co-operation : 
and fortunately for the work of disseminating good literature, 
competent, zealous associations exist. To look across the 
ocean, there is the St. Anselm Society, ' publishing treasures of 
good reading, mostly doctrinal and spiritual, and at very rea- 
. sonable rates. In the same country, so noted for its Cath- 
olic literary life, is the Catholic Truth Society,' ensuring 
thorough work under the headship of Cardinal Manning. In 
the Society's late Congress, held at Manchester, one of its mem- 
bers, speaking of books for spiritual reading, remarked : " The 
old complaint that such books were not to be had unless at 
exceptional prices has now fallen to the ground, for the Cath- 
olic Truth Society's publications are not only abundant, 
instructive, and edifying, but cheap. * What is said of this one 

• St. Anselms Depository, 6 Agar Street, Strand, London. 

2 Catholic Truth Society, i8 West Square, S. E., London. 

3 The remarks of the speaker, Rev. T. Corbishly, are so apposite to the present sub- 
ject that no apology is needed for making the following extract : "The difficulty 
rests not so much with the reading as with the readers. With many of them time and 
convenience are apparently hopelessly wanting, but even a few of this class will snatch 
odd moments for a glimpse at a spiritual book ; many can easily 'find the leisure, but 
other literature has greater attractions for them. Hence arises a strong necessity for 
striving to spread a taste for pious reading. This may be brought about in two 
ways : first by instructing children and young people generally during their school 
life — and under school life we must include also convent and college life — ^^as to the 
importance of daily spiritual reading, such instruction to take a practical form by al- 
lotting a few minutes each day to the purpose. This instruction will be supple- 
mented, continued, and enforced from the pulpit ; for success depends mainly on the 
efforts ot the priest. — The second method is to bring them to the doors, or even to place 
them in the hands of the faithful. This may be accomplished, indeed, by church 
libraries, placed close to the door of the church, the books of which seem incessant- 
ly to be calling out : "ToUe, lege." — Or for certain classes of people it may be even 
more effectually carried out by the formation of small home libraries, consisting of a 
selection of useful works ; such libraries might be formed gradually, as by accumu- 
lation of school prizes given with a view to such an object, or might be sold complete, 
at a figure too high, perhaps, for immediate payment, but payable by weekly or month- 


class of books is applicable to ail the publications of this soci- 
ety — and they cover doctrinal instruction, Catholic biography^ 
history, poetry, fiction, etc. They are written mostly by skilful 
hands and come generally in respectable dress ; though in 
some cases we could wish that neatness had been less sacri- 
ficed to economy. 

The American priest, however, is not obliged to cross the 
Atlantic to find excellent organized aid in this important func- 
tion of his ministry, when he has the Columbian Reading 
Union at home.' The aim of this society is to " counteract, 
wherever prevalent, the indiflference shown toward Catholic 
literature : to suggest ways and means of acquiring a better 
knowledge of standard authors, and especially of our Catho- 
lic writers ; and to secure a larger representation of their 
works on the shelves of public libraries." It accomplishes its 
end chiefly by the co-operation of reading circles affiliated to 
it from every quarter, preparing lists of suitable reading mat- 
ter for the guidance of its individual or organized members. 
In the make up of these lists it has an eye, especially, though 
not exclusively, to three classes of readers: i. Children at 
home and in school. 2. " Young men whose contact with the 
great tide of indifference and unbelief," exposes them to so 
many dangers. 3. " Young ladies who have been graduated 
from convent schools and academies or other institutions, 
and require books especially adapted to their plans for self- 
improvement That large and intelligent class, too, working 
in stores, factories, and in domestic service," have their claim 
on the union duly recognized. A guarantee of the kind of 
work done by the Union, and the promise of its success, is the 

\y instalments. Spiritual reading at first may be found uninteresting, and in case of 
those who have not courage to persevere, books of a more entertaining and practical 
character, such as the Lives of the Saints, will be read with profit, and will lead many 
a reader to what is purely spiritual. A taste once formed, such reading becomes a 
pleasure ever increasing, until reading is exchanged for vision in the glory of heaven." 
— London Tablet, Oct. 19. 

' Its headquarters are at 415 W. 59th St., N. Y.; also at the office of "The 
Catholic World," 6 Park Place, N. Y. 


fact that its management is under the direction of the very 
Rev. Augustine F. Hewitt, the editor of the Catholic World. 
But " usus te plura docebit." Here is a sample of the Union's 
work before us — its first list — comprising historical novels 
and collateral reference reading matter. It contains five sec- 
tions. Group A., history of the early Church, giving twenty- 
one standard novels pertaining to that period, with the lead- 
ing easily accessible works of general and special reference, 
judicious and pithy comments and criticisms on the principal 
novels. Group B. treats similarly the middle ages; group C, 
later epochs ; group D., American History ; group E., Rus- 
sian History; group F,, Modern Rome. The reader will be 
glad and proud to know that there are so many pure romances, 
giving graphic pictures of the various epochs of Church His- 
tory, adding to his store of useful knowledge, and elevating in- 
stead of tending to lower, as often does the current novel, his 
standard of moral perfection. Other proofs of the efficiency 
of the lftiio7i may be seen in recent numbers of the Catholic 
World. As an instance we would refer to the communication 
of Mr. Merion M. Snell, a member of the Philosophical and 
Anthropological Societies of Washington, in the September 
number. — The writer speaks of reading courses for )'oung 
men. " I would suggest," he says, " that the reading should 
consist of certain definite courses, each having unity and 
completeness in itself, and yet each related to the others by the 
dominating idea of illustrating the operation of divine truth, 
and the great social organism, which is its guardian, as the 
dynamic element in the upward movement of mankind. The 
greater part of the subjects chosen should be of practical sig- 
nificance in connection with the current life and thought of 
the world." He draws up an " outline arranged historically 
of the subjects which, it seems, ought, as far as possible, to be 
covered in the courses for young men, making an occasional 
reference to individual books, but more often, especially in 
the case of the present century, mentioning the names promi- 
nent in the epoch or class in question However dry 



some of the topics may appear to be," he adds, "it would 
be within the possibilities of skill and loving interest to 
invest them with such charms that their study will become 
as delightful as a page of Manzoni." Then follow thirty-three 
brief points covering the course of reading and corresponding 
literature alluded l;o. 

From this hasty sketch it is evident what a large 
amount of good can be accomplished in a parish by establish- 
ing Reading Circles and placing them in communication with 
this central Union. The circle may comprise a dozen per- 
sons. They meet at the home of one or the other member. 
A representative sends annually a dollar to Columbian Read- 
ing Union (Office of the Catholic World), and receives in 
return the periodically prepared list, which will guide the cir- 
cle in its reading courses. 

An additional advantage is gained in the purchase of books, 
time, trouble, and expense (a liberal discount in proportion to 
the number and value of the books ordered is allowed) being 
saved by membership with the union. Of course, in the form- 
ing and conducting of these Reading Circles the priest's influ- 
ence must be felt in some measure, chiefly in the selection of 
prudent associates and in striving to keep up an enthusiasm, 
the essential of prolonged, vigorous life. But the interest he 
may take in these groups will be amply repaid by the educat- 
ing influence they will exert in the parish and amongst those 
outside the Church. For, as another correspondent remarks 
in the Catholic World TAXwd^t.^ to, " The Columbian Reading Union 
is a step in educating the people. Gentlemen will study your 
plan and read your books instead of asking their stableman or 
their cook what the Catholic Church teaches. The Catholic, 
too, will add imformation to faith, and be able to answer hon- 
est inquiry or refute ignorant assertion. He will do more 
thinking and less fighting for his Church. The parish priest, 
too, will discover the necessity of assisting the congregation 
to become better informed, so that greater attention will be 
given to able discourses." The union is steadily receiving 


flattering encomiums from men of sound judgment and of 
high literary authority. We trust the clergy will extend to 
it the practical encouragement it so thoroughly deserves. 

" S." 

Identidem cogitandum est, renuntiasse nos mundo, et 
tamquam hospites et peregrinos istic interim degere. Am- 
plectamur diem qui assignat singulos domicilio suo : qui nos 
istinc ereptos et laqueis saecularibus exsolutos, paradiso re- 
stituit et regno coelesti ? Quis non peregre constitutus prope- 
raret in patriam regredi? Quis non ad suos navigare festinans, 
ventum prosperum cupidius optaret, ut velociter caros liceret 
amplecti ? Patriam nostram paradisum computamus, parentes 
Patriarchas habere jam coepimus ; quid non properamus et 
currimus ut patriam nostram videre, ut parentes salutare pos- 
simus ? Magnus illic nos carorum numerus expectat, paren, 
turn, fratrum, filiorum copiosa turba desiderat ; jam de sun 
immortalitate secura, et adhuc de nostra salute soUicita. Ad 
horum conspectum et complexum venire, quanta et illis ct 
nobis in commune lastitiaest? Qualis illic coelestium regno- 
rum voluptas sine timore moriendi, etcum aeternitate vivendi ? 
Quam summa et perpetua felicitas ? 

St. Cyprianus (Tract, de Mortal.). 

Praecipua observatione codex Psalmorum dignus est. Sin- 
guli quidem libri suam, ct propriam suppeditant historiam . . . 
Psalmorum autem volumen veluti paradisus, in quo sunt 

omnia genera lignorum plantata Praeterquam quod 

auditor ista dicit quas in universa Scriptura continentur, etiam 
motus sui animi aniraadvertere potest, ac deinde secundum ea 
quae patitur, formam verborum decerpere ; ct quid dicendo, 
agendove morbum ilium medicetur, invenit. 

St. Athanasius (ad Marcell. epist.). 

De Confessario Extraneo. 

TITIUS, sacerdos, in Europam profecturus, cum jam in eo 
esset ut navem ascenderet in portu Neo-Eboracensi, 
cupiens Deo reconciliari, ad proximiorem Ecclesiam pergit, 
cumque ibi ei occurrisset Pater Carolus, ab illo petit audiri et 
absolvi. Haeret anceps Pater Carolus, et objicit se esse 
extraneum, nuper illuc appulsum, absque facultatibus. " Ista 
nihil sunt," — respondet Titius, — " sumus enim Neo-Eboraci, 
et vi privilegii hie vigentis fas tibi est raeam confessionem 
excipere." Quare, soluto dubio, absolvitur et ad navem 
properat. Titius ad dioecesim Neo-Eboracensem proprie non 
pertinet, sed putat se posse eodem privilegio gaudere ac Neo- 
Eboracenses sacerdotes, turn quia, cum ibi moratus fuerit 
circiter per mensem, existimat se jam acquisivisse quasi- 
domicilium, tum quia hoc tempore, acceptis ab ordinario 
facultatibus, multas exceperat confessiones. 


Quid sit privilegium illud Neo-Eboracense de quo in casu, 
et utrum potuerit applicari Titio ? 

Resp. — Privilegium de quo sermo est in casu ita effertur 
apud Synod. Neo-Eboracensem Quintam, Tit. XIV, n. 157: 
" Libertatis conscientiae gratia, concedimus ut omnis sacerdos 
extraneus, qui in propria dioecesi facultatibus ordinariis prae- 
ditus cognoscitur, valeat absolvere sacerdotem nostras Dioe- 
cesis, qui in hoc ei confiteri elegerit, ac pariter omnes personas 
quae in domo ejus veram habent habitationem." Praeter 
rationem quae, ut constat ex citatis verbis, desumitur ex 
libertate conscientiae, concessio hujus privilegii innititur in 


pacta quod quinque illi Episcopi, qui anno 1810 banc partem 
vineae Domini regebant, inter se inierunt, cum statuerunt ut 
" sacerdotes approbati pro una quavis dicecesi Foederatae 
Americas facultatibus suis uti possent in vicinis dioecesibus." 
Pactum istud ad annum 1833 usque perduravit ; tunc enim, 
cum ageretur Concilium Prov. Baltmiorense IP"" sub III""" 
archiepiscopo Whitfield, sequenti Decreto fuit revocatum ; 
" Ne vagi, ignoti, pravique sacerdotes sacra aggrediantur 
munera cum offensione fidelium, revocandas esse facultates, 
quas communi quodam pacto Episcopi sibi invicem, in con- 
ventu anno millesimo octingentesimo decimo habito, largiti 
sunt, censuerunt Patres : ideoque in posterum neminem ex 
sacerdotibus, vi illius pacti, posse jurisdictionem exercere, vel 
sacrum aliquod aggredi munus, absque ordinarii auctoritate." 
Verum si quis ex praedicta revocatione inferre vellet quam- 
dam condemnationem aut improbationem privilegii Neo- 
Eboracensis, quia scilicet hodie verificari posset in dicecesi 
Neo-Eboracensi illud idem incommodum quod anno 1833 
Episcopi timebant ex sacerdotibus vagis et ignotis, illatio 
vana esset et absque uUo fundamento. Ratio est quia per 
banc clausulam " qui in propria dicecesi facultatibus ordinariis 
praeditus cognoscitur," quae apposita est concessioni, remo- 
vetur omne periculum scandali et fidelium offensionis. Quod 
si objectio aliqua desumeretur ex restrictionibus quas apponi 
solent et debent apud familias religiosas ne singula individua 
suum eligant confessarium, respondetur nuUam dari parita- 
tem, turn propter statum perfectionis ad quam tenentur 
religiosi, tum propter conditiones vitas communis. Dicendum 
igitur est privilegium illud Neo-Eboracense sapienter fuisse 
concessum et nihil contra ipsum objici posse. 

Si autem petas quid proprie importat citata clausula — " qui 
in propria dicecesi facultatibus ordinariis prasditus cognos- 
citur " — scilicet utrum imprimis cognitio hujusmodi debeat 
aliunde baberi quam ex testimonio ipsius sacerdotis extranei, 
respondendum esse videtur sufficere testimonium ipsius sacer- 
dotis. Si aliud enim requireretur, concessio quasi inutilis 


evaderct, quia, paucis tantum casibus exceptis, vix posset 
cognitio ista aliunde procuran. — Praeterea quamvis facile 
intelligatur quid veniat nomine facultatum ordinariarum, 
quaeri posset utrum in citata clausula comprehendantur sa- 
cerdotes regulares qui in locis ubi degunt possunt quidem 
excipere confessiones suorum, sed non illas saecularium, quae- 
cumque tandem sit causa cur non adhuc ipsis communicata 
fuerit approbatio Ordinarii. Huic autem quaestioni existimo 
respondendum esse affirmative ; nam ctsi sequi videatur ipsos 
non comprehendi, si materialis cortex verborum attendatur, 
contrarium sane dicendum est si pras oculis habeatur spiritus 
et ratio concessionis. Neque dicas verba legis magis esse 
attendenda quam spiritum ; nam hoc forte verum est cum 
verba sunt clarissima, et casum aliquem particularem positive 
attingunt, non autem cum erga ilium quasi negative se habent, 
Porro ad quaestionem praesentem quod spectat, potius dicen- 
dum est praedictos sacerdotes regulares non aperte includi in 
verbis concessionis, quam ipsos proprie excliidi ; et si aliunde 
attendatur " favores esse ampliandos," plane sequitur datara 
solutionem non esse improbabilem. 

Cognita existentia privilegii, ejusque rationabili concessione 
vindicata, inquirendum nunc remanet utrum applicari possit 
Titio sacerdoti. Porro certe tenendum est ipsi non posse 
applicari, quia desunt necessariae conditiones, tum ex parte 
poenitentis, tum etiam forte ex parte confessarii. Etenim 
conditio omnino necessaria ex parte poenitentis est, ut ipse sit 
sacerdos Neo-Eboraccnsis, prouti referunt ipsissima verba 
concessionis. Atqui sacerdos qui acquisivit tantum quasi- 
domicilium (supponendo nunc esse verum Titium illud acqui- 
sivissc) jam per hoc non evadit sacerdos Neo-Eboracensis. 
Ergo, etc. — Immo ipsum perfectum domicilium perse solum 
ad hoc non sufficit, sed praeterea requiritur canonica incardi- 
natio, seu acceptatio permanens facta ab Ordinario loci, ita ut 
sacerdos ita acceptatus vere dici possit cooptatus inter 
clerum dioecesanum.— Neque plus valet ad hanc incardina- 
tionem probandam usus facultatum ab Ordinario loci ad 



tempus aut etiam indeterminate concessus, prouti ex Jure 
Canonico colligitur et ex quotidiana praxi nostrorum Episco- 
porum confirmatur. Duo enim ista, scilicet esse cooptatum 
inter clerum dioecesanum, et gaudere facultatibus audiendi 
confessiones, etiam modo permanenti, non sunt intime et 
necessario colligata, et sicut primum existere potest absque 
altero, ita alterum absque primo. — Prasterea etiam ex parte 
confessarii forte deest necessaria conditio, nam dicitur in casu 
Patrem Carolum esse absque facultatibus. Quod si hoc signi- 
ficet ipsum non gaudere ordinariis facultatibus dari solitis in 
sua dioecesi, scilicet ipsum non esse approbatum, si sit saecu- 
laris, et si regularis, ipsum non habere jurisdictionem ad 
suorum confessiones excipiendas, quacuraque tandem de 
causa utrumque proveniat, certe Pater Carolus non potest 
nunc Titium valide absolvere. 

Cf. Synod. Dioeces. Neo-Ebor. V. Tit. xiv., n. 157. — Cone. 
Plen. Bait. II., n. 118.— Cone. Prov. Bait. II., n. 10.— Art. eccl. 
disciplinae quos, etc., n. I. — Cone. Plen. Bait. III., n. 62 et seqq. 

A. Sabetti, S. J. 


THE Second Plenary Council of Baltimore decreed (n. 384) that the 
Patronal Feasts of all churches, both those that are only blessed as 
well as those that are consecrated, should henceforth be duly celebrated. 
This law, like many others, was intended to bring the Church in the 
United States into conformity with the ancient and universal observance in 
Catholic countries, of the Patron and Titular feasts of places and churches. 
The statutes of nearly every diocese in theU. S. especially urged the carry- 
ing out this law, and in many churches the feast of ihe Patron or Titular 
was celebrated by the clergy attached. Yet the difficulty of gathering 
the people for the solemnization of feasts which were hitherto un- 
known, as well as the strange negative force Of desuetude, remain causes 
why the law has not to this day been universally observed, not only by 
the celebration in the churches, but also in regard to the recitation of 
the Office by the clergy who, according to the teaching of theologians, 
are bound sub gravi io conform their canonical prayers to the changes 
occasioned by the occurrence of their Patronal feasts and of the Dedi- 
cation of their churches. To facilitate the fulfilment of this unquestion- 
able duty, we shall first explain the Rubrics which govern the celebration 
of Patron feasts and Titularies, together with their Octaves, and shall con- 
tinue to publish each month the order for the Mass and Office of the 
principal Titular feasts which priests in the United States may have to 


There are in the liturgical language two kinds of Patrons, viz., the 
Patrons of places and the Patrons of churches. The former keep more 
strictly the name of Patrons, the latter being more properly called the 
Titulars or Titles of the churches which bear their name. ' 

The Patron of a place is the Saint who is honored as the special pro- 
tector of a locality, such as a country, a state, or a town ; the Patron or 

' These explanations and the following are almost entirely borrowed from the 
Qaaestiones in Rnhricas Brn>iarii el Missalis, PusUi, 1887. 



the Title of a church the person or the mystery to which a church edifice 
has been dedicated. Consequently the Patron of a place concerns the 
whole clergy and people who live within his territory; the Titular con- 
cerns directly only the church that bears his name and the clergy who 
minister in it. There may be Patrons of places who have no church 
dedicated to them, but there is no Titular without a church. 

The feast of the Patron Saint of a place is by right a " festum fori,"^ 
that is, it is a feast of obligation for the people, while the feast of the 
Titular is only a " festum chori," in his church. There are also many 
more rules to be followed for the election of a Patron than for that of a 
Titular. See De Herdt, III., n. 120. 


The feast of the Patron Saint of a place is, according to common law, to 
be solemnized as a feast of obligation by all the inhabitants of the locali- 
ty, and the clergy are bound to observe it as a double of first class, the 
secular priest with an Octave, the regulars without it. But to have a right 
to such a celebration the Saint must really be the principal Patron of the 
city, town, or village where he is to be thus honored, or of the province, 
state, or country of which he has been elected the celestial protector. Of 
such Patrons there are but few in the United States. The B. V. Mary, 
under her title of Immaculate Conception, was chosen as the principal 
Patron Saint of the republic by the Fathers of the Sixth Provincial Council 
of Baltimore, in 1846, their choice being confirmed by the Holy See, which 
thus supplied what might have been wanting in the mode of election, and 
this Patronal feast was made of precept by the Plenary Council of 1866. 
What other Patron Saints may have been constituted in cities, towns, or vil- 
lages of the country will be better known to those who live in such localities. 

Should there be other local Patrons besides the principal one of the 
country and the principal one of the locality, they are to be celebrated 
by a feast of double major rite without an Octave. 

There are many places that have no special Patron, but there are no 
churches that have no Title. The rules, therefore, of the Mass and Office 
of the Titular are a matter of practical importance for nearly every priest 
in the land. Most of the clergy who are obliged to the canonical hours, 
even if not on account of the consecration of their church, or that of the 
cathedral, will still have to change their Ordo, perhaps twice in the year 
in consequence of their Titular feast or feasts and that of the cathedral, for 


the space, poasibly, of several weeks. Hence the importance of the follow- 
ing notes concerning the due solemnization of Titulars. The anniversary 
of the dedication of churches is to be celebrated by a similar feast of the 
first class with an Octave. Of this we shall treat at another time. 

The feast of the Titular of their own church, but not of oratories or 
chapels, must be solemnized as a double of the first class with an Octave 
by all the priests who are in the strict sense in the service of that church, 
such as rectors, assistant priests, and other sacred ministers of the church. 
The feast, likewise, of the cathedral of the diocese must be celebrated with 
the same rite by all the secular priests of the diocese, but by the regulars as 
a first-class double only, without the Octave. Priests who attend other 
churches besides that which is considered as their parochial or quasi-pa- 
rochial church, such as mission churches in this country, may indeed 
solemnize the feast of the Titulars of those churches by celebrating in 
them solemnly divine service on the days of these Patrons, but they need 
not and should not say their Office as of Titulars (S. C. R. 12. Febr. 1883), 
probably for the reason that such churches are to be considered as public 
oratories only, at least in this respect. Should it happen that a church 
has more than one Titular, these may have their solemnity per modum 
unius, as, v. g., SS. John and Paul, SS. Fabian and Sebastian, or even, if 
they were not jointly elected as Patrons, have each their solemn feast with 
an Octave. But where, of the several Saints who are mentioned together 
in the calendar or martyrology, one only has been chosen as the Titular, 
his feast alone is celebrated, and that of his companions, if they had at 
least a semidouble rite, is permanently transferred to the first free day as 
a semidouble, and even as a double, if in their own place they were of 
first or second class. 

Churches dedicated to a mystery of the Saviour, which bear no liturgi- 
cal name, such as " Emmanuel," have their Titular feast on the 6th of 
August, festival of the Transfiguration. Those which are dedicated to 
the B. V. Mary, without the addition of one of her liturgical titles, v. g., 
St. Mary's, Our Lady of the Lake, etc., celebrate their Patronal feast on 
the 15th of August, the Assumption of the B. Virgin. 


It is prescribed by the Rubrics that the commemoration of the Patron 
or Title of the church should be made among the suffrages of the Saints 
or common commemorations. This means that the .\ntiphons of the 



Magnificat and of the Benedictus with their respective Versicles, and the 
prayer of the Titular, are to be recited on semidoubles, etc., whenever 
these commemorations are to be said. Should, however, the Titular have 
been commemorated already, as, v. g., St. Joseph, St. Peter, or St. Paul, 
this suffrage is omitted. Its place depends on its dignity, the order of 
which is as follows : i. the feasts of the Lord (God, Holy Ghost, Christ, 
etc.); 2. those of the Blessed Virgin ; 3. those of the Angels ; 4. those of St. 
John the Baptist ; 5. those of St. Joseph ; 6. those of the Apostles and 
Evangelists ; after which come all of the same class, Martyrs, Confessors, 
Virgins, and non-Virgins. Thus the Title of St, Michael would have pre- 
cedence over St. Joseph, that of an Apostle would follow the SS. Peter 
and Paul, but precede the suffrage for peace. 

None other but the clerics who are strictly attached to the church 
bearing the Title, such as the rector and assistants, are bound or allowed 
to recite this commemoration. Should a priest or a cleric who is not 
thus attached to a church live in a place that has a local Patron, he 
might make the commemoration of the same, although he is at liberty to 
omit it (De Herdt, II. n. 369). Only one Patron is to be commemo- 
rated, except where several are jointly honored, as the SS. Fabian and 
Sebastian, Cosmas and Damian, etc. 


It would be impossible to give here the Octave of every Title or Patron 
Saint to whom churches may have been dedicated in the United States. 
We shall consequently select those Saints who represent a number of 
churches. Besides being available for the many priests who minister in 
them, these Octaves will serve as models for others that cannot be found 
made out ready for use. 

With the exception of a few days of the liturgical year, which may offer 
difficulties that it would be hard for any but a rubricist to solve, the con- 
struction of an Octave requires only a careful perusal of some pages of a 
book like the " Quaestiones in Rubrica.s," especially on the occurrence and 
concurrence of Offices, on Octaves and commemorations. Bearing in 
mind the rules which are given there, he who arranges the Octave of a 
Titular will first examine on what day the feast of the Title occurs, and 
whether or not its celebration is to be transferred on account of another 
office which may claim precedence by reason of its greater dignity or 
necessity. The proper day to celebrate the Titular, if a mystery, is the 


day on which the Church honors it, as the Resurrection on Easter Sun- 
day.'St Joseph on the 19th. of March, etc. Should there be no fixed days 
in the directory, the proper day is that on which the Titular is mentioned 
in the martyrology, and if twice mentioned there, the day of the death, 
" natalis," unless an established custom should have given it another date. 
Such a custom may be kept. 

The day of the feast itself is a double of first class, which gives way only 
to Sundays of first class, to privileged ferials, and to any other double 
of first class that is of superior or equal rite or dignity. 

The Octave day itself is a double, taking precedence over major 
doubles and inferior offices, and being commemorated if it happens to be 
impeded by a higher or other office which may not be transferred or omit- 
ted. The days within the Octave are semidoubles, yielding only to a 
double office and per se to all semidoubles, except the votive offices, over 
which as well as over inferior offices they take precedence. If impeded, 
they are commemorated, except on doubles of first and second class. The 
privileged octaves, however, that is, those of Easter, Pentecost, Epiphany, 
Corpus Christi, and Christmas, have the right to a commemoration on any 
occurrent feast. 


There is no difficulty in finding the entire Office of Titulars who have 
their regular place in the Calendar as feasts of first or second class with an 
Octave, as, v. g., the Epiphany, St. Lawrence, and others, since their Office 
as Titulars does not change from the manner given in the Breviar)', except 
possibly in rite or class. But such is not the case with Titles that hav« 
no Octave in the general calendar. 

The priest who has to say their office must very often entirely change 
the order given in the Diocesan calendar. Some parts of it, as the invitatori- 
um, the hymns, antiphons, and psalms, are of course the same every day of 
the Octave on which the Titular's office is said, that is, these parts are 
proper, if given as such in the Breviary ; common, if the Breviary assigns 
the common, or if the Titular is not particularly mentioned in the Breviary. 
But the lessons frequently vary during the Octave. Which lessons should 
consequently be read, and where can they be found ? 

As the feast of the Title is of first class, the lessons of the Scripture for 
the first Nocturn are either proper, as given in the Breviary, or of the com- 


mon of Saints. The latter being generally twofold, as, v. g., "Devirgi- 
nibus" and "Confitebor" for virgins, those should be selected which 
agree in their order of first or second with the corresponding number as- 
signed for the third Nocturn. The lessons of the second and of the third 
Nocturn are likewise read as assigned for the feast in the Breviar}', and if 
the Titular has no Office, proper or common, in the calendar, the lessons 
should be taken from the common, either in the first or second place, 
but so as to make the homily of the third agree with the gospel of the 
Mass. It is the latter, consequently, which may be said to direct the 
selection of the lessons and also of the prayer to be recited in the Mass 
and in the Office. Thus, supposing the Titular of a church to be St. 
William, M. P., this Patron having no proper Office, the lessons of the first 
Nocturn are " A Mileto '^ For the second Nocturn there is a choice be- 
tween two sets of lessons. Should you have selected the second Mass, 
*' Sacerdotes Dei, " you will have to say the lessons in the second Nocturn 
" Principes " and in* the third " Quia Dominus." The prayer in this case 
will be " Deus qui nos beati Gulielmi, etc.," all of which are given for 
a martyr •^on'ix^ secundo loco. 

For the days of the Octave the lessons of the first Nocturn are of the 
current Scripture, if there are any indicated for that day ; if not, as on 
ember days, vigils, and others, the lessons are taken from the common of 
Saints, as on the feast itself. For the other Nocturns it is best to use the 
Octavarium Romaniim (Pustet, 18S3), which, with the approval of the S. 
Congregation of Rites, gives special lessons for the principal feasts of the 
year that may be the Titulars of churches, as, v. g., the H. Trinity, the 
H. Cross, the B. V. Mary, H. H. Angels, the Apostles, and some others, 
to which are added suitable common lessons for the feasts that have no 
particular mention in it, such as those of martyrs, confessors, virgins, and 

Priests who have not this Octavarium are not bound to procure one. 
They can fulfil their obligation by reciting the lessons of the common, to 
which the Titular belongs. Yet, in order that a priest thus celebrating 
the Octave may not have to read over every day the same lessons, he is 
recommended to vary the second Nocturn each day on which the office 
of the Octave is said by reciting the proper lessons, if there beany, on 
the feast itself, and if there be rt<) proper, De Communi primo loco on the 
feast, and then alternating with De Communi secundo loco until the Oc- 
tave-day, on which the proper lessons, if there be any, should again be re- 


cited. There is no such latitude of alternation in the third Nocturn, because 
the homily would disagree with the gospel of the Mass. If proper lessons be 
wanting, and no Octavariunn is at hand, the same lessons De Communi 
must be repeated in every ofiice of the Octave. 

For the day of the Octave the lessons of the first Nocturn are of the 
occurrent Scripture, unless otherwise indicated, as on the Octave of the As- 
sumption, and of the Common on days that have no occurrent Scripture, 
as the emberdays and days in Lent ; those of the second Nocturn, if not 
proper, are read from the Common either in the Octavarium or in the 
Breviary, according to the order described for the days within the Octave; 
those of the third Nocturn are the same as on the day of the feast. 

The prayer of the Office, if not proper, is also selected from the Com- 
mon, taking, as was said above, the prayer which corresponds to the les- 
sons of the Nocturns, according as they are chosen either from the first or 
second place. 

We shall now proceed to construct some of the principal Octaves of 
Titulars that have to be solemnized in the greater number of churches 
throughout the United States, taking account of both the Baltimore and 
the Roman Ordos. 



Jan. 6, Fer. 2. Alb. Epiphania D. N. J. C. Dupl. I. cl. cum. Oct. 
Omnia ut in Calend. Baltimorensi et Romano per totam octavam. 


18, Sabb. Vesp. de seq. in pr. loco. Nulla commemoratio. — 
Conclus. hymn, per totam oct. Jesu tibi sit gloria. 

Pro Clero Romano, idem. 

19, Dom. II. post Epiph. Alb. Festum SS. Nominis Jesu. Dupl. 
I. cl. cum Oct. off. propr. 9. Lect. de hom. et com. Dom. in 
Laud. — Missa propr. c. 01., 2 or. Dom. Cred. Praef. Nat. Dom. 
et Evg. Dom. in fine. — In 2 Vesp. com, seq. (or. pr.) et Dom. 
Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 

20, Fer. 2. Rub. SS. Fab. et Sebast. M. M. Dupl. off. plur. 
Mart, et pr. loc. Lectt. 1 Noct. Incipit Ep. B. Pauli ad Corinth. 


ex heri. com. Oct. in Laud, et Miss. Gl. Cr. Praef. Nat. — 
Vesp. a cap. de seq. com. praec. et Oct. 
Pro Clero Homano, omnia ut supra. 

21, Far. 3. Jiub. S. Agnetis V. M. Dupl. Off. pr. com. oct. in 

Laud, et Miss. Gl. Cr. Praef. Nat. — In 2 Vesp, com. seq. (or 
pr.) et Oct. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. Vesp. a cap. de seq. com. 
praec. et Oct. 

22, Fer. 4. Rub. SS. Vincentii et Anastasii M. M. Semid. ut in 
calend. sed omitt. Suffrag. et prec. Miss. c. Gl. Cr. 2 or. Oct. 
3. B. M. V. Deus qui salutis. Praef. Nat. Vesp. de seq. in pr. 
loc. com. praec. Oct. et S. Emerent. V. M. (or. Indulgentiam) 
Non est concessa com. S. Joseph. 

Pro Clero Romano, ut in calend., sed cum Cr. in Missa et com. 
Oct. in Laud, et Missa, Praef. Nat. Vesp. de seq. in pr. loco. 
Com. S. Joseph, praec. Oct. et S. Emerent, V. M. (or. 

23, Fer. 5. Alb. Desponsatio B. M. V. Dupl. maj. Off. pr. 9. 
Lect. et com. S. V, post. com. Oct. in Laud, et Missa pr. cum 
Gl. Cr. et Praef. B. M. V. Et Te in Desponsatione. In. 2. Vesp. 
com. seq. (or. Injirmilatem) et Oct. 

Pro Clero Romano, ut in calend. cum com. Oct. post com. S. 
Joseph in Laud, et Miss. In 2. Vesp. com. S. Joseph, seq. 
et Oct. 

24, Fer. 6. Rub. S. Timothei Ep. M. Dupl. Off. un. Mart, et 
pr. loc. Missa {Staiuit Ep. pr.) cum Gl. Cr. et com. Oct. Praef. 
Nat. Vesp. de seq. in pr. loc. Com. S. Petri ibid, praec. et Oct. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 

25, Sabb. Alb. Conversio S. Pauli Ap. Dupl. maj. ut in calend. 
cum com. Oct. post com. S. Petri, Praef. Ap. In 2. Vesp. de 
seq. (ut in 1. Vesp. festi.) Com. praec. S. Petri, S. Polycarp. 
(or. Deus qui nos) et Dom. 3, p, Epiph. (or. pr.) 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 

26, Dom. 3 p. Epiph. Alb. Oct. SS. Nominis Jesu, Dupl. Off. 
pr. ut in festo. Lectt. i, Noct. Incip. Ep. B. Pauli ad Galatas. 9. 
lect. de hom. Dom. et com. S. Mart, et Dom. in Laud, et Missa 
cum Gl. Cr. Praef. Nat. et Evg. Dom. in fine. Vesp. de Oct. 
Com. seq. S. Polyc. et Dom. 


Pro Clero Romano, Off. et Missa ut supra. Vesp. de Oct. com. 
seq. (or. Da, quxsumus) S. Polyc. et Dom. 


Jan. 20, Fer. 2. Vesp. de seq. Nulla commem. 
Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra, 

21, Fer. 3. Rub. S. Agnet. V. M. Dupl. 1. cl. cum Oct. Off. pr. 
Miss. pr. cum Gl. Cr. Praef. com. In 2. Vesp. Qom. seq. (or. 


Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 

22, Fer. 4. SS. Vincentii et Anastasii, Mart. Semid. Off. plur. 
Mart, et pr. loco. Omittunt. Suffrag. et Free. Missa Intret or. 
pr. cum Gl. Cr. Com. Oct. in Laud, et Missa. 3. or. de B. M. V. 
{Deus qui salulis). Vesp. de seq. in pr. loco. Com. prsec. Oct. et 
S. Emerent. V, M. (or. Indulgentiam). Non est concessa Com. 
S. Joseph. — Mon. 9: Jesu, tibi sit gloria. 

Pro Clero Romano, Rub. SS. Vine, et Anast. Mart. Dupl. ut 
supra, nisi quod omittat. 3. Or. Vesp. de seq. in pr. loco. Com. S. 
Joseph, praec. Oct. et S. Emerent. V. M. (or. pr.) Mon. 9 : 
Jesu, tibi sit gloria. 

23, Fer. 5. Alb. Desponsatio B. M. V. Dupl. maj. Off. pr. 9. Lect. 
S. V. post com. Oct. in Laud, et Missa pr. cum Gl. Cr. et 
Praef. B. M. V. Et Te in Desponsatione. In 2 Vesp. com. seq. 
(Or. Infirmitateni) et Oct. 

Pro Clero Romano, ut in Calend. cum com. Oct. post com. 
S. Joseph in Laud, et Missa. In 2. Vesp. Com. S. Joseph, seq. 
et Oct. 

24, Fer. 6. Rub. S. Timothei, Ep. Mart. Dupl. Off. un. Mart, et 
pr. loco Missa. {Statuit Ep. pr.) Cum Gl. Cr. et Com. Oct. Vesp. 

de seq. in pr. loco. Com. S. Petri ibid, praec. et Oct. 
Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 

25, Sabb. Alb. Conversio S. Pauli Ap. Dupl. maj. ut in Calend. 
cum Com. Oct. post Com. S. Petri. Praef. Ap. In 2 Vesp. com. S. 
Petri, seq. (or Deus quinos.') Dom. 3. p. Epiph. (or pr.) et Oct. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 

26, ill Dom. 3. Epiph. Rub. S. Polycarpi, Ep. M. Dupl. Off. un. 
Mart, et pr. loco. Lectt. i. Noct. Incip. Ep. B. Pauli ad Galat. 
9. Lect. de hom. et com. Dom. et Oct. in Laud, et Mi-s. pr. cum 



Gl. Cr. Praef. Trinit. et Evg. Dom. in fine. Vesp. a cap. de seq. 
m. t. V. (Ant. O Doctor . . . Chrysostome or. pr. ) Com. praec. 
Dom. et Oct. 

Pro Clero Romano, Off. et Miss, ut supra. Vesp. a cap. de seq. 
(or Da, qucesumus.) com. praec. Dom et Oct. 
2T, Fer. 2. Alb. S. Joannis Chrysost. Ep. C. D. Dupl. Off. C. P. m. 
t. V. et pr. loc. Miss. pr. cum Gl. et Cr. com. Oct. in Laud. e( 
Miss. Vesp. a cap. de seq. (Ant. ad Magn. Stans a dextris or. ex 
festo S. Agn. secundo per tot. Off.) com. praec. {O Doctor.) 

Pro Clero Romano, ut in Calend. cum com. Oct. in Laud, et 
Miss. Gl. Cr. Vesp. a cap. de seq. ut supra com. praec. (Ant. Dum 

28, Fer. 3. Pub. Oct. S. Agnet. V. M. Dupl. Lectt. i. Noct. de 
Script, occ. In 2, Noct. i. Lect. Beata Agnes (hujus diei.) 2 et 
3 de communi Quoniam hodie. 3. Noct. ut in fest. Miss, ut in 
festo except or. Deus, qui hujus diei, cum Gl. Cr. Vesp. a cap. de 
seq. m. L v. (Ant. ad Magn. O Doctor or. pr.) Com. praec. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 

29, Fer. 4. Alb. S. Francisci Sal. Ep. C. D. Dupl. Off. C. P. m. t. 
V. et pr. loc. Lect. i Noct. Sapientiam (ex noviss. Deer.) 2 et 3. 
Noct. pr. Miss. (In medio) Gl. Cr. — In 2. Vesp com. seq. 

Pro Clero Romano, ut in Calend. 

30, Fer. 5. Rub. S. Martinae V. M. Semid. ut in Calend. except. 
I Noct. Incip. Ep. B. Paul Ap. ad Ephes. ex best. Lect. 

Pro Clero Romano, ut in Calend. 

31, Fer. 6. Alb. S. Petri Nolasci C. Dupl. ut in Calend. except. 
Lectt. I Noct. de Script. Oct. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 
Feb. I, abb. Rub. S. Ignatii Ep. M. Dupl. Off. un. Mart, et pr. loc. 
Lectt. I. Noct. de Dom. 4. Epiph. antic, incip. Ep. B. Paul. Ap. 
ad Philipp. 9. Lect. de hom. ejusd. Dom. et ejus com. in Laud, 
el Miss. pr. cum Gl. et Evg. Dom. 4. antic, in fine. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. (Reliquae Epistolae S. Pauli 
hoc anno omittuntur.) 

Festum vS. Joan. Chrys. Ep. C. Doct.. Dupl. pro Clero Ro- 
mano fixum 28 Jan. perpetuo mulandum est in diem primam 
liberam, quae si nunc primum seligatur, erit 28 Februarii; sed 
hoc anno erit transferendum ad 3 Mart. 


Jan. 28, Fer. 3. Alb. Vesp. de seq. m. t. v. (Ant. ad Magn. O Doctor 
or. pr.) Nulla com. 

Pro Cltro Romano^ idem. 
39, Fer. 4. Alb. S. Francisc. Sales. Ep. C. D. Dupl. i. cl. cum 
Oct Off. C. P. m. t. V. et pr. loc. Lectt. i. Noct. Sapientiam 

2. eL 3. Noct. pr. in Additam. vel noviss, Breviar. Miss. In medio 
or. pr. cum Gl. et Cr. In. 2. Vesp. ( Ant. ad. Magn. O Doctor) 
com. seq. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 

30, Fer. 5. Rub. S. Martinae et 2 V. M. Semid. Off. V. M. et pr. 
loc. Hymni pr. Lectt. i. Noct. Incip. Ep. B. Paul, ad Philipp. (de 
Dom. 4. p. Epiph. anticip. 3. Incip. Ep. B. Paul, ad Coloss. 
(de. fer. 3: p. Dom. 4. p. Ep. antic.) sed pro its qui Off. vol. utunt. 
Lectt I Noct Incip. Ep. B. Paul, ad Ephes. ex. heri. Omitt. Suff. 
ciprec. Com. Oct in Laud. Miss. Loquebar cwm. Gl. 2. or. Oct. 

3. B. IVI. V. Deus qui salutis. Cr. Vesp. de seq. (or. pr.) Com. 
praec. et Oct. 

Pro Clero Romano, Alb. S. Felicis. IV. Pap. C. Dupl. Off. C. P. 
etpr. loc. Lectt. i. Noct Incip. Ep. B. Paul, ad Ephes. ex. hferi 
Com. Oct in. Laud. Miss. Sacerdotes cum Gl. et Cr. Vesp. a cap. 
de seq. m. t v. (or. pr.) Com. praec. (Ant. Dum esset) et 

31, Fer. 6. Alb. S. Petri Nolasci Conf. Dupl. Off. C. non P. m. 
t V. et pr. loc. Lectt. i. Noct Incip. Ep. i. B. P. ad Thessal. 
(de fer. 5. post Dom. 4. p. Epiph. antic.) {sed pro iis qui Off. 
Vot. utunt. de Script, occ. ) Com. Oct in Laud. Missa {Justus. 
or. pr, ) cum Gl. et Cr. Vesp. a cap. de seq. (or. Infirmitatem.) 
Com. praec. et Oct 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra ; Lectt. i. Noct. de Script, 
Feb. I, Sabb. Rub. S. Ignatii Ep. M. Dupl. Off. un. Mart, et pr. 
loc. Lectt I. Noct Incip. Ep. 2. B. P. ad Thessal. (e Sabb. post 
Dom. 4. antic.) Com. Oct in Laud, et Miss. pr. cum Gl. et Cr. 
sed pro iis qui Off. Vot utunt. Lectt. i. Noct Incip. Ep. B. 
P. ad Philipp. de Dom. 4. antic. 9. Lect de hom. ejusd. Dom. 
et ejus Com. in Laud, et Miss, post com. Oct cum Gl. Cr. 


et Evg. Dom. antic, in fine. — In 2. Vesp. com. Dom. Septuag. 
et Oct. Quoad Alleluia, vd. Calend. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra pro iis qui Off. Vot. utun- 

2, Dom. in Septuag. 2. cl. Viol, de Dom. Semid. Off. ut in 
Psalt. et pro loc. Lectt. i. Noct. Incip. lib. Genesis. DiciL 9. 
respons. In Laud. com. Oct. Omitt. Suff. et prec. Miss, de Dom. 
pr. sine Gl. cum com. Oct. sine 3. or. Cr. Praef. Trinit. et Bened. 
Domino in fine. Vesp. de seq. in pr. loc. Com. Dom. tant. — 
Mon. 9 : Jesu, tibi sit gloria. 

Pro Clero Romano, ut supra. In Vesp. com. S. Dionys. Pap. C. 
(or. Da, qucesumus) et Dom. tant. — Mon. 9: Jesu, tibi sit gloria, 
De S. Dionys. pro Clero Rom. hoc anno fit ut simplex. 

A Complet. Incip. Ant. Ave Regina coelorum. 

3, Fer. 2 Alb. PURIFICATIO B. M. V. Dupl. 2. cl. (fuit heri) 
Off. pr. 9. Lect. et com. tant. S. Blasii. in Laud. Miss. pr. cum Gl. 
(2. or. in Miss. priv. S. Blasii) Tract. Cr. et prsef. Nativ. In 2. 
Vesp. com. seq. (or. pr.) tant. 

Pro Clero Romano, PURIFICATIO B. M. V. Dupl. 2. cl. Off. 
pr. 9. Lect. (tantum una) de S. Dionys. et ejus com. et S. Blasii 
in Laud. Miss. pr. cum Gl. 2. or. S. Dionys. (3. in priv. S. Bias.) 
Tract. Cr. et praef. Nativ. in 2. Vesp. com. seq. in pr. loc. et. S. 
Andreae Corsin. Ep. C. (or. pr.) et S. Dionys. (Ant. Dutn esset) 

De S. Andr. pro Clero Romano hoc anno fit ut simplex. 

4, Fer. 3. Alb. S. Andreae Corsini Ep. C. Dupl. Off. C. P. m. t. 
V. et pr. loc. Com. Oct. in Laud, et Miss. (Statuit or. pr.) cum 
Gl. Cr. Vesp. a cap. de seq. ut in i. Vesp. festi. Com. praec. et S. 
Phil, a Jesu. Mart. De hoc fit ut simplex. 

Pro Clero Romano, Rub. Fest. Orat. D. N. J. C. Dupl. maj. Off. 
pr. 9. Lect. (e 3. fit una) et com. S. Mart, et Oct. ut in i. Vesp. 
festi et. S. Mart. De hoc fit ut simplex. 

5, Fer. 4. Alb. Oct. S. Franc. Sales. C. P. D. Dupl. Lectt. i. Noct 
de Script, occ. 2. Noct. ut in Octavar. de Doctor, vel de commun. 
Doct. 3. Noct. ut in Octav. vel. in die festo. 3. Lectt. (e 3. fit una) 
et com. Mart in Laud, et Missa {In tnedio) Gl. Cr. Vesp. a cap. de 
seq. Com praec. S. Philip, et S. Dorotheae V. M. (or. Indulgentiam.) 

Pro Clero Romano^ ut supra. Vesp. a cap. de seq. (or. pr.) Com. 



praec. S. Philip, et S. Dorotheae, V. M. (Ant ct Vers, e Laud. or. 
These Octaves have been given in full, so as to serve as models for 
other special Titular f>.asts not here mentioned. We shall continue to 
give each month the Ordo for the more common Patronal or Titular 
feasts to be celebrated in the United States, indicating the changes which 
shall have to be made in the regular Baltimore and Roman Directories. 

H. Gabriels. 

Bridgetine Indulgences. 

Qu. Does the faculty given to priests in the United States, 
of blessing Rosaries, " Benedicendi coronas precatorias, etc.," 
include the power of imparting to them the Bridgetine 

If not, then from whom can such a power be obtained ? 
Indeed, it causes astonishment to the laity when we tell them 
that, if they want their beads indulgenced with the above in- 
dulgences, they will have to go to Father so and so, as we 
have not such a power. Would it not save our people a 
great deal of expense and. trouble, and also ourselves not a 
little humiliation, if all priests had the power of imparting 
the above Indulgences, and likewise of investing persons 
with the different kinds of scapulars ? 

Resp. With us in the U. States the faculty ^^Benedicendi co- 
ronas precatorias, etc." (Extraord. 9), includes the power of 
imparting the Bridgetine Indulgence, according to an ex- 
press declaration made by the Secretary of the S. C. de Pro- 
paganda Fide to the then Bishop of Natchez, the Most Rev. 
Elder, and which is cited in the Commentarium in Facultates 
Apostolicas by the late Fr. Konings under date of 26 June, 
1877. (Cf. op. cit., n. 140). » 

' Desiring to have the original Document, for the greater assurance of our readers 
we applied to the chancery of Natchez, and through courtesy of the Very Rev. Theo. 
Meerschaert, V. G., obtained the letter of Cardinal Franchi interpreting the above- 
mentioned faculty. It will be noticed that the date is not 26 June, as cited, but 26 
January. We give the portion of the letter which has reference to the matter : 

" Riguardo finalmente al dubbio esposto sulla facoM di benedire corone, debbo 
che ira le indulgenze annesse a tale benedizione vi sono comprese anche quelle 




By reason of this apostolic faculty it is not obligatory to 
use the formula found in the Rituals for blessing the Bridg- 
etine Rosaries. It is sufficient to make the sign of the 
cross over the beads, and to have the intention of blessing 
and imparting the particular Indulgences to them, iyide 
Maurel, Die Ablaesse, edit. Beringer, 1887). 

Priests who do not enjoy the faculty (Extraord. c. 9) can 
obtain the Bridgetine privilege by applying to the superior 
general of the Canons Regular SS. Salvatoris, who live at 
the church S. Pietro in Vincoli, Rome. 

As to the fact that privileges like the above, and that of 
investing in the different kinds of scapulars, are restricted to 
certain religious communities, it need not surprise or scan- 
dalize us, if we remember that privileges are not necessities. 
In the first place, there are ample indulgences at the com- 
mand of every priest, and the fact that people demand 
indulgences which happen to be popular in one place, and to 
which they have a certain attachment, is no reason why they 
should find them everywhere else. This, of course, must be 
explained to them. Generally, too, as in this very case, the 
Bishops provide such privileges for the secular clergy as 
they are likely to need by reason of the traditions and habit- 
ual devotions of the people. But there are and must always 
be local and personal privileges of this kind, as if persons 
visit a particular church or shrine on some particular day. 
Thus also the religious communities represented by the dif- 
ferent scapulars have a natural right to restrict the privileges 
attached to the wearing of their garment (the scapular) and 
to impart themselves the special graces connected with 
membership in their community ; for this is what the scapu- 
lars really mean. The revocation of the general privilege of 
investing with the five scapulars has had its reason, no doubt, 

dette di S. Brigida, come rilevasi dal foglio menzionato al No. 9 della formola C." 
Roma, dalla Propaganda, 26 Gennajo 1877. 

Affmo come Fratello 
Aless. Card. Franxhi, Pref. 


mainly in the fact that it was no longer considered a great 
privilege, and hence not sufficiently valued by those who 
were recipients of the favor. By making the obtaining of 
it more difficult, reverence and greater fruit in the use of it 
would be secured, and the danger that people who wear a 
sacred object consider themselves as if sacred by that reason 
alone is lessened. That the religious possess generally more 
privileges of this kind than the secular clergy is natural 
enough. They need them more frequently on missions and 
in their changes to distant places, for which their superiors 
wisely provide. 

A Duplex in the Roman Office and the Missa de Requie. 

Qu. I recite the Roman Office by privilege. As double 
feasts occur more frequently in the latter than in the Dio- 
cesan Calendar, I am sometimes prevented from saying the 
Missa Quotidiana de Requie on days when the clergy of the 
church to which I am attached can do so. This causes 
some inconvenience and calls the attention of the people to 
the difference of the Ordo. As the Rubrics legislate in 
other cases with a view of causing conformity quoad colorem 
in ecclesia aliena, I would ask you : Is there any decree or 
liturgical authority permitting or preventing my saying the 
Missa de Requie on days when the clergy of the parish- 
church do so, although my own office may be that of a 
double. And if this be lawful, does it make any difference 
what kind of double, even primae or secundae classis, I may 
have ? 

Resp. Rubricists agree that a priest who enjoys the per- 
sonal privilege of an office different from that of the church 
to which he is attached is bound by the same rules which 
govern the celebration of Mass in aliena ecclesia. 

Accordingly a priest having a double or an equivalent 
office which forbids a Votive or Requiem Mass, if he cele- 
brates in a church where the office is semidouble or below, 


permitting a Requiem Mass, cannot say the Requiem or Vo- 
tive Mass, on account of his double office. There are several 
decrees for this statement, numbered in Gardellini's collection 
41 8 1 ad 13 — 45 26 ad i8et 19 — 4645 ad 6. (Vide infra Dubium I). 
A later Decree, March, 1866, makes an exception by which 
a priest having a proper double office may say the Mass de 
Requie pro defuncto prcBsettte corpore or for an anniversary. 
(Vide Dubium II). 


An sacerdotes qui recitant officium de festo duplici, con- 

fluentes ad ecclesias sive Regularium sive aliorum, ubi dicitur 

officium de semiduplici, possint ibi dicere missas privatas de- 

functorum ? 

S. R. C. resp. Negative. Die 7 Maj. 1746. 


An sacerdotibus, qui recitaverunt officium alicujus sancti 
duplicis, licitum sit celebrare Missam- de Requie in aliena 
ecclesia, ubi non dicitur officium duplex, imo fiunt exequicc 
pro aliquo defuncto praesente corpore, vel anniversarium ? 
S. R. C. resp. Affirmative. Die 4 Mart. 1866. 

A writer in the Ami du ClergS (Aug. i, 1889) holds this last 
mentioned decree to revoke the former and maintains that, if 
the S. C allows the Missa de Requie on occasion of excqnice 
prcBsente corpore and anniversaries, it ipso facto allows the 
same for the third, seventh, and thirtieth day, since " ubi lex 
non distinguit, nee nos distinguere debemus." 

In connection with this subject we find the following decree : 
Sacerdotes regulares addictos seu vocatos ad satisfaciendum 
oneribus alicujus ecclesiae, posse celebrare missas de sancto 
sive de Requie ad formam et ritum ejusdem ecclesiae juxta 

S. R. C. d. 15 Dec. 1691 et d. 22 Jan. 1695. Deer. auth. 
3259, ad 12.— 3350. 

This extends to rectors or those who take their place in 
cases where the Mass has to be said *• ad satisfaciendum one- 


ribus ecclesiae," as is clear from the following : " Sacerdos 
sive saecularis, sive regularis, supplens vicem absentis vel 
infirmi parochi seu rectoris, aut ecclesiae addictus, deputatus 
seu vocatus ad satisfaciendum oneribus alicujus ecclesiae, licet 
Officium Duplex I. vel II. cl. habeat, debet suum prorsus 
negligere Officium, et sese conformare Officio ecclesiae, can- 
tando Missam diei, Votivam aut de Requie ad formam et 
ritum ejusdem ecclesiae. Hoc tamen tantum intelligendum 
est de omnibus et solis missis, in quibus quis vicem rectoris 
agere dicitur ; quales sunt quas rector qua talis, seu de jure aut 
ex consuetudine celebrare debet vel solet, et aliis sine ejus 
commissione celebrare non licet : tales sunt Missae cantata? 
lecta parochialis, exequialis, nuptialis et similes, non autem 
missae privatae, quag occasione exequiarum, Anniversariorum, 
aut raiione Votivae solemnis celebrantur." 

(Cnf. Quaest. Mechl. in Rubr., qu. 219, p. 152.) 





Dilecto Filio Nostra Jacobo titulo S. Marice trans Tiberim S. 
R. E. Presbytero Cardinali Gibbons, Archiepiscopo Baltimorensi 


DILECTE Fili Noster, Salutem et Apostolicam Bene- 
dictionem. Cum ex aliis rebus tuum, aliorunique 
sacrorum antistitum toederatarum istarum Americas Civita- 
tum in Patriam et Religionem studium splendide elucet, turn 
mirifice etiam ex iis, quae tuae ad nos litterae mense elapso datae 
retulerunt. Nunciant enim Nobis saecularia solemnia, quae 
convenientibus in unum Pastoribus ac Fidelibus proximo 
Novembri in ista Baltimorensi urbe publice acturi estis, cen- 
tesimo anno exeunte a Hierarchica Sacrorum Pastorum pote- 
state in istis regionibus constitute, et dedicationem quam 
habituri estis apud civitatem Washington Lycei Magni 
Catholici, quod ad faustum novi saeculi auspicium, suffragante 
vobis Catholicorum civium liberalitate, condidistis. Dignum 
sane est animi vestri religione consilium a vobis susceptum 
quod eo spectat, tum ut pia grataque memoria recolatis bene- 
ficia quae istis regionibus Divina Providentia contulit, tum 
etiam ut perpetuum monumentum statuatis in memoriam rei 
auspicatissimae, quod non minus ad pastoralis vestri ministerii 
decus, quam ad solidam et salutarem vestrorum civium utili- 
tatem pertinet. Quamobrem justam nos habere causam 
agnoscimus gloriam vobiscum tribuendi Deo bonorum omni- 
um auctori, et gratulandi virtuti vestrac, quae in eo campo in 
quo Patrum vestrorum inclita vestigia impressa sunt, strenuam 
praefert eorum industriae aemulationem, strenuura animi in di- 



vina gloria latius jirovehenda alacritatem. Obsequium autem 
tuum, Dilecte Fili Noster, et omnium istius regionis antistitura 
quod in tuis litteris erga apostolicam banc Cathedram diserte 
professus es, amantissime excepimus, ac certos vos esse cu- 
pimus, uti sanctae memoriae decessores Nostri, sic Nos singular! 
vos vobisque creditos fideles caritate complecti, fervida vota 
pro vestra omni prosperitate facere, et magnum percipere de 
istorum fidelium optima in omne opus bonum voluntate, ma- 
gnum de vestra sacerdotali virtute solatium. Quod vero a 
nobis postulas ut aliquos delectos viros ex urbe mittamus, qui 
Nostro nomine solemnibus vestris praesentes intersint, non 
deerimus optatis vestris ; immo eo libentius eis annuemus, 
quod haec res non solum existimationis et benevolentiae no- 
stras erga vos testimonium erit, sed splendidum etiam docu- 
mentum Catholicae illius unitatis, quae ubique Pastores et 
Fideles inter sese et cum supremo Ecclesiae Rectore in fide 
et caritate conjungit. Quod reliquum est Deum, custodem 
et sospitatorem Catholici nominis, ex corde adprecamur, ut 
sub florentissimo isto faustoque regimine, in quo vobis datum 
est sancti vestri ministerii libertate frui, opera pietatis vestrae 
laetis fecundet erga Ecclesiam et Patriam fructibus, ac amplis- 
simorum benignitatis suae munerum auspicem esse velit. 
Apostolicam Benedictionem, quam Tibi, Dilecte Fili Noster, 
cunctisque venerabilibus Fratribus fcederatarum istarum 
Americae civitatum Episcopis, et clero ac Fidelibus omnibus 
quibus praesidetis, peramanter in Domino impertimus. 

Datum Romae apud S. Petrum, die vii. Septembris, anno 
MDCCCLXXXIX, Pontificatus Nostri Duodecimo. 





Rescripta S. Poenitentiariae, in causis matrimonialibus, 
cum adfuit incestus publicus, clausulam sequentem in prae- 


senti continent: " Remote, quatenus adsit, scandalo, prae- 
sertim per separationem, si fieri potest." 

Hisce miserrimis temporibus, non raro evenit ut separatio 
oratorum obtineri nequeat, aut quia plures jam habent liberos 
simul educandos ; aut quia nusquam alibi habitare possunt ; 
et tunc vix intelligi potest qusenam alia reparatio scandali 
exigi debeat, antequam dispensatio concedatur. 

Rogamus igitur ut S. Poenitentiaria benigne velit declarare 
num hasc clausula " Remoto scandalo " ita necessario debeat 
adimpleri, ut, ilia omissa, dispensatio fuerit nulliter concessa, 
et quatenus affirmative : 

(i) Cum pluries accident ut errore ducti, ita dispensaveri- 
mus, suppliciter petimus ut S. V. dispensationes hujusmodi 
benigne convalidare dignetur et, si opus sit, matrimonia ex- 
inde secuta in radice sanare. 

(2) Rogamus ut S. Poenitentiaria nobis velit indicare, 
quibusnam preesertim mediis remotio seu reparatio scandali 
defectu separationis, procurari debeat aut possit. Suffi- 
citne, V. g.,- ut in ecclesia inter missarum solcmnia publice 
denuntietur matrimonium inter oratores contrahendum, vel 
ut oratores, aut alteruter eorum ante dispensationis executi- 
onem sua peccata confiteatur ? 

Quod Deus 

Sacra Poenitentiaria^ mature consideratis expositis, Ven. in 
Christ Patri ArcJiiepiscopo N. rcspondet : 

Separationem praeferri aliis modis reparationis scandali ; 
si haec fieri nequeat, scandalum esse reparandum, sed modum 
scandali reparandi remitti prudenti arbitrio et conscientiae 
Ordinarii, juxta cujusque casus exigentias. Casu quo omissa 
sit separatio ct scandalum alio modo reparatum, aquiescat ; 
secus, si aliquo in casu scandali reparationem omiserit, sileat, 
et in posterum cautius se gerat. 

Datum Romae in Sacra Poenitentiaria, die 12 Aprilis 1889. 

R. Card. Monaco, P. M. 


From among the various periodicals which come to us we shall select only 
such numbers each month as appear to us to contain matter of special 
interest to our readers. The omission of any of the ecclesiastical journals 
sent us is no indication thai we do not receive them or may not notice their 
contents when occasion calls for such notice. 

contains the introduction of the cause of beatification and canonization 
of the V. Elizabeth Sanna of the Third Order of St. Francis, who died in 
the odor of sanctity, on Feb. 17, 1857, in the city of Rome. — Among the 
acts of the S. Congregation is an interesting decision in behalf of an old 
priest of Foligno, who had served the Church faithfully for forty-one years, 
and subsequently, hindered by sickness and general infirmity from attend- 
ing at the Cathedral in his capacity of canon, begs to retire with the 
pension attached to the canonry. According to the statutes regulating 
the pfension of canons, the priest was not entitled to the latter privilege, 
since, although having served the Church for over forty years, he had been 
canon only during twelve of that time. In order to retire on the implied 
pension, one has to serve as canon for forty years. But the Sacred Con- 
gregation overrules the statutes in this case, since equity and necessity 
forbid " quominus militi qui diu laboravit, et in labore vitam ac vires 
confecit, justa meritaque non concedantur stipendia." The S. Congr. 
Cone, therefore answered : Pro gratia jubilationis, cum solitis clausulis. 
Die 4 Maji, 1889. 

NOUVELLE REVUE THEOLOGIQUE, Seconde S^rie, torn. IX., No. 
5, Tournai,— 
contains the Encyclical "Quamquam Pluries" and the Allocution of 
the Holy Father held in consistory of the 30 June last. — The S. Congre- 
gation renders decision in the case of a parish priest enjoying a benefice 
who, living extravagantly, accumulates considerable debts, to the detri- 
ment of his reputation and efficiency among his flock. The bishop asks 


what he is to do, since the pastor is irremovable. From the resolution 
the following principles of procedure are drawn : 

1. The Bishop is to warn the parochus. 

%. If his admonitions have no effect, he may depute an ecclesiastic 
to administer the parish, leaving to the pastor sufficient to live decently 
and using the surplus to pay off the accumulated debt. 

3. If the Pastor refuse to consent to his arrangement, the Bishop can 
deprive him of his benefice, but 

4. He is obliged to proceed according to right rule and the methods 
laid down in canon law, and it must be established that the pastor act- 
ually conducts himself in a way which makes him odious to his parish- 
ioners and deprives him of the authority and influence necessary to his 
proper ministr)'. 

The Revue also publishes the Letter of Card. Simeoni, which we 
published in the November number of the Review, concerning the faculty 
granted to missionary priests to erect certain confraternities without nec- 
essarily having permission from the superior general of the particular 
confraternity. Thus a confraternity of the Holy Rosary may be estab- 
lished in virtue of the faculty granted by the Propaganda. In this case 
the members would gain only the Indulgences "communiter concessae 
omnibus in genere Confraternitatibus canonice ereclis," and not those 
belonging to the order under whose auspices the confraternity was first 
established. But wishing to ascertain what these indulgences are in par- 
ticular, the writer in the Ret'ue finds in the Collection of Decrees and 
Rescripts of the S. Congregation of Indulgences the following: " Non 
existit generalis aliqua pro qualibet Confraternitate indulgentiarum con- 
cessio, sed post erectionem canonicam recurri debet ad eas obtinendas." 
There appears, then, no determined number of Indulgences which can be 
classed under the phrase ** communiter concessae," as it seems to mean 
that they are to be obtained after the erection by having recourse to the 
Holy See in each case. We confess that we are unable to throw any 
further light upon the question of the writer, and with him would be glad 
if some one else could add to our information. 

Under the title Manuak Novissimum pro visitandis ecclesiis a Vicariis 
Episcopalibus ei Foraneis, P. Florentius says of the Tabernacle Key : It 
should be of silver, or at least of iron covered with gold. There should 
be attached to it (juxta omnes dioecesanas constitutiones) a cord and 


tassel of silk or silver thread, or a silver chain, as is customary. There 
should be two keys, lest, in case one break, the Tabernacle should have to 
be opened by an artisan. The key should never be left in the Taber- 
nacle door or in any open place, but is carefully to be guarded by the 
priest himself in a safe place (a Sacerdote omnino est in loco tuto caute 
custodienda). The writer then adds : Si vero (mandavit Innocentius 
III in Lateranensi Concilio quarto, anno 1216 — Deer. lib. iii., tit. 44, C. 
Statuimus) is ad quem spectat custodia eam incaute reliquerit, tribus 
mensibus ab officio suspendatur ; et si per ejus incuriam aliquid nefan- 
dum inde contigerit, graviori subjaceat ultioni. Quae poena in omnibus 
dioecesanis Synodis videtur vel innovata, vel imo aucta mulcta pecuniaria. — 
The Dissertation Dt ratione exequendi canlum lilurgiciim is continued and 
treats "De temporis mensura.^' — Under Ceremoniah Mis see privates , the 
defects of wine, of form, and of intention are accurately discussed. — 
Among the Dubia lilurgica may be mentioned the answer to the question: 
whether the celebrant may sing the Epistle in the absence of a lector 
during the Missa Cantata, as some eminent rubricians teach. The 
author of the " Ephemerides '^ contends that the practice is unlawful, 
whatever may be taught by rubricists, since it is manifestly against the 
Rubrics and against positive decrees of the S. Congregation. " Contra- 
rium agere nonne manifesto est contra eandem Rubricam et S. R. C. 
decreta ? Hoc autem posito, quid valet auctoritas De Herdt, De Conny 
ceterum aestimatione dignissimorum, contrarium simpliciter asserentium, 
sicut et aliorum ? Manifesto decent quod lex prohibet, hi ergo relin- 
quendi, et legi standum. 

In this number Dr. Fr. Von Hettinger continues his letters to a young 
theologian, of which we have the third, treating of vocation. — Dr. 
Zardetti, who has lately been raised to the episcopacy in our own coun- 
try, gives a scholarly account of the " Pontificale " of St. Otto, the apos- 
tle of Pomerania, called forth by the celebration of the seventh centenary of 
that illustrious bishop. The original copy, which Dr. Zardetti describes, 
is preserved in the municipal library of Bamberg, of which city St. Otto 
was the eighth bishop, and the writer shows it to be an interesting relic 
from a liturgical as well as from an historical point of view. — Father 
Lehmkuhl, S.J., gives a lucid exposition of a casus consdenfia concemmg 
the morality of labor strikes.— The well known Redemptorist theologian 
Fr. Aertnys brings a casus of restitution: T. has fraudulently obtained a 


small sum of money (500 florins) from a Fire Insurance Company. He 
is willing to make restitution; but doubting whether it would be the 
proper thing to give the money to the officers of the company, who might, 
since it is an unexpected revenue, appropriate it for their private use, he 
asks his confessor whether it would not be better to distribute the sum 
among the poor, especially since the company consists of many share- 
holders among whom .the money would have to be divided, and each of 
whom would hardly miss the loss of his share if it were given in alms. 
To the confessor the reasoning of his penitent seems not without good 
ground, and he is strengthened in his supposition by a sentence of, St. 
Alphonsus, who appears to judge similarly in an analogous case. " Pro- 
babiliusmihi et aliisdoctis junioribus dicendum videtur, quod hujusmodi 
fur non peccet graviter, si non restituat dominis certis, cum commode 
possit, et satisfaciat suae gravi obligation!, si debita pauperibus distribuat. 
Ratio, quia, utdocet Lugo, et consentit Sanchez cum Vasqu. Val. P. Led. 
et Reb., praeceptum non furandi non tarn intendit vitare emolumentum 
proprium, quam damnum proximi. Si ergo singuli domini non fuerint 
graviter laesi, fiir nun tenetur sub gravi obligatione eis restitutionem 

facere ideo probabiliter videtur dici posse quod fur semper excusabi- 

tur a mortali, si pauperibus restituat; et etiam a veniali si rationabilis 
causa adest. (Lib. iii. n. 534. alias lib., iv., tract. 5. n. 534.) Nevertheless, 
the answer of our theologian, to whom the whole question is submitted^ 
is, that restitution in this case must be made to the company. First, 
because the company is in point of law a person having the right in com- 
mon of property, etc., and therefore a joint claim to that which has been 
taken from it. Secondly, if we admitted the non-obligation of restitution 
in this case because the individuals lose but a small sum, the principle 
could be extended without hindrance, and any large corporation should in 
consequence lose its right of claiming restitution. He shows, likewise,, 
that the passage cited from St. Alphonsus has no application in the case, 
as it does not refer to corporations but to a number of individuals who 
have no joint obligations towards each other. In face of the danger that 
the officials may retain the money if restored, the author suggests a 
method of making restitution to the directors of the company thmugh a 
confidential person, who should require a receipt signed by a commissary 
or auditor of the company, or a public acknowledgment made through 
the papers. If there were reason to fear that the amount of the sum 
restored might indicate the author of the fraud, the money might be 


distributed and restored at different times and in different ways. 


In a paper entitled " L'heure universelle et l6 meridien initial cosmopo- 
lite/' Fr. Alexis makes a good plea for the definite settlement of an initial 
meridian to be used by all the nations. He claims this particularly in 
the interest of our schools and of popular education, just as others have 
claimed it in the name of the maritime and railway service, of telegraphy, 
meteorology, and other speculative and practical sciences. By the estab- 
lishment of a cosmopolitan time-table alone (apart from, the local time), 
and by the division of the globe into hour lines, will teachers be able to 
give their pupils a real notion of longitude, which at present is a mere 
dead letter, as it depends on the relative time of different countries. The 
author says that the decision of the Congress of Washington in 1884 has 
not settled the difficulty. There are good reasons for preferring the isle of 
Ferro, or Jerusalem, or the Strait of Behring, or, finally, Greenwich. 
He proposes to let mariners have their own meridian, which would little 
interfere with educational interests. In behalf of the latter he suggests 
Jerusalem as the most convenient place independent of national pref- 
erences. But he would be ready to subscribe to Ferro, or Greenwich, or 
any other place, so that our geographical maps be made upon a common 
scale. — Other interesting papers are: the first part of a review, L'Assy- 
riologie depuis onze ans, by the Jesuit Father Delattre, in which the author 
sketches the progress made up to date in practical Assyrian philology. 
He limits himself strictly to the latter scope, without entering into the 
application of his subject to ancient history and geography. Nor does 
he touch upon the Persian and Armenian and what has been called the 
proto-Median inscriptions, the latter of which are still too obscure to allow 
any definitely valuable conclusions to the drawn from them. For the 
rest, the article takes in the most important of the cuneiform inscriptions, 
giving a succinct and easily intelligible history of what has been done in the 
work of discovery and deciphering between the years 1878 and 1889. — 
Dr. Masoin's conference, delivered in the General Assembly of the Scientific 
Society of Brussels, last October, on Animal Magnetism, sketches its history, 
its influence, its useful application, and its dangers. The Quarterly con- 
tains only the first part of the paper. — There is also a thoughtful critique 
of Mr. Hirn's La constitution de Pespace celeste in the light of the modern 
atomic theory. 


ST. THOMASBLiETTER, Regensburg, Heft 24-25. 
We have had occasion once before to call the attention of lovers of 
Thomistic theology to this periodical, the purpose of which is to inter- 
pret and popularize the doctrine of St. Thomas. "St. Thomas is an 
author whose principles lay deeply hold of the social, practically Christ- 
ian life. He does not merely develop metaphysical science and theolog- 
ical theories ; but the natural sciences, human art and industry, receive 
from him their norm and perfection." Thus the aim of Dr. Schneider 
is to carry out the design of Leo XIII laid down in the Encyclical "iE- 
terni Patris/* namely, to restore to its ancient dignity the golden wisdom 
of St. Thomas, to the honor and safeguard of the Catholic faith, for the 
benefit of human society, for the enriching and perfecting of all science. 
The learned editor fulfils his high mission with consummate skill and 
fidelity, not following St. Thomas blindly in all he says, but rather 
guided by his reasons, the solidity of which has been tested by centuries 
of profound thinkers since his day. The periodical appears every two 
weeks, and in conjunction with it there have been issued during the past 
year four fasciculi (amounting to over 800 pages) of a work entitled 
** The Apostolic Century," which treats in a clear didactic way the devel- 
opment of Catholic dogma in the earliest Christian times and serves as a 
foundation to the history of Catholic dogma. The matter is too im- 
portant to do it justice here by a passing critique. 

opens with a succinct review of ChaufTard's V Apocalypse et son interpre- 
tation historique, which work is a singularly bold yet fascinating attempt 
to interpret the seven epistles of Our Lord to the Seven Churches of Asia 
as containing in symbolic form an abridged history of the Church during 
the seven ages of her existence. The first epistle, which commences with 
the second chapter of the Apocalypse, sets forth the activity of the 
apostles and their disciples ; the dangers they encounter from false 
brethren, notably the Nicolaites ; tendency to abandon the ways of first 
fervor and charity. The second epistle sees the development of the 
Church amid the first ten great persecutions. The third starts with the 
reign of Constantine, who gives free scope to the Papacy by abandoning 
Rome and laying the imperial seat in Constantinople. Arianism begins 
to harass the peace of the Church. The fourth epistle covers the period 
from 600 to 1453, 8^>ving a striking illustration of the moral condition of 
the Church in the time that intervenes between the ascent of Gregory the 


Great to the Papal Chair and the conquest of Constantinople by the 
Turks. The following age, described in the fifth epistle, the author 
supposes to be our own. Its characteristics are weakening of faith and 
the growth of religious indifference. It is to be succeeded by horrible 
social convulsion all over the earth, preparatory to the conversion of the 
Jews, which takes place in the sixth age. The seventh and last era will 
behold the establishment upon earth of the kingdom of Satan, who is 
eventually to be vanquished when Christ will again reign among men, 
down to the consummation of the world. — It is difficult, of course, to pass 
a judgment as to the correctness of the author's views ; but he submits 
his work wholly to the decision of the Holy See. 

The same number contains reviews of de Baye's Archeologie pre- 
historique, which is a somewhat misleading name, for the author's re- 
search extends over a very limited region (the Champagne) and covers 
only the so-called neolithic period. — Saporta's Origine paleontologique des 
arbres cultives ou utilises par I'homme, though it attempts to confirm the old 
petilio principii of Darwin, according to which similarity of construction 
points to identity of origin, is according to the critic (H. Martin, S. J.) 
an exceedingly careful and hence valuable study of different vegetable 
groups — Vevangile du sacre-Cceur by the Rev. P. J. Vandon, missionary 
of the Sacred Heart, receives a flattering criticism from A. Blanche. 

Messrs. Cadieux and Derome have devised a plan for making known 
good books, primarily, we may presume, in the interest of their business, 
nevertheless of decided advantage to the Catholic reading public. They 
. publish every two weeks a bulletin which contains a list of new books, 
then of such books as are suggested by the season of the ecclesiastical 
year. What gives value to these lists is this, that a synopsis of the 
contents, or also extracts sufficiently complete both to interest a reader 
and to give him a fair idea of the book, are published with each number. 
There is an air of conscientiousness about this " Propagateur,'' and it is 
truly what its name implies. In these days most of our fairly educated 
men and women read French, and many young persons are induced to 
read the demoralizing yet attractively written novels in that language, 
which vitiate pure taste and diminish the appreciation of the rich store 
of really good literature to be found in the same tongue. To such per- 
sons the priest can give no safer guide than the Propagateur des bons livres. 


puis iidei nostrae mysteriis. De Hispanico in Latinum translatz a 
Melchiore Trevinnio, S. J. De Novo editae cura Aug^stini Lehmkuhl, 
S. J. Pars I. complectens Meditationes de peccatis hominis novissimis, 
aliisque quae ad purgandam animam conducunt, cum instructione de 
oratione mentali. Pars II. complectens Meditationes de incarnatione 
et de infantia Christi ejusque vita usque ad baptismum, similiter de 
ejusdem gloriosa matre Maria. — Friburgi Brisgoviae. Sumptibus B. 
Herder, 1889, St. Louis, Mo. Pr., Vol. I. 85^ ; Vol. II. 70^, bd. 

In the matter of meditation-books as in those for spiritual reading it is 
hardly possible to say of any one work that it is absolutely the best in 
the sense that it, equally for all, facilitates progress in the spiritual life. 
The method of St. Ignatius, however, is the one which appeals most to the 
natural disposition of the intelligent Christian. Among those who have 
drawn up meditations for others according to this method, the Venerable 
De Ponte holds a conspicuous place ; and for priests and cultivated 
persons in general they offer special advantages. Sanctity of life always 
gives a superior knowledge of the activity of the soul, and that discern- 
ment of spirits which is a general instinct with the saints places them 
above the best theologians in ability to deal with practical questions of 
the soul. Hence we are not surprised that the keenest of theologians, 
Suarez, who was the teacher of De Ponte in theology, should have 
chosen the latter for his confessor and spiritual director. Later on, 
sick and unable to perform the duties of teacher or missionary. Father 
De Ponte wrote, so long as he could lift a pen, these meditations 
and some other beautiful books, among which there is a life of his spir- 
itual director, Balthasar Alvarez, the confessor of Sl Teresa. The medi- 
tations were written in Spanish, but Aquaviva, the general of the Jes- 
uits, to whom the Order owes such a vast debt on account of his 
having shaped the constitutions in the spirit of St. Ignatius, had them 
translated into Latin, the first edition appearing in 161 1. For the last 
thirty years, it seems, no new edition has been published until this 



one was procured by Father Lehmkuhl, to whom the merit is due of hav- 
ing provided a complete set of works for clerics, from the Seminarian up 
to the professional Theologian. They are partly his own labors, like 
the excellent Thcologia Moralis, partly republications of other authors, 
such as the Medulla Pietatis Christiana pro adolescentibus lilterarum stu- 
diosis, and the Manuale Sacerdotum, to which he added improvements here 
and there. In the Meditatio?ts of De Ponte, of which we have the first 
two volumes (four more, which will complete the work, are in press), the 
original Latin text of Trevinnio, carefully compared with the Spanish 
original, has been preserved without change, and all the citations from 
the S. Scriptures and the Fathers have been verified by comparison with 
their sources, according to the Migne edition. The views of the Vener- 
able De Ponte on the subject of creation would probably be open to 
objection when tested in the light of modern science, but they were in 
harmony with the opinions of physicists in the sixteenth century, and Fr. 
Lehmkuhl has not thought well to make any change in these, since he 
considered himself simply as the editor of the Saint's works. Moreover, 
these views are of little practical consequence to those who wish to derive 
spiritual benefit from the meditations, and they occur in but few places. 

This edition is in every respect a model one for practical use. Besides 
a good introduction concerning the method and manner of meditating, 
there are running marginal notes along with the text of the meditations, 
which recall the points, certain acts of the understanding and affections, 
which facilitate keeping the attention upon the subject and avoiding dis- 
tractions. In form the book is everything that can be desired, small 
enough to be easily carried, and the letterpress clear and pleasing. 

BONS, Archbishop of Baltimore, author of " The Faith of our Fathers." 
Baltimore : John Murphy & Co. — London : R. Washbourne, 1889. 

Some years ago Father Hecker, a man remarkable for his keen pene- 
tration and the power of interpreting the signs of the times, and possessed 
of an ardent sympathy with American institutions, addressed this genera- 
tion in words of a strangely prophetic character. In the pages of " The 
Church and the Age " we may now, since the author's death, see a leg- 
acy which throws peculiar light upon the work of Cardinal Gibbons and 
shows that "Our Christian Heritage" is much more than a simple 
apology of Christianity suited to the needs of our times and country. 
Father Hecker, referring to that remarkable address made in Rome by 


the Cardinal on the occasion of his taking possession of the Titular church 
of St. Mary in Trastevere, points out the mission which time and circum- 
stances have forced upon the man who above all others represents America 
in the ranks of the universal Church. The old world with its traditional 
views of authority has never fully understood the expression of freedom 
among a people for whom laws are indeed a bond, but never a bondage, 
until man attempts wantonly to break them. There is still much sus- 
picion concerning us among European governments as a whole, and 
even France, with her republican rule, gives one the impression as if she 
were a trifle prudish in the way in which she handles her Phrygian cap, 
when she countenances her generous sister in the United States. For 
this very reason it is all the more important that we should emphasize 
the fact that the Catholic Church was the first to recognize our national 
claim and trust to our loyalty. This was the case from the beginning, 
when Lord Baltimore, conscious that he was acting on Catholic 
principle, allowed freedom of worship where that freedom was not a 
menace to civil rule and to established order ; for he knew that religion 
and co-ercion are contradictory influences. In our own times the 
Church has even more distinctly shown her sympathy with the new con- 
dition of things by making a most pronounced adherent of our republican 
government a prince of her court. And by accepting his interpretation 
of our institutions she has declared her intelligent and consistent approval 
of our national aims and aspirations. " Cardinal Gibbons 's office," said 
the writer of The Church and the Age, " is one that outranks all others in 
the Church in America, and his interpretation of our American institu- 
tions is worthy of his position. The convictions he has expressed have 
doubtlessly animated his whole life as a Catholic and as a citizen, and all 
his countrymen will rejoice that he has uttered them with so much em- 
phasis and bravery, and that he has done it in the centre of Christendom. 
Americans will thank him for it, and accept him as their representative 
there, for he is fitted by his thoroughgoing American spirit to interpret 
us to the peoples and powers of the Old World." 

Now the fit exponent of the spirit of our institutions to the Old World 
and to Rome, the abiding centre of the old Christianity, is unquestionab- 
ly also the fittest exponent to the people of the New World of the old 
religion whose foremost representative he is. "The character that is 
formed by the institutions of our country and the Catholic character are 
not antagonistic. American institutions tend to develop independence, 


personal independence and love of liberty. Christianity rightly under- 
stood is seen to foster these qualities." If then, as Father Hecker tells 
us, "the question of the hour is, how the soul which aspires to the 
supernatural life shall utilize the advantages of human liberty and intelli- 
gence*' (pag. 109) Cardinal Gibbons's book is eminently the answer to 
this question. We do not say, contains the answer, for many other books 
do that, we say — is the answer; for there is no person who can speak 
with equal weight to our American people on the subject of faith, or 
hope to gain a hearing, but one whom they know to be in thorough sym- 
pathy with their civil doctrine, whom they need not and could not sus- 
pect of foreign tendencies. 

This seems to us the true purport of Cardinal Gibbons's book. As an 
exposition of Christian ethics and their practical application to present 
circumstances it might have been written by other men, provided they 
had equal grasp of the subject and equal love of truth and of their country. 
But then the book would not have the same meaning; it would not have 
the same reach and force. There is a world of difference between the 
warning of a neighbor and the warning of a ruler, who has a right to 
speak and be heard ; between the counsel of a friend and the advice of a 
father, though both may speak to us in the same words. So here the 
words of the Cardinal have a weight which is in proportion to the height 
whence they fall, and a force which his elevated position and far-reaching 
view impart to them. They are, in our estimation, not meant so much 
for Catholics who rest on the mountain sides of which he guards the lop, 
as rather for those who sit in its shadow below, rejoicing in the freedom 
of the valley, yet cold and without any one drawing their attention to the 
sunny slopes where they might find the genial warmth that would foster 
their health and strength without impairing their freedom under the 
light of Catholic truth. — Going back to the first question, which every 
rational creature may ask himself with gain to his intelligence and in the 
full sense of his liberty, the author establishes the existence of the Crea- 
tor and the consequent dependence of the creature. He pictures man as 
he is without, and what he can be with the help of the Christian religion, 
and in proof of his statements he appeals not to sentiment, but to facts of 
history. He tests in a general way the claims of infidel science, showing 
that where the latter is more than mere hypothesis there it is in full har- 
mony with the revealed teaching of the Catholic Church. Finally he 
probes the modern social body of our American nation, pointing out the 


fivefold disease that threatens its life, and calling a halt in the blind rush 
after the things that minister to the pride of life, the worship of the 
material, and the love of the flesh. 

As an apology of the Christian faith, it might have been written, as we 
said above, by other men, possibly even with greater attention to detail 
and with added light upon questions which the Cardinal did not find it 
expedient or necessary to develop. But to criticize the book from such 
point of view were wholly to miss its purpose. It would seem to us 
much as if a man who, whilst the recipient of an important mission from 
a high representative, were to give his attention to the pattern of his high- 
ness's collar, which is perchance not cut in the latest fashion, instead of 
gauging the value of the message. " Our Christian Heritage '' will ful- 
fil its mission if put into the hands of non-Catholics, who, happily free from 
sectarian bigotry, love their country and its institutions, and would love 
it all the more if they knew what rich stores there are contained in the 
Catholic Church, by which the charter of our liberty and prosperity would 
be strengthened and protected. This, we are glad to see, is being done 
by the sale of the work in the public marts and railways. It is no doubt 
in the power of the clergy to further the interests of religion and civil lib- 
erty, by spreading this book among non-Catholics, who are likely to profit 
by a knowledge cf truth made accessible to them in precisely this way 
and coming from so eminent a source. 

ORDO DIVINI OFFICII recitandi missaeque celebrandx pro dero sae- 
culari Statuum Foederatorum officiis generalibus hie concessis utente. 
Pro anno Domini MDCCCXC. Fr. Pustet & Co. Price, 30 ^. 

ORDO DIVINI OFFICII recitandi missaeque celebrandae. Tam pro cle- 
ro saeculari Statuum Fcederatorum ofKciis generalibus hie concessis 
utente quam pro iis quibus Kalendarium clero Romano proprium con- 
cessum est. Pro Anno Domini MDCCCXC. Fr. Pustet & Co. 
Price, 50 ^. 

We notice a superfluous concessum est on the title page of the American 
Ordo. This may be also a good opportunity to call attention to the fact 
that the feast Septem Fundatorum, on the eleventh of February, has been 
introduced for the first time this year. Perhaps it would have been 
well to mention this among the nolanda pro mense Februario^ so as to 
give an opportunity to priests to procure folia for this office. The re- 
duction in the price of the American ordo is a noticeable feature. 


ET MISSALIS ROMANI Provinciis fcederatis Americx septentrio- 
nalis adaptatae, cura H. Gabriels, S. T. D., Seminarii S. Joseph, Trojae, 
Rectoris.— Fr. Pustet & Co, New York & Cincinnati. Price i.oo. 

This book seems not to be sufficiently known, as it has not passed into 
a second edition since its publication, two years ago. It is, nevertheless, 
one of the most convenient manuals we could imagine to direct the 
cleric in the use of Breviary and Missal, where many practical difficulties 
occur, especially to the beginner. It is arranged like a catechism, in the 
form of question and answer. There is nothing superfluous in it, and the 
statements are clear and to the point, whilst at the same time it takes ac- 
count of the rubrical reformation made by Leo XIII, and regulates its 
answers in accordance with the American Calendar. For the sake of 
further popularizing this eminently useful book, we would recommend 
that in thecase of a new edition the title be modified, either by omitting the 
word Mechlinienses after Qucestiones and placing it in a subordinate posi- 
tion, as might very justly be done without injury to the original 
source, or else by changing the name altogether into a more captious 
title, such as "Catechismus Rubricarum " or something better. The 
impression given by the present title, at least to those who do not already 
know the book, is that it has a foreign scope, which is not at all the case. 
It would be different if the original Quoestiones Mechlinienses were gen- 
erally known, yet this can hardly be said to be the case here. 

By way of criticism we would suggest that under qu. 182 be inserted 
the exception that if the Forty Hours' Devotion falls on All Souls' Day, a 
Requiem Mass is to be celebrated at a side altar — in purple vestments. 

There are a few trifling mendae, such as a displaced word (cerei) in 
the index. But this is of no account when we consider the practical 
usefulness of this book in the hands of seminarians and priests for the 
examinations of the clergy. 

SERMONS FOR THE SUNDAYS and chief Festivals of the Ecclesias- 
tical year, w^ith t'wo courses of Lenten Sermons and a Triduum for the 
Forty Hours. By Rev. Julius Pottgeisser, S. J. Rendered from the 
German by Rev. James Conway, S. J. Two Vol. Sermons for Sundays. 
New York, Cincinnati, Chicago. Benziger Bros, 1890. Price, 2. 50. 

The writer of these sermons has attained a well deserved popularity as 
a missionary preacher, and the volume before us will, no doubt, recall 
his able manner to those who have heard him in the days of his power. 


He presents his thoughts, as he says in the preface, clearly and in logical 
order. Nevertheless, for the English reader there is something wanting 
which could probably have been supplied by a more judicious translation. 
Apart from the fact that there are Germanisms in style, which is odd 
enough, seeing that the translator be^rs an Irish name, there is an 
occasional lack of consistency in the language, produced by the use of 
words which are only admissible in higher flights of oratory, and which 
seem out of place in the straight flow of didactic appeal which on the 
whole characterizes these sermons. The art of translating is much like 
the art of cooking. The same material must be prepared in different 
styles to suit different classes of palates, and in the case of sermons such 
as these an absolute independence from the original style would have 
to be observed to make them attractive and useful as helps in preaching. 
What we need most of all, besides such books as Hunolt, which is a re- 
pository of varied matter and style, are instructions similar in character to 
the ones of which Father Donohue has given us a sample, and which we 
still hope he will soon repeat in the same form. 

THE JESUITS : A Eulogy of the Society oi Jesus. By Rev. John B. Eis. 
Columbus, Ohio. 1889. 
As there is no end to the attacks of which the members of the Society 
of Jesus are made the proverbial target, so there are always ready able 
champions among the friends of truth to take up and defend their cause. 
The above pamphlet, called forth by the aggressiveness of a Methodist 
minister, is a very able and complete exposition of the character and activ- 
ity of the Sons of St. Ignatius. The author points out how the genius 
.of the constitution of the order makes them fitting instruments of Provi- 
dence to spread the truth in all countries and nations of the world. " It 
does not draw any limit to the activity of the members in the field of 
Christian life ; it includes the whole range of charitable and educational 
works practised in the Church. This character of universality distin- 
guishes this order above all others, and makes the Jesuits the fit soldiers 
of the Catholicity of the Church. This is what they are : that is the mis- 
sion entrusted to them by Providence in the history of the world. — This 
call of the Society of Jesus is one of the most conspicuous landmarks in 
the Kingdom of Christ." — The author proves this activity in the past and 
present by giving a glance at the work of the Jesuits as missionaries, as 
theologians, and educators of youth, and showing that, despite their cos- 
mopolitan character, they are not devoid of genuine patriotism. — We are 


anxious to seethe work on "Temporal power of the Church,*' collected 
from manuscript notes of a book by Ren6 Gillet, entitled: "Trait^de 
TEglise de J^sus-Christ/' and which we are promised by the author of 
the above pamphlet at an early date. 

ZoUner. Translated and adapted with the permission of the author, 
by Rev. Augustine Wirth, O. S. B. Second revised edition.— Fr. 
Pustet & Co., New York and Cincinnati, 1889. Pr., i.oo. 
Clearsighted in what is needed to help our religious training, and in- 
defatigable in adapting whatever may be found of precious material 
elsewhere, the translator of these Retreats deserves in this as in other in- 
stances our warmest encomium. " Year after year religious communities 
are increasing in our country, who by their Rule or Constitution are 
obliged to practise the exercises of a Spiritual Retreat, at least once a year. 
Now it is often difficult to secure a priest, secular or regular, to conduct 
these spiritual exercises. Again, the number of Postulants or Novices who 
wish to prepare themselves by a Retreat for the Novitiate or Profession 
is frequently so small, that a Master of Retreat cannot well be engaged 
for them. In either case a book supplying systematic meditations or 
considerations cannot but be welcome to Sisters as a great help in making 
a Retreat without the living voice of a priest. Perhaps such a book is 
welcome even to the priest himself, who, charged with the many exercises 
of Retreat, cannot always find time to prepare meditations suited to the 
occasion." These are the reasons which prompted the publication, as 
the translator tells us, and no one can fail to see the justice of them. The 
book consists of two sets of meditations, adapted each for a three days 
retreat. In the first "The prerogatives of the religious state and the re- 
ligious vows " are set forth in twelve meditations (four for each day). In the 
second part the "Perfection of Religious " forms the subject matter of 
nine meditations (three for each day). They are eminently practical, as 
the very titles show : The Sister in the morning, — in the fulfilment of 
the duties of her state — in community life — in the fulfilment of her 
vows — at her prayer — in the evening. 

As a matter of practical convenience we would suggest that the first 
person plural be used throughout instead of the second, which is some- 
times employed; for as these meditations are probably in most cases read 
by one of the religious, and not by a priest, who could more easily intro- 
duce a change if necessar}', it sounds somewhat harsh to hear after the 


words " we must fulfil these duties (of our state) with patience" the fM- 
lowing: " Endeavor also, herein, to imitate your divine Saviour. — You 
must do the same. You must stand firm, " which would not come 
gracefully even from the superior who herself makes the retreat. How- 
ever, this is of slight account in regard to a work otherwise so admirably 

MEDICINA PASTORALIS. Edit. Dr. C. Capcllmann, Medicus Aquis- 
granensis. Editio septima. Latinarum altera. Aquisgrani. Sumti- 
bus Rudolphi Barth, MDCCCXC 

Dr. Capellmann edited his Manual of Pastoral Medicine in the Ger- 
man language, in 1877. Late in the following year, when the work had 
gone through three editions, an English translation was made, and 
though no fault could have been found with the latter as a translation, 
decided doubts were raised as to the advisability of such a publication in 
our vernacular. It must be granted that what may be warranted by cus- 
tom and by the peculiar educational conditions of Germany, where 
students of theology frequently attend lectures in the medical faculty of 
the University and vice versa, might be out of place here, where theology 
is studied in seminaries, and where the use of Latin text-books marks 
the subjects treated by Dr. C. with a certain exclusiveness, which has a 
beneficial influence in many ways and could not be easily ignored. 
The author himself seems to have realized this difference outside of Ger- 
many, for almost simultaneously wi-h the English translation, which, 
however, had his sanction, he published one in Latin. Of this Latin 
version we have now the second edition. In it the author takes account 
of the progress made in medical science during the last ten years. Of 
his ability as a physician there can be no doubt. Nor has any one ever 
properly raised an objection against his conscientiousness and fidelity in 
adhering to Catholic doctrine. Whatever difference of opinion there 
may be as to the application of certain practical views held by the 
modern school of physicians, Dr. Capellmann seems to us to avoid ex- 
tremes with sufficient care to make him trustworthy. This is saying 
much when we remember what difficulties there arise at times between 
the priest at the sick-bed and the medical practitioners. On these it 
would be futile to dwell here. We would not omit to say that, whilst a 
book of this kind contains considerably more than the average priest 
need perhaps know for the right fulfilment of his ministry, it could not. 
with ut being imr)erfect, contain Many things are not for all, and 


what may be a landmark in the way for one may prove a stumbling- 
block to another. Prudence and the fear of God are the eyes that prove 
SATAN IN SOCIETY, by Nicolas Francis Cooke, M. D., L. L. D., with 
an introduction by Caroline F. Corbin, late President of the Society 
for the Promotion of Social Purity, together with a biographical sketch 
of the author by Eliza Ellen Starr.-C. F. Vent Co., Chicago, 1889. 

This is a remarkable book. 

The subjects it treats of are of a most delicate nature. Yet it points 
out evils which unquestionably exist, which consume the marrow of our 
generation — and, what is of value, it gives remedies which the most 
conscientious guide, a father, a physician, a priest, would offer to those 
whose souls as well as general welfare are dear to him. It is not a book 
to be read by children or by persons whose virtue is secure, and who 
have no responsibility over those with whom it is not ; but it is a book 
which supplies a chapter in practical theology to priests who have to 
direct others, especially in our large cities, where immorality has easy 
access into society, the home, and often the school. The book was first 
published twenty years ago. In proper hands it will fulfil a mission of 
good to-day. The author, of whom Miss Starr has drawn a charming 
picture, was a man of high culture, a skilled and conscientious physician, 
whom his love of truth and virtue drew into the Catholic Church. This 
is a sufficient guarantee for the moral worth of the book. His generous 
disposition towards the poor, whom he naturally encountered in his minis- 
try to the afflicted, left him poor at his sudden death. "The matter of 
dollars and cents," says the biographer, " never entered into Dr. Cooke's 
view of his profession ; and this not because he did not need or did not 
care for money, but because he loved humanity more." — We understand 
from private information that the widow of the author is in circumstances 
which would make the sale of this unquestionably useful book at the 
same time an act of benefaction on the part of the purchaser. This 
probably accounts for the " Special to Clerg}'men and Teachers," accord- 
ing to which the volume is sold at a reduction to the clergy, the price, 
by agreement with the publishers, being $1.65 (the regular price is $2.00) 
if addressed to Mrs. Nicholas F. Cooke, 261 Dearborn Ave., Chicago, 111. 


BOOKS AND READING. A Lecture read before the New York Cathe- 
dral Library Reading Circle, Apr. ii., 1889, by Brother Azarias of the 
Brothers of the Christian Schools. New York, the Cathedral Library, 
460 Madison Ave. 1889. Price 25 ^. 
This lecture, having been extensively noticed throughout the American 
periodical press, has been universally appreciated as a most practical 
answer to the question, how to read with advantage. The present volume 
of seventy pages is a reprint ** with a few points somewhat more devel- 
oped," from the pages of the " Catholic World," where the lecture first 
appeared. Among the additions is a charming delineation of the character 
of Mgr. Corcoran, to whose memory the book is also dedicated, and whose 
warm friendship the writer enjoyed for a number of years. Beyond the 
general value of these pages we would particularly point but the Appendix, 
in which may be found an instance of how a course of reading on some 
particular subject (historical) may be accomplished. Those who appre- 
ciate what has been said in the paper on " Reading Circles," contained in 
this number, will do well to get the pamphlet and place it in the hands 
of their young people. 

cis de Sales. By Rev. Joseph Fissot. Transl. from the French by Miss 
Ella McMahon. New York, Cincin., Chicago : Benziger Bros. 1889. 
Price, 60 ^. 
This is an excellent little book for persons of every class, especially 
those inclined to scrupulosity. We hope it will find a ready sale, so as to 
lower its price, which seems a trifle high for the kind of bookmake. 


The mention of books u)ider this head does not preclude further notice of 
them in subsequent numbers. 

THE DIVINE OFFICE, Explanation of the Psalms and Canticles by 
St. Alphoosus de Liguori, Doctor of the Chxirch. Edited by Rev. 
Eagene Grimm, ^priest of the Cougregatiou of the Most Holy Re- 
deemer. — New T'ork, Cincinnati, Chicago : Benziger Bros. 1890. 
(The Centenary Edition. ) 

controverses sur les principales questions religieuses et sociales du 
temps present. Par Don Sarda y Salvany. — Seul traduction autori- 
see. Paris. P. Lethielleux, editeur, 1890. 2 vols. 

KATHOLISCHE DOOMATIKin sechs Buechem, von Dr. Herman ScheU, 
Professor der Theologie an der Universitaet "Wuerzburg. Erster 
Band. — Paderborn. Druck u. Verlag von Ferdinand Schoningh. 1890. 


DAS APOSTOLISCHE JAHRHUNDERT alfl Gnindlage det Dogmenge- 
schichte. Dargestellt voa Dr. Ceslaus Maria Schneider. Drgaenz- 
ungsheft IV. zu "St. Thomaablaetter."— Regenaburg. Veilags 
Austalt vonu. G. J. Maoz. 1839. 

ary of the S. Heart.— Milwaukee, Wis. : HoSinan Bros. Pr., 10c. 

THE GREAT TRUTHS. Short meditations for the season of Advent. 
By Richard F. Clarke, S. J.— New York, Cincinnati., Chicago: Ben- 
ziger Bros. 

CATHOLIC HOME ALMANAC. 1890. Seventh year.— New York, 
Cincinn., Chicago: Benziger Bros. 

DER HAUSFREUND. lUustrierter Familien Kalender. 1890. Chi- 
cago : Muehlbauer & Behrle. 

EINSIEDLER KALENDER. 1890. Jubal-Ausgabs. New York, 
Cincinn., Chicago : Benziger Bros. 

THE SA.CRED HEART ALMANAC. 1890. Published at the office of 
the Messenger of the S. Heart, Philadelphia. 

SCHUTZENGEL KALENDER. 1390. Herausgegeben zum Besten 
verw^ahrloster Negerkinder von Fr. N. Huhn, Independence, Texas. 
Verlag der Schutzengel Waisenanstalt. 

MORALE in Busenbaum Medullam Absolvit et Edidit Dominicus 
Palmieri ex eadem Soc. Vol. I., tractatus continens generales. De 
actibus humanis. — De conscientia- De legibus— De peccatis, cum 
duabus appendicibus. 8°, pp. Ixxxvi, 687. Prati, ex officina libraria 
Giacchetti, Fil et C. 1889. 

A LUCKY FAMILY and Don't you wish you knew us. By Marion J. 
Brunowe, Author of " Seven of us." New York : A, Riffarth. 1889. 

THE OWL, Inauguration of Ottawa University and Unveiling of the 
Tabaret Statue. Oct. & Nov. 1889. 

THE GOLDEN PRAYER. Short Meditations on the Lord's Prayer. 
From the French of Abb6 Duquesne, by Anne Stuait Bailey. Pr. 
10c; per 100, $6.00.— Benziger Bros. 

examples. From the French. Ella McMahon. Pr. 10 c; per 100, 
$6.00.— Benziger Bros. 

ST. TERESA'S OW^N WORDS. Instructions on the Prayer of Recol- 
lection. By the Right Rev. James Chad wick. To which is added a 
Novena to St. Teresa.— Beuziger Bros, 



Vol. IL — February, 1890. — No. 2. 

"Who answering said: It is not good to take the bread of 
the children, and to cast it to the dogs. But she said : Yea, 
Lord: fur the whelps also eat of the crumbs that fall from the 
table of their masters." — St, Matt. xv. 26-27. 

FEW theologians have specially treated this question. Of 
those which we have at hand Marc, Mueller, Konings, 
Bonal, and Gihr hold that Mass cannot be applied for a de- 
ceased non-Catholic ; Lehmkuhl and Vecchiotti think it can. 
A writer in a recent number of the Theologische Quartal- 
schrift (Linz) cites Neth, Koeppler, and Schuech in favor of 
the affirmative opinion, and Aertnys of the negative. We 
incline to the affirmative view as certainly sufficiently prob- 
able. Much may be written on both sides of the question. 
We cannot attempt to be exhaustive, but shall confine our- 
selves to the outline of one presentation of the case in favor 
of this application. Those who wish to read the opposite 
side will find Marc, Mueller, and Gihr satisfactory. To their 
remarks might be added Koning's reason drawn from the 
prohibition of ecclesiastical sepulture. 

The application of Mass for a deceased non-Catholic can 
never be made nomitie ecclesice. In this all agree. The reason 
is plain. The sacrifice of the Mass is the Church's most 
precious treasure. The greatest love she can show her 
children is to offer this sacrifice for them individually by 



special application. The Church alone possesses the truth 
that leads to salvation. *' Extra ecclesiam nulla salus." Now, 
the Church as a visible society judges only according to 
external facts. Thus, in the case of a deceased Protestant, she 
has nothing to base her judgment upon except that the latter 
had during life professed to be out of her communion, and 
did not give evidence of any change at the time of his death. 
•* De occultis non judicat ccclesia." Hence she refuses the 
application of her sacrifice, in the efficacy of which the de- 
ceased did not profess to believe. ' To act otherwise would 
be to contradict herself, and would be equivalent to proclaim- 
ing that the Christian faith has really imposed no precepts 
which are to be observed under pain of eternal loss. But 
though she holds in matters of doctrine the maxim of her 
divine Founder, that he who is not with her is against her, 
and though she will not allow any one to enjoy the privileges 
and liberties of her household who refuses to respect her 
laws and conform to her customs, she does not spurn the 
stranger so long as, though erring, he does not prove malice. 
She therefore puts on the shoulders of the pilgrim, now that 
his time to stay and learn of her is past, " bread and a bottle of 
water ;" " she concedes as much as she can without prejudice 
to her character and mission, and in the memento for the 
dead prays for " omnibus in Christo quiescentibus." Onlj' in 
purgatory can her suffrage avail them anything, and if they 
are there, that prayer includes them. The same may be said 
of the Masses on All Souls' Day and the many during the 
year offered for the Poor Souls in purgatory. 

But cannot the Mass be offered specially for a deceased 
heretic by some other title than nomine ecclesice ? Some 
theologians distinguish- between Mass applied ut /^rj<?«tf/«- 
blica and persona privata, others between public and private 
celebration, and others again, nomine ecclesia and nomine 
propria. All may be reduced to the same, as they are only 

1 Decision S. Congr. 23 Mar. 1859, and Brief of Greg. XVI, 9 Jul. 1842. 
' Gen. xxi. 14. 


diflFerent formulations of the one claim that the priest may 
apply the special fruit of the Mass otherwise than merely as 
the representative of the Church. The last distinction, when 
rightly understood, seems to us the clearest and in application 
the most satisfactory. The other terms in the application 
sometimes give rise to confusion. The distinction nomine 
ecclesicB and nomine propria cannot be taken in the sense ol a 
public Mass for the convenience of the faithful and a private 
Mass celebrated out of devotion. It cannot mean that it is 
always at the option or in the power of the priest to say 
before Mass, " I wish to offer this Mass in the name of the 
Church, or in my own name. " The way we take it, a 
Mass offered nomine propria is one in which the application 
or special purpose of the Mass as set forth in the Collect, 
Secret, and Post-communion is distinct from the special ap- 
plication which the priest makes in his mind before or in 
celebrating the Mass, his private intention as distinct from 
the intention expressed in the prayers of the Church ; 
whereas a Mass where the special application is made nomine 
ecclesicB is one in which the priest's special application and 
that contained in the Collect, Secret, and Post-communion 
are the same, in which both intentions are identical, so that, 
e. g., in the Mass of St. Francis said for a departed soul the 
application is made by the priest in his own name, while on 
the other hand in a Requiem Mass, which contains the oration 
with the name of the departed, the application is made by 
the priest in the name of the Church.' This, it seems to us, 
is the meaning of the distinction tiomine ecclesicB and nomine 
proprio. For, if at any time he acts nomine ecclesicB it cer- 
tainly is when saying her public liturgical prayers, and if he 
use these public prayers for the application which he person- 
ally intends we cannot see how he acts otherwise than nomine 
ecclesicB. And that the Mass never loses this public character 
we may see in the insistence with which the Church requires 
the presence at a so-called private Mass of at least a server to 

' Sabetti, Tract. XIV., P. II., Cap. I., n. 704, q. 3. 


represent the faithful. On the contrary, since there is a real 
and true distinction between applying the Mass nomine ec- 
clesicB and nomine proprio, as we shall presently see, if at any 
time the priest acts nornine proprio, it certainly is when he 
makes the application wholly independently of the Church's 
liturgical prayers. 

It would simplify the matter, we think, to distinguish 
between the celebration of Mass and the application of its 
special fruit, and to say that as celebrant of the Mass, perform- 
ing the sacrifice for the end set forth in the title, the priest 
acts always in the name of the Church, and as applying the 
Mass for the special end left at his disposal, he acts in his own 
name if the application be made independently of the liturgi- 
cal prayers, and in the name of the Church as well, if it be 
mentioned in the liturgical prayers. There is always a pub- 
lic celebration, but the application may be public or private. 
And therefore, for the sake of clearness, it is well to guard 
against confounding the distinction nomine ece/esice and nomine 
proprio with the common distinction nomine or persona Christi, 
persona ecclesice, and persona propria as often understood. The 
former refers to the fructus specialise or as sometimes called 
ministerialist or mediits. The latter, as frequently used, refers 
to the celebration, the performance of the several acts in the 
Mass, viz., persona Christi, performing the sacrificial act ; per- 
sona ecclesicB, sa)'ing her prayers ; and persona propria, doing a 
personal good work. Of course, the only fruit that can accrue 
from a nomine proprio application is ex parte sacrificii, and 
also ex devotione celebrantis, but not ex parte orationum, which 
are always said nomine ecclesice. 

Our argument for the application of Mass for a deceased 
heretic may be put thus: There is i, a real distinction 
between nomine ecclesice and nomine proprio; 2, of which 
the priest may avail himself. The division of Masses with 
their different purposes, viz., De Requie, pro injirmo, tempore 
belli, etc., and the many special orations for the living and 
the dead, to be inserted after other orations when the quality 


of the Mass allows it, seems to favor this distinction, or at 
least certainly leaves room for it. For instance, you wish to 
say Mass for a sick person. The feast is St. Marcellus, Pope 
and Martyr, 16 Jan., of semidouble rite. You can therefore 
also say the votive Mass/rt? infirmo. Now, if the application 
you make before Mass or in the Mass independently of the 
Collect, etc., be nomine ecclesice^ why say the special Mass pro 
infirmo f Can you therein do more than apply in the name 
of the Church the special fruit ? It would be only a question 
of multiplying words. Why not, therefore, say the Mass of 
St. Marcellus, and thus honor that saint in the name of the 
Church, while at the same time you apply the special fruit to 
the sick person in the name ot the Church. To what purpose, 
then, is the Mass/r^ infirmo inserted in the Missal? Yet St 
Thomas teaches that this Mass would be more profitable to 
the subject. " Ex parte ergo sacrificii oblati missa aequaliter 
prodest defuhcto, de quocumque dicatur ; ex hoc est praeci- 
puum quod sit in missa, sed exparte orationum magis prodest 
ilia in qua sunt orationes ad hoc determinatae." * 

We have the authority of those theologians who have 
made this distinction or that of persona publica and persona 
privata^ etc., for they practically are the same. ' 

Finally, we might force an admission of this distinction 
from those who uphold the negative view in the case of Mass 
for a deceased non-Catholic. Take a Mass offered for a vi- 
tandus. It is illicit, they say, and the priest sins. Granted ; 
but the man gets the benefit of that Mass in spite of the ex- 
communication, if otherwise he is capable. In whose name 
has the priest applied that special fruit? Certainly not in 
the name of the Church, for he could not have acted in the 
name of the Church if ^e tried. What is the alternative? 
Not nomine Christi, because, first of all, nomine Christi refers to 

' Sum. TheoL, Supp., q. Ixxii. a. x., 5, 

' Sporer, Theol. Sacrament., P. II., Cap. iii., Sec. ii., n. 276-277 : Gury, De Eucha- 
rist., P. II., n. 349; Vecchiotti, Instit., Can., Lib. IV., Cap ii., % 15; Lehmkuhl, 
Theol. Mor., Pars U-. lib. I., Tract IV., Sect, ii., Cap. i., a. 3; Sabetti, Theol. Mor., 
Tnict XIV., P. II., Cap L, n. 704, q. 3; Neth, Koppler, Schuch, etc 


the sacrificial act, to the celebration, and this is a question of 
applying the special fruit ; and, secondly, nomine Cliristi may 
be said with just as much reason in the case where the appli- 
cation is licitly made nomine ecclesice. Therefore has it been 
applied nomine propria. 

The priest may avail himself, then, of this distinction in 
practice because of the following reasons : First, there is a real 
difference; secondly, the common consent that by its nature, 
as the sacrifice of Christ, the Mass can be applied /^r se valid- 
ly to all except the lost in hell, the unbaptized in limbo, and 
licitly, unless the prohibition of the Church prevent it ; the 
common consent that the priest by reason of the power con- 
ferred in ordination can offer and apply validly for any one, 
except only those in hell and in limbo, and licitly, unless the 
prohibition of the Church prevent this. As Benedict XIV, ^ 
speaking of the discipline of some of the Orientals who make 
mention in their Liturgy of the king, although an infidel, 
says : " Quare idem Cardinalis (Bellarminus) subdit rem 
totam ex interdicto ecclesias dimetiendam * certum est ex 
natura rei, si nulla sit prohibitio ecclesiae, licere offerre pro 
hujusmodi hominibus,' de infidelibus loquitur." The Mass 
may be offered, therefore, for any one not absolutely lost, 
unless where the Church, as mistress of universal discipline, 
prohibit it. But there is no instance in which the application 
nomine proprio is prohibited. (Sporer, Billuart, Sabetti, etc.) 

There is a prohibition of the S. Cong., 23 March, 1859, '^"^ 
a Brief of Gregory XVI, 9 July, 1842, to the abbot of the 
Benedictine monastery at Scheyern, Bavaria. But these 
refer plainly to the public and solemn celebration of Mass, 
etc. * Mention is often made of another Brief of Gregory 
XVI, issued a few months before the above (16 Feb.) to the 
Bishop of Passau, or, as s<5me give it, to the Bishop of Augs- 
burg. We have not been able to find it ; however, it appears 
to be identical with the first mentioned Brief. But we have 

> Constit. "In Superiore." 8 Martii 1755. 

' They are to be found in the Analecta, i860, col. 2390. 


not onlv in favor of our opinion the authority of the writers 
already cited who specially treat this question, Lehmkuhl, 
Vecchiotti, etc., but, moreover, the opinion of those who do 
not treat the question professedly, nevertheless make the 
distinction we have made, with the general statement that 
nomine propria the. priest can offer the holy Sacrifice /r<? otnni- 
bus omnino hominibus. (Sabetti, etc.) 

In conclusion, we add some quotations from Sporer, De 
Lugo, and Billuart. 

Sporer says, that not only has the priest the right to apply 
nomine propria, but he even denies that the Church could 
interfere with that right. " Atque ut hie fructus (specialis 
seu ministerialis) aliis prosit, omnino necessaria est propria 
applicatio sacerdotis celebrantis, adeo ut ab hoc fructu con- 
ferendo non possit impediri neque a superiore neque ab 
ecclesia ; quia ilium non ut minister superioris vel ecclesias, 
scd ut minister Christi applicat. Solus enim sacerdos cele- 
brans sustinet personam Christi, in cujus persona, sicut ipsum 
sacrificium pro nobis offertur, ita etiam ejus fructus nobis 
applicatur. Et solus sacerdos minister publicus ad hoc 
mysterium dispensandum constitutus, qui in ipsa ordinatione 
accepit potestatem offerendi sacrificium pro vivis et dcfiinctis, 
et consequenter etiam applicandi ejus fructum. ' Shortly 
after speaking of the satisfactory fruit, he limits the Church's 
prohibition to the public commemoration, /rr coliectam, v. g., 
nomine ecclesia faciendam, and says the application may be 
made privately and conditionally for a deceased heretic. 
Again, at n. 276-277, he applies the distinction nomine ecclesia 
and nomine propria to the case of excommunicated persons. 
Here and elsewhere, he refers to Laymann, whose authority 
needs little comment. 

De Lugo treats at length the question of Mass for the un- 
baptized, living or dead. ' In the course of the treatise he 
says much that could be applied to our case. We content 

' Theol. Sacrament, P. II., Cap. III., Sec. ii., n. 256 in fine. 
* De Eacharistia, Disp. XIX., Sect. x. 


ourselves with citing tiie following'. " Sacrificium ut impe- 
tratorium (ex opere operate) offerri potest pro quacumque re 
a Deo juste obtinenda. . . Mirum ergo esset, quod posset of- 
forri ad impetrandam sanitatem bovi aut equo, non autem ad 
impetrandam salutem spiritualem filio, vel amico infideli." 
And then an a priori reason. " Ratio autem a priori qua si- 
mul dissolvuntur argumenta contraria, haec est, quia impe- 
tratio non respicit immediate personam cui confertur benefi- 
cium, sed illam quae postulat, etc." 

Billuart, ' speaking of Mass for the excommunicated, says 
the distinction of persona publica and persona privata is not 
necessary, for the priest can offer Mass even nomine ecclesia, 
provided he does not offer for them as members of the Church, 
The prohibition regards only prayers and Mass offered for 
them as members of the Church. He cites St. Thomas and 
Sylvius for his view. We think anyone who follows Billuart 
will, after reading what he has to say, feel justified in apply- 
ing Mass for a deceased heretic. 

The above authorities, we believe, are sufficiently weighty to 
allow our forming a probable opinion. Yet in making use of 
it we may not forget that the simple faithful are not theolo- 
gians, who could readily understand the distinction on which 
this opinion is based, and any misinterpretation might give 
grave scandal. This, above all other things, seems to be what 
the Church wishes to avoid. Hence Lehmkuhl and others re- 
quire probable signs of good faith and the state of grace in 
him for whom the Mass is applied. Probable signs, i. e., " non 
tantum communis et generalis possibilitas, quae in solo secre- 
to mysterio divinas gratias et misericordias nititur." 

To some the mementos of the Mass may seem the proper 
place to make the application, and these being the Church's 
prayers, might therefore offer an objection to our view of 
romine proprio. But if we remember that the memento for 
the dead comes after the consecration, and that the application 

' Moralis, Tract, de Religione, Dissert. II., Art. VI., and Tract, de Eucharistia, 
Dissert. VIII., Art. IV. 


must be made before or during consecration, ' and, that more- 
over, by the common opinion the priest at the mementos acts 
both as a public and a private person, ' the objection at once 

If, in spite of the above reasons, any one feel justified in mak- 
ing the application, he can at least offer the Mass for all the Poor 
Souls with the intention of helping this particular one if it be 
acceptable to God, * and according to the more probable opin- 
ion the Mass may be applied as well to several as to one, with 
the same fruit. * But the milder opinion seems to us perfect- 
ly safe, since the purpose of the Church's prohibition is to 
protect her doctrine from misinterpretation and to guard 
the siiffragia ecclcsicB from misapplication. She does not 
wish to restrict Christ's abundant graces ; her mission is to 
give them the widest application. She desires only to pre- 
serve them from being made void and abused. Nor can she 
want to interfere with the personal devotion, inclination, 
charity, and judgment of the priest ; her prohibition regards 
only what is done in her name. Franck has somewhere well 
remarked that the Church, like a mother, is milder in her 
practice than in her written laws. And every theologian 
knows that, " odiosa restringenda sunt." We dare not forget 
that the sacrifice of the Mass is the daily particular application 
of the sacrifice once offered in bloody mariner on Calvary, of 
which latter the Catholic doctrine holds that in it "Christ 
died for all men." 

There is a proposition condemned by Alexander VIII 
which reads, " Dedit semetipsum pro nobis oblationem Deo, 
non pro solis electis, sed pro omnibus et solis fidelibus." 

Vita LIS. 

' Lehmkuhl. De Varcero, etc. 

* Suarez, Koninck, Pasqualigo apud Gihr, and Gavantas, Merati, Quarti, and 
Cavalieri apud De Herdt. 

' Marc. * Gurv, F,ll>el, etc. 


THE Third Plenary Council of Baltimore strongly recom- 
mends the appointment of Vicarii foranei, or Rural 
Deans, especially in those dioceses which cover an extensive 
territory with a sufficient number of priests, and where the 
personal vigilance of the Ordinary cannot be exercised with- 
out the aid of trusted officials. These are to supply the place 
of the Diocesan Bishop in point of authority and responsibility » 
outside of the city-limits. 

The office of Rural Dean is of very ancient date. Natalis 
Alexander relates that the Chorepiscopi, upon whom the care 
of the rural districts had chiefly devolved up to the tenth 
century, were definitely abolished at that time, because they 
had arrogantly assumed to themselves absolute independence 
from the Diocesans. Rural Deans were appointed in their 
places, who, though they did not receive episcopal consecra- 
tion, and derived their jurisdiction from the Ordinary, never- 
theless acted as representatives of the latter, and with 
extended powers in the districts committed to them. They 
were selected from among the principal dignitaries of the 
Diocesan clergy : Erant igitur archidiaconi. Decani, et similes 
in Chorepiscoporum locum suffecti, Vicarii rurales seu 
foranei episcoporum. ' St. Charles, in his Constitutions for 
the church of Milan, marks out in detail the offices of Rural 
Deans ; but it is an error, as Benedict XIV points out, to 
suppose with Thomassinus that the office was first introduced 
into Italy by St. Charles. For, although the narrow limits 
within which the Italian dioceses were bound made it gener- 
ally possible for the episcopal Vicar residing in the city to 
supervise the entire diocese, we find both in the Decreta 

' Bened. XIV, De Syn. Dioec, Lib. iii., c. iii., 7. 



generalia of Francis Bonomius, Bishop of Vercelli, and in the 
Const it utioncs of Johannes Gibertus, Bishop of Verona, that 
the office had been of ancient date in the Italian churches. ' 
In the United States, although most of the dioceses are 
sufficiently extensive to make the appointment of Rural 
Deans desirable, nearly everywhere the dearth of priests has 
until comparatively recent times prevented it, and in many 
places does so still. Some of our bishops are, in fact, hard 
working missionaries, who fulfil the office of Rural Deans in 
person. They do not live in the city except nominally, and 
a rector or Vicar is left to do the cathedral and chancery 
work, whilst the Ordinary labors in the more important duty 
of looking, like St. Paul, after all the churches. Nevertheless, 
there were always some cases in which it was deemed neces- 
sary to delegate a priest to represent the Ordinary and exer- 
cise a measured jurisdiction outside of his own parish in 
places at a distance from the episcopal residence. Thus 
when, for example, the rector of a church in the country died, 
some representative person was expected to preside over the 
funeral rites, nor could it always be left to the discretion of 
the nearest priest or to the assistant, if there were one, to 
assume charge of the private affairs of the deceased, as well 
as of the general management of the vacant rectorship. In 
some cases an unsettled state of things would demand excep- 
tional prudence and tried experience as well as prompt 
management, which perhaps the Bishop could not attend to 
personally nor leave to the chances of falling into the hands 
of unqualified persons, or possibly of arrogant relatives and 
domestics. Similar difficulties required the attendance of a 
substitute in case of sickness. A capable priest might be 
appointed for each of these ^emergencies, but the Second 

* Porro cum nee ipse episcopos nee ejas vioirius et reliqai ministri, magna nego- 
tiomm urbis maltitadine distant!, valeant ita accurate ea, quae ruri gerenda sunt, 
intueri et animadvertere, utrum sacerdotes se recte gerant imperataque faciant : 
moltos ex archipresbyteris et parochis peritioribus et magis idoneis, tamquam vicarios, 
.... constitnit.— Cf. Ben. XIV, loc. cit., 8. 


Plenary Council, in 1866, thought it well to advise the perma- 
nent appointment of special Vicars or Rural Deans for this 
and like purposes. ' They were to represent in general the 
Bishop, and to act as advisers to those within their district 
whose lack of experience might stand in need of counsel. 
The Third Plenary Council treats of the subject more defin- 
itely, and following its lines we propose briefly to explain 
the duties and privileges ot Rural Deans as well as the man- 
ner of their appointment. 


" Eorum apud nos munus, praster alia a Concilio Baltimo- 
rensi indicata, potissimum esset coUationibus sive congressi- 
bus sacerdotum pro rebus theologicis discutiendis praesidere."' 
This supposes that stated meetings of the clergy are held for 
the purpose of discussing subjects of theology and practical 
matters pertaining to the care of souls. The Council provides 
in its legislation for these meetings or conferences. It does 
not limit the number of priests who are to take part in them, 
but it is obvious that where the number is very large, sa)* a 
hundred or more, it is practically impossible to keep all of 
them directly and intelligently interested in the discussion. 
The ecclesiastical statutes take indeed for granted that there 
are held such general meetings, like the diocesan synods, in 
which the main body, or at least the officials and prominent 
clergy of the entire diocese, take part, and where measures of 
ecclesiastical discipline and kindred subjects are discussed ; 
but the practical work of carrying out these measures is really 
done by means of local conferences^ where a number of those 

1 Praeter Vicarium generalem, poterit episcopus, magno religion is bono, quosdam 
etiam designare Vicarios particulares, cum facultatibus delegatis plus minusve exten- 
sis, qui Vicarii Foranei, seu Decani Rurales vocantur, quique districtibus sibi ab 
episcopo adsignatis przesint, juxta normam ab eo tradendam. Horum erit, infirmis 
sacerdotibus intra suum degentibus territorium impendere curam, mortuorumque 
exequiis adsistere ; sacerdotibus junioribus ac minus peritis suis adesse consiliis. . . . 
—Cone. PI. Bait. TI., n. 74. 

2 Cone. Plen. Bait. III., n. 28. 


who have to deal with similar circumstances in the same dis- 
trict assemble under the presidency of one of their number, 
the appointed Dean, who represents the Bishop. Asa matter 
of obligation these conferences need not be held oftener than 
twice a year, at least in a country where travel is difficult, ' 
but the Council evidently meant them to be held much oftener, 
for it refers to the statutes bearing on the subject in the pre- 
vious Plenary Council, where the acts of the Church of Milan 
are cited. These require the priests of each district to meet 
monthly at one or other of the parochial churches, for the 
purpose of holding ecclesiastical conference. And it devolves 
upon the Rural Dean to notify all the priests within his juris- 
diction of the time and place: for each of the churches in 
the district is to be visited by the conference in turn.* 

It must be quite apparent that, if this statute of having reg- 
ular local conferences be carried out in the manner proposed, 
the position of a Rural Dean affords him exceptional op- 
portunities for forming a competent judgment of the true 
condition and the pastoral needs of his missionary district. 
He is qualified, so far as information goes, not only to act as a 
general and equitable referee in matters where interests con- 
flict, but he can give correct and unbiassed information to 
the Ordinary on questions upon which the latter should be in- 
formed to avoid missteps and mismanagement. Hence the 
Council imposes it as a second duty upon Rural Deans to 
make a report, once a year or oftener, of the condition of the 

' In districtibus ruralibus. ubi in unum locum venire difficilius esset, bis in anno 
hujusmodi coUationes ecclesiasticae habeantur. — Cone PI. Bait. III. n. 192. 

' Ut Episcopus in arbe, etiam externum gregem facilius quasi prassens intneri et 
curare possit, deligat aliquot probatos sacerdotes, quibus singulis, imposito Vicarii 
furanei nomine, tribuat certas regiones Dioecesis suae Hi autem Vicarii re- 
gion is sibi per episcopum commissse presbyteros cujascumque conditionis curam ani- 
marum habentes, semel singulis tnensibus modo in unam, modo in aliam ejus regionis 
parothiaUm tccltsiam cogant, iJque in orbem eodem ordine semper faciant. .... 

I)einde conferant inter se quae ad boni pastoris officium, et ad curam animarum, 
recte gerendam jjcrtinent ; et consulant de difTicultatibus et incommodis suae parochire. 
quorum explicatio vel remcdium aliorum consilium et operam requirat. — Cone. PI. 
Bait. II., n. 74. 


parishes within their district, and, furthermore, to keep the 
Bishop informed of important occurrences under their juris- 
diction which affect ecclesiastical discipline or the general 
care of souls. They are to see that the canons of the Church 
be known and also carried out, " num clerus et populus ut de- 
cet vivant, num proprius in ecclesiis cultus adhibeatur, num 
supellex sacra praecipue debito nitore conservetur," etc. ' This 
and whatever else is necessary in order that those who are 
unreasonably slow may be brought to account, a-nd the activ- 
ity of the zealous be duly recognized, lies within the range of 
the duties of Rural Deans. ' 

Thirdly, Rural Deans are required to examine from time to 
time the books of each church. They are to take note of 
the income, the expenses, the standing debts, and also to 
obtain an inventory of each parish. A distinct account is to 
be made of the personal and of the parochial property, in- 
cluding the pastoral residence, school, cemetery and all the 
property, movable or inmovable, belonging to the church. 
In case of the death of a rector the Rural Dean is to see that 
the newly appointed incumbent receives a specified account 
of what belongs to the church, and thus to obviate possible 
assumptions and suits at law by greedy heirs and the like.' 

We have already said that the Second Plenary Council 
recommended the appointment of Rural Deans for the pur- 
pose of taking charge of missions suddenly made vacant by 
sickness or death. Knowing the needs and conditions of 
each parish, the Dean could best manage to arrange for a 
temporary supply of the vacancy by calling on those of his 
brother priests who are least burdened, to aid him. The 

1 Cone. PI. Bait III., n. 30. 

* Eorum apud nos munus prater alia a Concilio Baltimorensi indicata in vigi- 

lare presbyteris intra suumdecanatum degentibas, itemque aliquoties per annum Epis- 
coporeferrequsein ipsorum districtu notabilia contingunt. — Cone. PI. Bait. III., n. 28. 

3 Ne eontentioni inter suceessorem et decessorem locus relinquatur, decernimus ut 
quoties sacerdos missionis cui praesit possessionem assumit, inventarium hujus missi- 
onis ad illud usque tempus rite descriptum, eidem a prsedecessore vel a vicario fora- 
neo exhibeatur. — Ibid., n, 276. 


diocesan statutes of New York express the obligation as 
follows : Sacerdotibus infirniis sollicitudinem impendere, 
mortuorumquc funus curare, vacantibus missionibus provi- 
dere, atque earumdem bona et libros conservare et custodire. * 
The statute adds that it is also the duty of the Rural Deans 
to accompany the bishop on his episcopal visitation. 


" Quo eflficacius implere valeant haec officia, oportet ut 
Ordinarii his suis vicariis facultates quasdam plus minusve 
extensas concedant." " The Council deems it necessary that 
for the proper exercise of the Rural Deanery special facul- 
ties be granted to the Vicars, who are to act for the Bishop. 
These faculties would be akin to those which the Vicar- 
general enjoys throughout the entire diocese, only that they 
are limited to the particular district in which the Rural 
Dean acts. Benedict XIV says : Besides the Vicar-general, 
who presides over the whole diocese, other Vicars, called 
Foranei, are appointed by the Bishop, who are to exercise jur- 
isdiction in a limited number of cases, in towns and villages. 
It is, of course, always lawful to appeal from the sentence of 
the Rural Dean to that of the Bishop. ' Besides delegating 
special jurisdiction. Bishops in the United States have power 
from the Holy See to authorize not only Vicar-generals, but 
also other priests to consecrate chalices and altar stones, to bless 
b/lis, sacred vestments, and to absolve from heresy. Moreover, 
the Facultates extraordinarice D and E may be delegated ' by 
our Bishops to two or three worthy priests in revwtiori- 
bus locis dioecesis, as also to vicar-generals in case the bish- 

* Cone. PI. Bah. III., n. 29. » Syn. Dicec. Neo-Ebora., Const. V., viii., n. 88. 

* Praeter Vicarium generalem, qui toti proeest dicecesi, alii ab epi>copi.s constitu- 
Dntur j)eculiares Vicarii, dicti /brawrt, ut extra civitatem in pagis et oppidis jus dicant, 
in quibusdain levioris momenii causis. et jurisdictionem exerceant, ad certos dumtaxat 
actus limitatam ; a quorum tamen sententiis liberum est ad episcopam appellare, etc 
— De Syn. Dioec, lib. iii., c. iii., 5. 

* These include the various dispensations in cases of marriage, and are to be given 
pro aliquo tamen numero casuum urgentiorum. 


ops are to be absent more than a day from their residence. * 
In addition to the right of deciding cases, of granting 
certain dispensations , and exercising functions otherwise 
reserved to the Bishop, Rural Deans are to enjoy the honor 
of precedence among rectors of churches. ** Ordinarii his 
suis vicariis — aliquam etiam praeeminentiam inter rectores 
conferant. * In Diocesan Synod they may be called to per- 
form the offices formerly assigned to the Testes Synodales, " 
that is, to prepare reports in which they answer under oath 
certain questions put to them relative to the observance of 
the synodal statutes, " so that what has been decreed by the 
Synod may be carried out with greater efficiency. " * If the 
fear of odium prevents their stating openly what they know, 
they may be asked to do so privately, always guaranteeing 
the exact truth of their statement by taking a solemn oath 
before the Bishop. Elsewhere Benedict XIV states that 
they are to be consulted before the convocation of the 
Synod, so as to obtain their judgment in regard to the 
subjects to be discussed, embracing the administration of the 
sacraments, public worship, etc. * 

We have already said that they have the right of calling 
together a conference in their district every month, if they 
deem it advisable. " Statutum est, ut eorum quilibet, singulis 
mensibus, omnes suae jurisdiction! subjectos sacerdotes in 
quamdam veluti ruralem Synodum coram se congregarent, 
ubi et eos instruere, et quae in sua regiuncula corrigenda 
essent rescire possent." * 

' Smith, Elements of Eccl. Law, pars III., c. vii., n. 627. 

« Cone. PI. Bait. III., n. 29. ' Cf. De Syn. Dioec lib. iv., c. iii., 8. 

•• Et, ut quod ordinaretur, et fieret in eisdem synodis, cum majori efficacia adim. 
pleretur, ac desideratum sortiretur effectum, statuerunt, ut singulis episcopatibus 
constituerentur et nominarentur Testes Syno4ales, personae idoneae et bonae, quae per 
totum Archiepiscopatum, quisque in distrlctu sibi assignato, magna diligentia inqui- 
rant, qualiter servetur et adimpleatur quod in synodis constitutum et prceceptum est. 
— Et nemo profecto est adeo hebetis ingenii qui non videat, quantum illorurti opera 
ad rectam conferret dioecesis administrationem ; multis siquidem malis obviam iretur, 
si epi.'jcopus ex relatione hominum integerrimae fidei ilia proesciret. — Loc. cit. 

' Cf. De .Syn. Dioec., lib. vi., c. i., I. « De Syn. Dicec, lib. III., c. iii., 7. 



They may also have some distinction in dress, when as- 
sisting in choir whilst the Bishop celebrates. " Vicarii Fo- 
ranei ct Archipresbyteri rurales, in aliquibus diceesibus, aut 
Pluviale, aut aliud ornamentum assumunt, quo a ceteris dis- 
tinguantur: inaliisautem nullum obtinent speciale insigne.*" 


" Vicarii Foranei officium illis dumtaxat sit committen- 
dum, qui litterarum scientia, morum integritate ac rerum 
agendarumusu praestantiores sunt.'" The Baltimore Council, 
referring to the Roman Council, says : To this office are to 
be appointed men of ripe experience in the sacred ministry, 
learned and gifted with piety and prudence, who understand 
to make use of their authority in such a way as to be truly 
the eyes and ears of the Bishop, watching with discreetness, 
admonishing with fatherly love, and giving faithful account 
of whether clergy and people live as they should, whether 
devotions are properly carried out in the church, whether 
the altar furniture, above all the sacred vessels, are kept with 
cleanliness, and whether the episcopal decrees are rightly ob- 
served. * 

Although as a rule the Bishop is to appoint the Vicarii 
Foranei or Rural Deans in his diocese, they are sometimes 
elected by the pastors of their district, with the approval of 
the Bishop. They are appointed permanently, that is to say, 
there is no definite period assigned during which they are to 
hold office. But they can be removed ad nutum by the 
Bishop (or Vicar-capitular). * 

> Dc Syn. Dicec, lib. III., c xi,. 9. ' De Syn. Dioec., lib. III., c iii., 8. 

' Ad manos istud eligendi tantam enint ii presbyteri, qai experientiam sacri mi- 
nisterii jam adepti, doctrina, pietate ac prudentia sint praediti, quique tali modo 
aactoritatem saam exercere sciant, ut vere sint Episcopi sui oculi et aures, discrete 
vigilantes, paterne monentes, fideliterque referentes "num clerus et populus ut decet 
vivant, num proprius in ecclesiis cultas adhibeatur, nam supellex, sacra praecipue, 
debito nitore conservetar, et visitationnm decreta suae sint executioni mandata." 
Cone. Rom. anno 1725. — Cone. Plen. Bait. III., n. 3a 

* Smith, Elements EccL Law, loc cit, n. 632. 


THE legislation of the Church, in the matter of liturgical 
lights, may seem to some rather severe. Consulting 
the rubrics on the subject, as well as the various decrees 
of the Sacred Congregations explaining the form, we find 
that in many cases both the exact number and the material 
to be used have been determined, and that the laws regard- 
ing these are in many instances intended to bind sub gravi. 
If during the Holy Sacrifice of Mass, for example, both can- 
dles should accidentally be extinguished, and no others could be 
procured in their place, the celebrant would be obliged to leave 
the altar unless he had actually begun the Canon or — accord- 
ing to some weighty theologians — the Consecration. Thus 
also a careful distinction is observed in regard to the different 
rites and solemnities in which the number of lights varies ac- 
cording to the rank and character of the function, as in Pri- 
vate Mass, High Mass, Solemn Mass, Exposion of the Blessed 
Sacrament, etc. In each of these cases particular stress is 
laid upon the fact that the lights to be used be also of the 
prescribed material. To the superficial observer this attention 
to detail would appear uncalled for and trivial ; nevertheless, 
there is a deep significanc underlying these exactions on the 
part of the Church, who is first of all a mother, and never 
rigorous unless for grave and weighty reasons. If, then, her 
legislation on this subject of liturgical lights is unequivocal 
and emphatic it behooves us, in order to realize the importance 
of faithfully adhering to these ordinances of the Church, that 
we examine into and recognize the value of the principles on 
which she founds her legislation in the matter. The service 
of the Church in each detail is eminently an " obsequiura 



rationabile," which, if understood, renders its strict observance 
as agreeable as it is beneficial. 

The two cardinal principles which determine the ecclesias- 
tical legislation regarding liturgical lights are : first, the sym- 
bolical meaning of lights ; second, tradition, or what might 
be called historical consistency. 

Light, among all material things, is the fittest and most ap- 
propriate symbol of God, an absolutely pure spirit. Light is 
itself pure, it penetrates long distances, it moves with incred- 
ible velocity (encircling, for example, the globe seven times 
and more in a single second), it awakens and propagates life in 
the organic kingdom, it illumines with its Ijrilliancy all that 
comes under its influence. Therefore the Holy Scriptures 
make frequent use of this symbolic meaning. " God is light, 
and in Him there is no darkness." ' The wisdom of the Son of 
God is called " the brightness of eternal light," ' and " the 
brightness of his glory." ' The Psalmist exclaims : " Thou art 
clothed with light as with a garment." * The Son of God re- 
peatedly calls Himself " the light of the world." 

As light delivers us from darkness, and is most essential to 
organic life, so the truth and the grace of God deliver man 
from spiritual darkness, the shadow of death, and bring him 
life, life spiritual and eternal. For in St. Luke we read : "The 
Orient from on high hath visited us ; to enlighten them that 
sit in darkness, and in the shadow of death." * And Sl John 
says : " In Him was life, and the life was the light of men ; 
and the light shineth in darkness." * 

The apostles, who were to bring divine truth and grace to 
mankind, were called by Christ himself " the light of the 
world." ' And his truth and grace shall lead us to the holy 
city that " hath no need of the sun, nor of the moon to shine 
in it ; for the glory of God hath enlightened it, and the Lamb 
is the lamp thereof. And the nations shall walk in the light 

' I. Joan. i. 15. • Wisd. vii. 26. » Heb. i. 3. < Ps. ciiL 2. 

• Lake i. 78. • Joan. i. 4. •> Matt. v. 14- 


of it." * " With Thee is the fountain of life : and in Thy 
light we shall see light." ' 

Thus, light is a most appropriate symbol of God, of the God- 
man, and of all His work. 

But we may ask, why does the Church ordain the special 
material, such as beeswax, for the candles, not permitting any 
other for liturgical functions? We answer: Again, on ac- 
count of its symbolical meaning. •' The pure and unadul- 
terated beeswax of the candle which burns at Mass has always 
been regarded as the symbol of the pure and unspotted hu- 
manity of Jesus Christ." ' Pure wax, with its sweet odor, is the 
work of the bet, which gathers it from flowers and herbs. 
The bee has ever been considered as virginal, and the species 
of bees which form and prepare the wax is indeed without 
sex. Thus the ** virginal bee " is considered a most appro- 
priate figure of the purest Virgin, " quae virginitatis gloria 
permanente lumen aeternum mundo efFudit, Jesum Christum, 
Dominum nostrum. (Praef. B. M. V.) This symbolic mean- 
ing is already mentioned by Rufinus and Cassian. Almarius, 
citing St. Gregory the Great, says : * Cera Christi huma- 
nitatem designat ; " and speaking of the paschal candle, de- 
clares : '* Cereus rutilans illam humanitatem designat, quae 
illuminavit omnem hominem venientem in hunc mundum." * 
Applying in its details this symbol of the "cereus or candela 
ardens," theologians consider the wax as the symbol of the 
sacred body of Our Lord; the wick which is buried in the 
wax, His soul; the flame His divinity, or the fire of divine love. 
" Per ceram opere virginali per apes cum melle productam 
(nulla enim libidine resolvuntur) humanitas sive caro Christi 
ex virgine sumpta, per lumen deltas, quia Deus noster ignis 
consumens est, per lychnium anima candidissima intelligitur. * 

And this is not the opinion of some isolated authors, but so 
general and constant is it in the Church that the above men- 
tioned Instr. past. * are fully justified in saying : " As the 

* Apoa xxL 28 * Ps. XXXV. 10. ' Instr. past. Alt 

* De eccL off. i. 17, 18. * Diur. vii. 7, 13. * Loc. cit. ii. 201. 


dove is made to symbolize the Holy Ghost, and the palm 
branch victory, so, in the mind of the Church, the pure and 
unadulterated beeswax of the candle which burns at Mass 
has always been regarded as the symbol of the pure and un- 
spotted humanity of Jesus Christ. 

The second %\\\<^\v\% principle in ecclesiastical legislation re- 
garding Liturgical light is tradition, or historical consistency. 

In the Old Law God Himself commanded that on the altar 
lire should always burn, and that the priest should constantly 
feed it.' Moreover, God said to Moses : " Thou shalt make 
also a candlestick of beaten work of the purest gold." * " And 
Moses made also the seven lamps ol the purest gold." * ** And 
the Lord spoke to Moses, saying : Command the children of 
Israel that they bring unto thee the finest and clearest oil of 
olives, to furnish the lamp continually, without the veil of 
the testimony in the tabernacle of the covenant."* 

Now, since the Ark of the Covenant and the sacrifices of 
old were a figure of the holy of holies and of the great sacri- 
fice of the Law of Grace, we can well understand why even 
the first Christians, in view of the symbolic meaning of light 
and of its use in the Old Law, made use of lights at the 
celebration of the divine mysteries, especially of the Holy 
Sacrifice of Mass. " It is an opinion which it would be rash 
to set aside, that the use of lights at the celebration of Mass 
is of apostolic origin. Cardinal Bona and all liturgists of 
note maintain this." • St. Jerome mentions it as an established 
custom in the Church of the East, that " in all the churches, 
at the time when the gospel is read during Mass at day- 
light (jam sole rutilante), lights (luminaria) are lit, certainly 
not for the purpose of dispelling darkness, but as a sign of 
joy — ad signum laetitiae demonstrandum." Isidore of Spain 
relates that in the Western Church candles were likewise used 
at the reading of the gospel and during the following celebra- 
tion of the Holy Sacrifice. An old canon in the Sacrameti^ 

' Levit vi. 12. * Exod. xxv. 31. 

' Ibid, xxviu 23 * Levit. xxiv. 2. * O'Brien, History of the Mass. 


tarium Gelaseanum (which is supposed to date back to the 
synod of Carthage, A. D. 398) prescribes : " Acolythus cum 
ordinatur ab Episcopo quidem doceatur, qualiter se in officio 
suo agere debeat, sed ab Archidiacono accipiat ceroferarium 
cum cereo, ut sciat, se ad accendenda luminaria ecclesiae 
mancipari." According to the oldest Ordines Rotnani, ' on 
all higher feasts seven candlesticks were carried by acolytes 
before the Bishop, when going to the altar for the purpose of 
celebrating solemnly the Holy Sacrifice ; which seven candle- 
sticks were then placed around the altar, and afterwards in 
front of the altar, towards the railing, " in pavimento ec- 
clesiae." For less solemn Masses only two candlesticks were 
carried before the Bishop. 

In the I2th Ordo Rotnanus (end'of the twelfth century) it 
is prescribed that for Pontifical High Mass seven candles 
(septem faculas) should stand on the altar. At the same time 
it is mentioned that for ordinary Masses two or three or 
more candles should be placed on the altar at the right and 
left of the crucifix. 

From this it would appear that during the first ten cen- 
turies of the Church's life no candles were placed directly 
upon the altar or at least upon the mensa of the altar ; but 
there were always quite a number of lights kept round about 
the altar. Burning lamps were suspended partly in front 
partly above the altar and betwixt the columns of the cibori- 
um of the altar (canopy above the altar). Large chandeliers 
are mentioned (coronae, poly-candelia), which in the sanctu- 
ary or immediately before it shed light from hundreds of 
lamps or candles." 

St. Paulinus of Nola, living towards the end of the fourth 
century, says that a lamp, or several lamps, burned day and 
night in the church. St. Gregory Nazianzen mentions lights 
which were lit and carried by the neophytes immediately 
after Baptism. The paschal C2iv\d\Q{cereus paschalis) is spoken 

» I. 8 ; ii. 4 ; vi. 3. 

* Pope Hadrian I. had a chandelier with 1370 candles made for St. Peter's 


of by St. Gregory the Great ; all the old Sacramentaria con- 
tain a formula for blessing the same. St. Jerome and St. 
Gregory of Nyssa relate that lamps and candles were carried 
at funerals. 

It is very remarkable that in all cases, without any excep- 
tion, no other lights are mentioned but candles of beeswax 
and lamps. On the altar no other candles were allowed save 
pure wax candles.* 


After these preliminary remarks concerning the principles 
which govern the Church's legislation in regard to the lights 
used in the sacred service, we pass over to the present disci- 
pline of the Church in regard to Liturgical Lights. We 
propose to set forth, from authentic declarations of the 
Sovereign PontifTs and of the S. Congregation of Rites, to 
what extent we arc bound by the ordinances of ecclesiastical 
legislation at the present day. * 

During the first half of this century an attempt was made 
to supplant the use ot beeswax candles at divine service by 
candles of other material, of vegetable and artificial wax, 
sperm, stearine, and a mixture of beeswax with sperm or 
stearine. Archbishops, Bishops, and Vicars Apostolic, from 
different parts of the world, presented petitions to the 
Holy See. The advantages of artificial and mixed waxes, 
sperm, stearine, etc., and their superiority over beeswax, 
were carefully set forth and defended. The reasons given 
for their retention where they had been introduced in Italy, 
France, Germany, etc., and for introducing them where they 
had not yet been in use, were -urged in the most emphatic 
manner. Nevertheless, among all these petitions, the request 
of the Vicar Apostolic of the kingdom of Corea, to be al- 
lowed to use the wax produced from a tree of that country, 
because it was almost impossible to obtain beeswax, was the 
only one considered worthy of a favorable answer; which 

' Cf. Thalhofer, Liturgik. « Cf. Instr. past. Alt. 


answer, however, was conditional, and subject to the follow- 
ing restrictions. The S. Congregation, weighing all the 
circumstances, i. e., the great difficulty of obtaining bees- 
wax, and considering that the wax in question is a vegetable 
matter resembling beeswax in many respects, did not answer 
that it is lawful to use it, but that it would apply to the 
Sovereign Pontiff for a special indult, so that it might be 
used in that country, as long as beeswax could not be ob- 
tained. ' 

The other questions and doubts were all reduced to the 
following brief form, viz. : i. An exceptis praedictis ecclesias- 
ticis functionibus (i. e., the candles blessed on Candlemas, 
those used at the service of Holy-Week, and the Paschal 
candle) in reliquis usus no varum candelarum [ex stearina 
confectarum] sit tolerandus? 

2. An, et quid respondendum Archiepiscopo Colocensi, 
Episcopo Massiliensi aliisque hanc Congregationem interro- 
gantibus ? 

Both questions were solved on the i6th of Sept., 1843, by 
the same brief but significant answer, viz. : Consulantur 
rubricae. " 

The Bishop of Dijon had asked permission to allow his 
clergy to continue the use of stearine candles where they had 
been introduced. The S. Congregation answered: Nihil 
innovetur, * 

Poverty, and the high price of wax or the general custom 
of a country, do not justify the use of any other material as a 
substitute. The Bishop of Charlottetown, Prince Edwards 
Island, requested to be allowed the use of tallow or stearine 
candles at divine service, giving as reasons that such was the 
universal custom in America, and that this was caused by the 
poverty of the churches and the high price of wax. The 

» Aug. 13, 1843. 

' S. R, C. 16 Sept. 1843, Massilien. n. 4973, and Correspondence de R6me, 1850- 
' 7 Sept. 1850, Divionem. 



Sovereign Pontiff did not accede to the request, but declared 
that the bishop should see to it that the abuse be abolished : 
" Sanctitas Sua, audita S. R. C. Secretarii relatione, rescri- 
bendum censuit, mentem suam esse, ut curante Amplitudine 
tua, inductus abusus adhibendi candelas ex sevo eliminetur." ' 

It is not allowed, therefore, because the church happens to 
be poor, or the wax rare and difficult to obtain, to have other 
but wax candles in the celebration of Mass or other litur- 
gical functions. There is but one plea which, aside of a 
particular indult, allows the use of other material, and that is 
the impossibility (as mentioned in the few exceptional indults 
given below) of obtaining wax candles. The Decretum 
Generale of Pope Pius VII plainly states: Nee lumina nisi 
cerea vel supra meftsam altaris vel eidem quomodocumque immi- 
nentia adhibeantttr. * An exceptional indult was granted for 
Oceania, Sept. 7, 1850, and for the regions within the polar 
circle, Feb. 6, 1858, (dissitis et nascentibus Missionibus in 
Oceania, — Mission. Poliarctici, . . ubi per plures hebdomadas 
hiemali tempore sol non oritur), — because " pene impossibile 
est vel ceram vel oleum comparare." The superiors of the 
missions of Oceania, finding it impossible to obtain beeswax 
for candles, had requested the S. Congregation to allow the 
use of sperm and stearine candles. The S. R. C. answered 
that, it being impossible to obtain wax, the missionaries of 
that country might, by a special privilege which the Holy 
See granted in their behalf, make use of olive oil instead, and 
if this failed, they might celebrate Mass without lights. The 
superiors had recourse to Rome again, stating that it was 
not in their power to obtain olive oil any more than wax, and 
that the missionaries were unwilling to celebrate without 
lights. Upon this the S. R. C. answered, Sept. 7, 1850, that 
they might make use of sperm or stearine candles, till it 
would become possible for them to obtain wax or oil. 

Nothing but sheer impossibility was ever admitted as suffi- 
cient .cause for an exceptional indult. " Sanctimoniales per- 

' Carol! nopoli tan, lo Dec, 1857, n. 5255. • April 3, 1821. 


petuae adorationis SSmi Sacramenti Modoetiae existentibus, 
ac postulantibus, i. An in casu deficientige reddituum, in 
expositione Sanctissimi lumina ab oleo, saltern ex parte, sub- 
stitui possint luminibus cereis? et, si negative, petitur indultum 
ut hoc fiat ex dispensatione." S. R. C. respondit : Negative. ' 

2. An cum occasione solemnitatis alicujus, in altari majore 
ponatur machina luminibus ornata usque ad laqueare ecclesiae, 
et in machina baldachinum pro exponendo Sanctissimo Sacra- 
mento apponatur, valeant candelae confectae ex cera stearina 
vel ex alia materia purificata similitudinem cerae prasferente, 
exceptis tamen illis quae sunt in gradu altaris et immediate 
ante baldachinum in quo est Sacramentum ? Resp. : Dentur 
Decreta i6 Sept., 1843, (Massilien. consulantur rubricae) et 7 
Sept., 1850, (Divionen. : Nihil innovetur). Atque ita re- 
scripsit ac declaravit S. R. C. 4 Sept., 1875. Policastren., n. 

" Super altari praster candelas ex cera tolerari non potest, 
ut habeatur etiam illuminatio ex gas, sed usus prasdictus 
prohiberi debet." (S. R. C, 8 Mart. 1879, et 13 Apr. 1883 


I. Low Mass. 

There must be at least two lights on the altar at Low Mass : 
Super altare collocetur crux in medio, et candelabra saltern 
duo cum candelis accensis hinc et inde in utroque latere. 
Rubr. gen. Miss. xx. 

A Bishop may have four : In festis solemnibus decet in 
altari apponi quatuor candelabra cum candelis accensis ; in 
aliis festis non ita solemnibus et feriis sufficiant duo cande- 
labra." But Catalanus adds here that according to a general 
custom a Bishop has always four candles : ecclesias vix in- 
veniendas, in quibus, episcopo celebrante, duae solae candelae 
in altari accendantur. 

J 27 Jan. 1868, n. 5398. « Coer. Ep. I. 29, 4. 



No priest can lawfully use more than two lights, unless he 
have a special apostolical -indult to that effect Praelati 
Episcopo inferiores unico ministro contenti sint, et ducR 
tantunt candelae luceant in altari (Const. Pii. VII., Idibus 
Decembr. 1818). In the same year, Apr. 27 : " Sacrum ope- 
rantes a simplicibus sacerdotibus minime differunt." Simil- 
ar decisions have been repeatedly given, forbidding the use 
of four candles in private Masses to canons and dignitaries 
of cathedrals (e. g., those of Pisa, Spoleto, Todi, Tivoli), to 
Vicars General, (7 Aug. 1627: 5 July 163 1), "etiamsi forent 
Protonotarii apostolici ; " and " abbatibus aliisque usu pontifi- 
calium gaudentibus, qui Episcopo sunt inferiores." ' (27 Sept.) 
This rule confining priests to the use of two candles at low 
Masses includes Sundays and Holydays.' An exception is 
made for the Community Mass of Religious on Sundays 
and Holydays and other solemn occasions, and in churches 
where for good reasons the last, or the parochial Mass, is a Low 
Mass. ' Permission for more than two candles at low Mass 
extends to marriages, First Communions, funerals, etc. : 
" Quoad Missas parochiales, vel similes diebus solemnioribus, 
et quoad Missas quae celebrantur loco solemnis atque can- 
tatas, occasione realis atque usitatae celebritatis, et solerani- 
tatis tolerari posse. (Ibid., ad dub. vi. et ix.) 

2. High Mass. 

The ordinary number of lights for High Mass is six. On 
Sundays and feasts of major double rite, and of first and 
second class, six lights must be used ; on feasts of double and 
semidouble rite, during octaves, on the ferials of Advent, Lent, 

" Dec. gen. 27 Sept. 1836., 1659 Aug ; 2. « S. R. C. 7 Set. 1850, Tiburtina. 

* Utrum in conventibus et Ecclesiis, qux ad instar Paroeciarum in Dioecesi 
Northantoniensi institutse habentar, quando propter inopiam cantorum Missa princi- 
palis, quae est etiam conventualis, vel parochialis, cantari non potest, liceat plus quam 
duas candclas in altari accendere saltern in Festis solemnioribus? R. Affirmative, 
6 Feb. 1858, n. 5257. A similar answer was given the year previous, Sept. 12, 1857, 
Molinen. " Diebus solemnioribus pro Missa lecta parochiali aut Communitatis accen- 
di possunt plus quam duo cereL 


and the ember days and vigils, four candles suffice and at 
least that number must be used ; two suffice, on other ferials 
and on simples. ' In High Masses of Requiem there must 
be at least four candles. * 

The Diocesan Bishop, celebrating Pontifical High Mass 
(in his own diocese), has the 7th, or an extra light, behind the 
crucifix, ' but not in Requiem Masses nor at Pontifical 
Vespers. * 

Besides these lights, the two acolytes should carry lighted 
candles upon suitable candlesticks, which are afterwards 
placed upon the credence table to each side of the chalice. 
At the chanting of the gospel by the deacon, the two acolytes 
accompany him, carrying the candles lighted. This is omit- 
ted, however, In Requiem Masses, and also at the gospel on 
Holy Saturday. * These candles are not to be confounded 
with the torches, of which we shall speak later. 


In solemn Mass (non-Pontifical) two or at most four torches 
are to be used. They are likewise to be pure wax, and to be 
lit towards the end of the Preface, and to be extinguished after 
the Elevation, unless there are to be communicants, in which 
case they are extinguished after the Communion. * 

In solemn Pontifical Mass four, six, or at most eight torches 
are to be used. ^ Gardellini calls attention to the fact that in 
the rubric for Solemn Mass the words " duo saltem " are 
used, implying that four would be preferable ; whilst the 
Casremoniale Episcoporum, regulating the number of torches 
at the Solemn Pontifical Mass, uses the words " ad summum 

» Caer. Episc. I. 12, 24, * s. R. C. Aug. 12, 1854. 

* Cser. E. I. xii., 12. * S. R, C. 19 Maji, 1607, Placentina, 

* Non deferantur lumina ad Evang. in missa def. — Cser. Ep. II, 6. Ad evange- 
lium non portantur lumina in sabbato sancto. — Ibid, c xxvii. 25. 

* In Missa solemni ad finem prsefationis accenduntur duo saltem intorticia ab acoly- 
this, quae extinguuntur post elevationem calicis, nisi aliqui sint communicandi, et tunc 
extinguuntur post communionem. — Rit. Miss. Tit. viii., Ji 

■• In Missa pontificali solemni 4, 6, aut ad summum 8-ministri cottis induti afferant 
totidem funalia cfta albae accensae. — Caer. Episc, L. ii., c. 8, 68. 


octo " showing that ordinarily four or six would be used in 
the latter function. What has been said in regard to the 
number of candles at Mass in the case of dignitaries applies 
likewise here, ' 

In solemn Pontifical Masses de Requie only four torches 
are to be used, and in «t7//-Pontifical Masses only two.' In 
these cases the torches are to be of the common or yellow 
wax, whilst in other solemn masses they must be of white 
wax. * These laws regarding the number of torches extend 
also to Benediction of the Most Bl. Sacrament, Solemn TV 
Deum, and the Benedictus in solemn Lauds. * In Procession of 
the Most Bl. Sacrament the following rules are laid down for 
the priests in regard to the use of torches : Omnimodo inter- 
sint octo sacerdotes cottis induti et cum intorticiis accensis in 
manibus. * All the rest of the people, religious and lay, should, 
if possible, carry torches or white wax candles in their hands. * 


The Liturgical Books of the Church do not prescribe the 
number of lights to be used at Vespers. Liturgists, such as 
Merati, De Herdt, and others, state that there should be four 
or six for solemn Vespers, whilst two would suffice for simple 

' In Missa solemniter cantata in elevatione hostise, prima dignitas Cathedralis 
Spoletanae non potest uti sex intorticiis. — S. R. C. Sept. 20, 1681. 

Idem funalium seu intorticioram namerus in elevatione Venerabilis adhibitus, 
pro dignitatibus adhibendus est pro canonicis solemniter celebraturis. — S. R. C. 31 
Aug. 1737. 

Celebrante Prxposito pro Episcopo an debeant sex vel quatuor funalia cerea in 
elevatione Sanctissimi in Missa accendi ? — Servaudum esse solitam. — S. R. C. 20 
Jun. 1654. 

^ Cser. Episc, L. ii., c li, 7. 

3 C«r. Episc, Lib. ii., c. 8, 68.--S. R, C. Jun. 20, 1654. 

* S. R, C 4064, 31. Aug. 1737. » Instr. Qemen. $ xx. 

• Omnes tarn Religiosi quam laid deberent, si fieri possit, in hac processione, si 
non funalia saltern candelas cerae albx accensas manibus tenere. — Caer. Episc., L. ii., 
c- 33.4. 



There may be as many lights as piety prompts and the 
means of the church permit. The lowest number allowed 
has been variously determined for poor churches, according to 
the circumstances. Twelve, ten, and six lights are mentioned 
in the decrees applicable to different regions as a sufficient 
number for poor and very poor churches. Less than six are 
never licit, even when private Benediction is given with the 
ciborium. Besides these there are to be torches ; two for 
private Benediction, two or four (no more) at solemn Benedic- 
tion, which number may be increased to eight in case a 
Bishop officiates solemnly. ' 

It is forbidden to place a light behind the Bl. Sacrament 
for the sake of effect and to render it more brilliant * 


The Roman Ritual, says : There should burn before the 
Bl. Sacrament several lights, but at least one should be kept 
lighted both during the day and the night. If there be more 
than one, they should be of unequal number, three, five, or 
seven. The Caeremoniale Episcoporum adds that at least 
three should be kept burning during the day. ' The Sanctuary 
lamp or lamps must hang in front of and not too far distant 
from the Tabernacle, so as to be seen and plainly indicate 
that the Bl. Sacrament is present upon the altar. * In Rome 

J S. C. Ep. et Reg. 9 Dec. 1602.— S. R. C. 16 Mar. 1698. 

^ Non licet in expositione SSi., lumen aliquod eo artificio collocate a parte postica 
spherse, ut recta luceat in SS. Hostiam, quse exinde lucida appareat. — S. R. C. 31 
Mar. 1 82 1. 

3 Lampades coram Sanctissimo plures, vel saltern una, die noctuque perpetue col- 
Inceat. — Rit. Rom. 

Lampades ardentes, numero impari in ecclesiis adsint. Lampadarias qui ante SS. 
Sacramentum erit, saltern 5 lucernas habeat. Si non omnes, saltern tres accensee 
tota die adsint — Caer. Episc, L. i., c. 12, 17. 

Lampas coram semper ardeat. — S. C. Ep, et Reg. 14 Mar. 161. 4. 

* Non sufficit tenere lampadem in choro, sed tenenda est ante et prope altare taber- 
naculi. — S. R. C. 22 Aug. 1699. 


one commonly sees seven lamps arranged befor the altar of 
the Bl. Sacrament, in form of ascending and descending steps, 
the highest being the central lamp. The oil used should be 
olive oil ; but where this cannot be obtained, other oil, vege- 
table if possible and with the permission of the Bishop, may 
be used. ' 


What has been said in regard to the requisite material in 
the matter of liturgical lights in general, applies especially to 
the Paschal candle, to the candles which are blessed on the 
feast of the Purification, and in general wherever in the 
Ritual the use of the candle is mentioned, as in administra- 
tion of Baptism, of the Last Sacraments, in the solemn Bless- 
ings in or outside of the church. In all these cases pure 
beeswax, if it can be obtained, is the only proper material to 
be blessed, and not unfrequently the words used in the bene- 
dictions and prayers of the Church imply that she intends 
only to bless the wax which we gather from the labor of 
the bee. Thus, in the solemn and beautiful " Exultet " where- 
in she blesses the Paschal candle on Holy Saturday, she sings : 
Accept, O heavenly Father, the evening sacrifice, which Holy 
Church renders Thee through the hands of her ministers in 
'this solemn oblation of zvax from the labor of bees.* 
; Innocent Wapelhorst, O. S. F. 

' Generatim utendum esse oleo olivarum ; ubi vero haberi nequeat, remittendam 
pradentiae episcoporam ut lampades nutriantur ex aliis oleis, in quantam fieri possit, 
vegetabilibus.— S. R. C. 9 Jul. 1864. 

'' In hujus igilur noctis gratia, suscipe, sancte Pater, incensi hujus sacrificiam 
vespertinum : quod tibi in hac cerei oblatione solemni, per ministrorum manas, de 
operibus apum sacrosancta reddit ecclesia. — Miss. Rom. 


Ad ipsum ignem amoris nutriendum et flandum qaodammodo 
ista omnia pertinent quae nobis figurate insinuantur. Plus enim 
movent et accepdunt amorem quam si nuda sine ullis Sacramento- 
rum similitudinibus ponerentur. — S. Aug. 

The essence of true art lies, I believe, not in what it 
presents, but in what it represents. The thought actually 
expressed is but the graceful suggestion of that which by its 
delicacy or lightsome altitude baffles delineation. Hence 
faith, which is the substance of things hoped for, presents a 
natural and ceaseless impulse to highest art and is so to say 
the atmosphere which gives it most vigorous life. Material- 
ism produces only perfect symmetry and form, which, whilst 
it appeals to the senses, fails to awake the sublimer longings 
of love, the least tangible, yet the most real reality of life. 
Thus all art, if we exclude the mere reproduction of nature, 
which is rather a sort of photography, is symbolic. 

The power of symbolism to teach truth and to educate at 
once mind and heart is attested by the divinely inspired use 
of it in the doctrinal and moral books of Holy Writ. The 
highest form of wisdom in the Old Law finds its apt expres- 
sion only in parables. Later on, at the opening of a New Dis- 
pensation, the Eternal Father attests the divine mission, the 
intimate triune relation of the Messiah, by the symbol of a 
dove, and the special protection of the Divine Spirit over the 
newly established Church is symbolized by tongues of fire. 
Christ announces His glad evangel, which is to reach all 
nations, in symbolic language, " and without parables He did 
not speak to them ; " (S. Matt, xiii, 34.) and the Church 
from her infancy, through the days of her youth and manhood, 

imparts doctrine in her ritual and teaches virtue by the silent 



eloquence of true religious art in her temples. There was a 
time when the use of symbols in the Church was a necessity. 
With the profession of their faith in the caverns of the cata- 
combs, the white robed catechumens kneeling around the 
martyr's tomb felt that a seal was put upon their lips. They 
would be ready henceforth to die at any moment rather than 
deny their faith, but they were not to, divulge its sacred 
teachings before those who could not understand it, who 
might trample upon precious pearls and blaspheme in blind 
fury what was so infinitely worthy of deepest .reverence. 
Nor were they heedlessly to expose their brethren, whose life 
might be of service to the bleeding Spouse of Christ, until 
she had gained the victory in suffering love over paganism. 
Upon the streets of Rome, where the Christian plied his 
trade; in the forum, where he sought his civil rights; in the 
army; in the palace where he served, no word was heard to 
betray his faith, unless it were the gentle warning of moderation 
and justice. But the baptized slavCjatthe imperial banquet 
understood the reason why yonder patrician did not spurn 
his touch like the rest, from the image that was graven upon 
the seal of the nobleman's ring. The, Christian beggar on the 
Appian Way knew that the dolphin shaped circlet on the wrist 
of the highborn lady who gently tossed the alms into his lap 
meant to say: " Take this for love of the dear Christ." The 
weeping matron. recognized in the symbol of the two crossed 
fishes at the stonecutter's shop that he would go down with 
her to bury the heroic martyr child at the dead of night and 
carve a Christian Jegend on the slab to mark its resting place, 


Among the symbolic figures with which we frequently 
meet in early Christian art, among the mural and sepulchral 
decorations of the subterranean church as well as in other 
ornamental designs of that time, is the dolphin. And unlike 
the symbol of the fish, for which it was often used during the 
first three centuries, it recurs in the ornamental art of the 


middle ages, when triumphant faith loved to express itself in 
the magnificent works of unfettered inspiration, which we 
still admire in the treasuries of the old cathedrals. 

The early Christians considered the dolphin as a fish, and, 
according to Aringhi, as the king of fishes. On this account 
both De Rossi and Mommsen treat of the dolphin under the title 
of the fish-symbol. Up to the time of Constantine, i. e., for three 
hundred years after Our Lord's ascension, the figure of the 
fish was used instead of the cross. It was only when the 
Christian religion ceased to be proscribed by the state, when 
its seed, thoroughly mortified, sent forth from the bowels of 
the earth its germs into the open daylight of Rome, gradual- 
ly unfolding the blossoms of a public worship, that the sign 
of the cross assumed its place under the devise : " In this sign 
you shall conquer." The reasons why the emblem of the fish 
was used to designate Christ, or the Christian and his faith, are 
various and singularly apt. The Greek word for fish is ICH- 
THYS. , The five letters of which this word is composed are the 
initials of five words (Jesous Christos Theou Yios Soter) signi- 
fying, " Jesus Christ, the Son of God, our Saviour." Martigny 
connects this symbol with the disciplina arcatii, and says that 
it also stood for the Holy Eucharist, in which Christ, the 
celestial food, is miraculously multiplied as were the two 
fishes on the desert-mount, and becomes the nourishment and 
substantial life of the Christian. Moreover, the fact of the 
first apostles having been fishermen, and actually called by 
Our Lord to be fishers of men, made the use of this. image 
quite applicable to the followers of Christ, Whom, as their 
pattern, they sought to express in themselves. The early 
Fathers of the Church speak of the faithful as pisciculi (little 
fishes) regenerated in the life-giving waters of Baptism, who 
follow Christ, the ichthys.^ Thus the meaning of the fish- 
anagram, as we find it upon the walls of the catacombs, on 
gems, and later on in the decoration of baptisteries, is simple 

' Nos pisciculi secundum ichthyn nostrum in aqua nascimur. — Tert. De Bapt. c 
I. — Bonosus tamquam ichthyos filius aquosa petit. — Hieron. ad Bon. 


enough. It Stands for the word Christ, which was not to be 
expressed. It frequently also stands for the Eucharist, as in 
the following epitaph found in the catacombs : " Saintly 
Maritima, thou hast not left the sweet light, for thou didst 
have with thee (here is inserted the symbol of an anchor 
between two dolphins) the immortal one who reigns over all, 
for thy love everywhere preceded thee.' It seems to say 
that Maritima had been fortified with the holy Viaticum, the 
hope of the Christian, a fact which was worthy of mention in 
those troubled times. In these cases the image of the fish 
and of the dolphin seems to have been indiscriminately used, 
and we find frequently monuments in which the picture of a 
dolphin occurs under the appellation of a fish. Sometimes a 
Roman number III, X, or the like is marked in the body of 
the latter, which seems to indicate the length of time during 
which the deceased was a Christian, as if to say : Lived in 
Christ (ichthys) three, ten, or more years. But the symbol is 
found outside of the catacombs, and is suggestive of Christian 
manners and surroundings ; for we know that Clement of 
Alexandria recommended to the Christians the use of the 
fish symbol on seals and rings, because of its meaning.* 


Considering the dolphin in its natural qualities, and in the 
traditional stories current about it, it certainly presents many 
points which make it an apt image of our Divine Saviour. 
The mural paintings in the Catacombs show in their mixture 
of classic figures and Christian action that many of the cher- 
ished myths of paganism were transferred into Christianity. 
Nor was this done to the injury of revealed truth, for it 
simply meant that whatever of beautiful tradition there was 
in the history of the past, that would be a most suitable vehi- 

* Maritima sancta, dulce lamen haud reliquisti, habebas enim tecum (Ichthyn) 
immortalem super omnia, nam tna tibi pietas ubique prseivit. 

* Piedag. IIL c. 11. 


clc to express the altogether sublime teaching of Christianity, 
which alone the faithful accepted as fact. 

The Dolphin was to be found only in the purest waters. ' 
Of incredible swiftness in its motion, it became the emblem of 
absolute strength, for it was supposed that it could not be 
controlled except by its own love for man. Hence such prov- 
erbs among the ancients as : Delphini in terra vis. Del- 
phinum cauda ligas. Delphina pelvis non capit. " Its affection 
for man, on the other hand, was said to be so great, that it 
proved not only most docile to any one kindly approaching it, 
but would follow the fishermen, recognize them individually, 
and frequently warn them against storms by changing its 
usually frolicsome gambols into straight motion towards port. 
The Greeks called it '* philanthropos," and Gellius relates a 
touching story taken from the record of an Egyptian, who 
affirms to have been an eye-witness to the occurrence, of how 
a child once having made friend with a dolphin at the sea- 
shore, the latter came daily to play with the boy, and some- 
times took him on his back, riding him through the water for 
short distances. The writer also adds that, the fact having 
become Jcnown, all the people of the town and neighborhood 
came daily to witness the sport. * The story of Arion, as re- 
lated by Herodotus, is well known, and Ovid assigns the fact 
that the dolphin, touched by the complaints of the singer, 
saved his life, as the cause why it was raised to a place among 
the gods, and appointed to shine with nine beautiful stars. 
The idea of the dolphin as lightbearer, representing Christ, 
the light of the world, has been preserved in Christian art to a 

' Illud quaeri hoc loco potest, cur tam frequenter in csemeterns, delphini figurae 
pictae sculptseve reperiantur. Ac video equidem Aringhum in ea opinione versari, 
ut existimet, hoc piscis genere, quod purioribus aquis innatat, Christianos significari, 
qui teneri non debeant cupiditate return terrenarum.— Mamachi Antiquit. Christ. 
III. n. 29. 

* Velocissimum omnium animalium non solum marinorum est delphinus ocior 

• Tolucre, ocior telo Ab hoc autem pisce, ut ex Plutarcho accepimos, hujusmodi 

fertur adagium: Delphini in terra vis. — Phn. IX., c. 8. 

» GeU., Noct. Attic, VII., 8. 


hte date. Constantine gave to the Basilica of John Lateran 
a candelabra (pharocantharus) of purest gold, with eighty 
dolphins. It hung before the altar, and precious nard oil was 
constantly burnt therein. Jacob, from whose " Art in the 
Service of the Church " we take this instance, adds : " They 
saw in the dolphin the symbol of Christ, the Saviour friendly 
10 man, but also of the Christians who in the midst of the 
storms gather confidently and joyously around the Saviour, 
the never extinguishing light " ' St. Charles Borromeo, in 
laying down the forms of church furniture, suggests this orna- 
ment of the dolphins as most suitable for the lampadarium. ' 
The fabled beauty of the dolphin is no doubt connected with its 
graceful movements. Easily attracted by the charms of music, 
it is said to leap high up into the air, then dart with incredible 
velocity into the deep, appearing again almost simultaneously 
in different parts, whilst with seemingly ilitelligent mirth it 
delights the beholder. The beautifully winding country 
between the Rhone and the Alps, west of Savoy, has, it is 
said, taken its name of Dauphin6e from this symbol of beauty 
borne in the escutcheon of the royal sons of France. Tyr- 
whitt, who says that the dolphin was frequently used to 
express the abstract qualities of swiftness, brilliancy, and 
affection, cites from Boldotti an instance of the figured han- 
dle of a pen found in a Christian Sepulchre, fashioned into 
a dolphin-shape, from which he with others surmises that 
the occupant had been in life a scribe. ' We might suppose 
that it was intended to express that the writer was animated 
by a beautiful Christian genius, since the ideas of Christ, 
beauty, swiftness, appear to be the most prevalent meanings 
of the symbol, including that of charity. Among other qual- 
ities with which the dolphin was identified were valor, 

' Die Kanst im Dienste der Kirche, pag. 182, note 3. 

* Alterum lampadariam e parvula trabe bene firma esse potest, totam artificiose . . . 
Delphinos etiam (ut veteris olim usus fuit) ligneos summa parte ad omati speciem 
habere jxjterit. — Instruct Fabr. eccl. cap. xviii. De Lampadario. 

* Di( tion. Christ. Antiq., Smith and Qieelham, vid. Dolphin. 


whence we find it upon the shield of Ulysses, and fortitude^ 
especially as exhibited by the Christian martyrs. It stood 
also for parental love. Naturalists of a later age have drawn 
attention to the affectionate care with which the dolphin 
raises her single offspring. Lying partly over to one side 
she draws it gently along, tempering her own motion whilst 
feeding her young with a milk which is said to be exceedingly 

It is not surprising, therefore, that the ancients should have 
considered this animal as sacred, so that to injure or kill it 
was accounted a sacrilege. It was the symbol, too, of 
Apollo, who of all the pagan deities represented the one most 
beneficent towards mankind. He was sometimes identified 
with the sun, because it fosters life and gives light to the 
world, and according to the myth, it was Apollo who de- 
stroyed the serpent Python, which had made the children of 
men unhappy. All this points to the origin of the Christian 
S3'mbol, which suggested to the heart and mind of the earnest 
converts so much that could not have been expressed in any 
other way. The king of fishes was to them an image of their 
own king, Christ. ' And hence they engraved it not only 
upon their tombs and on their baptistery walls, but wore it 
upon rings and bracelets and similar ornaments as the signs 
by which they would know one another. ' 


" Festina leiite" {innumism. Vfspas. Imp.). 
" Spes in Chrisio " ( Catacumb. ). 

Among the pagans the symbol of the Dolphin and anchor 
was understood to express swiftness with security. The 

' S. Paulinus of Nola writes to the bishop who baptized him, and whose name was 
Delphinus : Meminerimus nos ab utero terrae et cognationis nostrae segregates, 
Delphini filios esse factos, ut efficeremur illi pisces qui perambulant semitas maris. — 
Mign. Ixi., 249. This expression, says Wilpert, contains both an allusion to the 
name of the Bishop and to the symbol of Christ. 

* De Rossi found a very old onyx in the tomb of Bishop Adelmnr of AngouWme^ 
which he calls •' monunjento antichissimo del delfino, simbolo di Christo." 


emperor Vespasian, fond of the proverb, " Festina lente, " 
which meant, " be energetic but thoughtful," and wishing 
to impress it deeply upon the minds of his subjects, caused 
the figure of a dolphin wound around an anchor to be im- 
pressed upon the coin current under his reign. ' The an- 
chor by itself generally signified firmness, confidence, or 

In Christian symbolism the double emblem of the dolphin 
winding itself around the anchor has three distinct meanings. 
Of these the most obvious is that of hope in Christ, or, as 
Wilpert expresses it : " Spes in Christo ; spes in Deo ; spes in 
Deo Christo." Mammachi says that the anchor did not only 
stand for hope, but also for fortitude, and gives as an example 
the inscription on the tomb of St. Faustina, who is styled 
*' Virgo fortissima." ' Tyrwhitt, whom we quoted above, 
alluding to a third interpretation, says : " It has been sug- 
gested and is not improbable, that the dolphin embracing 
the anchor, so often found in gems, rings, etc. — is an emblem 
of the crucified Saviour, or, indeed, of his faithful follower. • 
This is not quite clear, unless it means that the fruits of the 
passion of Our Lord, which are identical with the inherit- 
ance or hope of the Christian, are to be symbolized by the 
anchor. Resting this interpretation upon the words of 
St. Paul to the Hebrews, * where he speaks of the promise 
made to Abraham, and calls it " the hope set before us, 
which we have as an anchor of the soul, sure and firm," and 
which the Fathers understand as referring to the Church, 
we may express by the anchor either the Church, or the 

' T. Vespasian Imper. admodum amans utilissimi praecepli : Festina lenle, ad- 
nmbrari illud in publicis caravit numismatis figura Delphini ancora complectentis, 
ut delphinus festinationem, ancora, quia navcm sistit, tarditatem repraesentaret. Cf. 
Thesaor. Ling. Lat. Rob. Stephani: Delphin. 

* Anchoram autem non spei modo, ut alio loco videbimus, sed etiam constantix 
fortitudinisqae indicium esse, tarn est manirestum, ut jure a nemine revocari in con- 
troversiam posse putem.— Tacitus prxtermitlere nuUo modo possum, anchoram in se- 
pulchro S. Faustinx M. cerni cum inscriptione : Virgini fortissimx.— Vol. IIT.. r. ^3. 

' Diet. Christ. Antiqu. Smith and Cheelham. * Chap, vi., 12-19. 


graces which flow to us from it, being our hope sure and 
firm, and. united to Christ, represented by the dolphin. 
Thus .tl?e meaning would evidently be " Christ and the 


{Benedictio Nuptialis.) 

PATER Ambrosius tarn difficilem se prasbet quoties ab eo 
petitur ut velit benedicere alicui matrimonio hora vesper- 
tina celebrando, ut fideles ipsius curae commissi saspe in eo sint 
ut ad prasconcm hasreticum recurrant. Ratio autem cur ita 
sie gerit est quia, ut ait, turn Rituale Romanun, tum Decreta 
ultimi Concilii Plenarii Baltimorensis, tum demum recens 
aliquod responsum S. R. et U. I. omnino exigunt benedictio- 
nem nuptialem, quas dari nequit nisi mane celebretur ma- 
trimonium. Verum Pater Augustinus, ipsius vicarius, valorem 
harura rationum renuit admittere. 


1. Quid propria sit benedictio nuptialis, et utrum verum 
sit earn omnino requiri, prout testatur Pater Ambrosius ? 

2. Quid practice tenendum sit de ratione agendi Patris Am- 
brosii ? 

Resp. I. " Benedictio nuptialis " vel " nuptiarum " est com- 
plexus earum precum et benedictionum quas habentur in 
Missali Romano infra Missam pro Sponso et SpoTisa. Ha2C 
igitur benedictio non est habenda ceu pars quaedam ritus 
eelebrandi matrimonii Sacramentum qui legitur apud Rituale 
Romanum, sed unice pertinet ad ipsius solemnitates ; quare 
cum in Rituali Romano in mentem parochorum revocatur 
tempore Adventus aliisque feriatis temporibus " Solemnitates 
nuptiarum prohibitas esse," adducitur ut exemplum benedi- 
ctio haec nuptiarum. Et quamvis verum sit in ipsa celebra- 
tione matrimonii duas alias benedictiones locum habere, unam 


<jua Parochus postquam intellexerit expressionem consensus 
utriusque sponsi illis benedicit in nomine Patris et Filii et 
Spiritus Sancti, dicendo : " Ego vos conjungo, etc.," aliara 
qua benedicit annulum a sponso imponendum "in digito an- 
nular! sinistrae manus sponsae," his tamen nunquam applica- 
tur speciale nomen benedictionis nuptialis, sed prima a multis 
dicitur copulatio seu approbatio aut ratificatio consensus, et 
altera simpliciter vocatur benedictio annuli. Exinde patet 
benedictionem nuptialem proprie dictam, de qua sola hie 
loquimur, esse extrinsecam matrimonio et supponere illud 
jam fuisse celebratum. 

At vero, quamvis extrinseca sit matrimonio atque ab eo 
separabilis, nonne dicenda est omnino necessaria ex illis 
prassertim rationibus quas commemorat Pater Ambrosius? 
Huic quaeslioni negative respondendum esse videtur. Etenim 
Scavini, Lib.. III., Tract. XII., Disp. IV., n. 934, cum adnota- 
verit commune esse apud theologos omissionem hujus be- 
nedictionis non esse peccatum mortale, addit hasc verba : 
*' Attamen earn adhibere valde praestat ad uberiores fructus 
recipiendos," quod sane importat eam consilii esse, non pro- 
prie /r^tr///". — Consonat P. Lehmkuhl, qui Vol. II., n. 693, II., 
ait : " ad solemnem benedictionem (matrimonii) in Missa 
accipiendam non cogendi sed exhortandi sunt contracturi." 
Quod si sponsi non sunt ad eam cogendi, sane sequitur eam 
esse liberara et citra omne peccatum posse omitti, excepto 
semper casu scandali ct contemptus. Consonat etiam Card. 
d'Annibale, qui Part. III., n. 331, postquam haec verba scri- 
pserit: "sponsi hortandi sunt ut benedictionem recipiant," 
memorat negativam responsionem datam a S. R. C. die i, Sept. 
1838, huic quaesito : " Utrum Episcopis et Parochisjus sit 
adigendi sponsos ad benedictionem (nuptialem) in Missae cele- 
bratione recipiendam." 

Quod si dices praedictam conclusionem esse contra com- 
munem sententiam theologorum, nam S. Alphonsus, Lib. VI., 
n. 984, ait : "Conveniunt omnes quod omissio absoluta bene- 
dicfionis (nuptialis) non excusatur saltern a veniali " — re- 


sponderi potest, i non posse dari vere communem senten- 
tiam ubi vere discrepant theologi, prouti ostendunt citati 
textus ; et 2. asserere dari peccatum aliquod veniale non 
idem esse ac admittere dari veri nominis praeceptum, pecca- 
tum enim aliunde quam a directo praecepto, scilicet a scandalo, 
neglectu, et aliis hujusmodi provenire potest. Praeterea, si 
examinentur citata loca theologorum clare apparebit rationes 
quas adducunt ad probandura non esse mortale omittere hanc 
benedictionem, probare etiam nullum esse peccatum. Ad 
exemplumsint Salmanticenses qui Tract. IX., Dub. VI., n. 80, 
ita scribunt ; " Non est peccatum mortale eas (benedictiones) 
praetermittere . . . tum quia Concilium solum monendo et 
per modum consilii ad eas hortatur, tum .... quia in Cap, 
Nostrates 3. (mendose citatur 30) quaest. 5, cum Nicolaus 
Papa inter alia quae debent in matrimonio reperiri velationes 
(benedictiones) numerasset, dicit eas praetermittere peccatum 
non esse " — Sed, quaeso, nonne ista aeque valent ad eliminan- 
dum peccatum veniale ? 

Sed videamus modo num contrarium prasscribatur in 
Rituali Romano, et in Decretis Tertii Concilii Plenarii Balti- 
morensis. — Rituale Romanum haec habet : " Matrimonium 
in Ecclesia maxime celebrari decet : sed si domi celebratum 
fuerit praesente Parocho et testibus, sponsi veniant ad Eccle- 
siam benedictionem accepturi, et tunc caveat sacerdos ne 
iterum a contrahentibus consensum exigat, sed tantum bene- 
dictionem illis conferat, celebrata Missa, ut infra dicetur." — 
Difficultas sane oriri potest ex illis verbis " sponsi veniant 
ad Ecclesiam benedictionem accepturi," sed quamvis ultro 
concedatur in isto commate esse quaestionem de benedictione 
nuptiali, negatur verbum " veniant " importare absolutum 
praeceptum accipiendi praedictam benedictionem. Sensus 
igitur obvius citati textus iste est : benedictio nuptialis 
secus ac matrimonium semper danda est in ecclesia ; si ergo 
sponsi velint illam accipere, oportet ut veniant ad ecclesiam. 
Quocirca praeceptum non facit necessitatem accipiendi bene- 
dictionem, sed solum necessitatem veniendi ad ecclesiam in 


hypothesi quod sponsi illam petierint. Et iste est sensus 
quern evidenter tradunt vel supponunt Commentatores 
Ritualis, praesertim vqvo Faiise, Part. HI., Sect. I., Cap. V., 
n. 6.—Fornici, Part. HI., Cap. XV. et XVI.— O'Kane, n. 1091 
et seqq. 

Nee magis favet Patri Ambrosio quod hac de re statutum 
est, n. 125, ab ultimo Concilio Plenario Baltimorensi. En ejus 
verba : " Rectores animarum saepe moneant fideles ne 
profanorum hominum errore abripiantur, qui pro negotio 
terreno tantum et saeculari matrimonium habent ; iisque in 
memoriam revocent juxta doctrinam Ecclesiac rem esse 
sanctissimam utpote sacramentum, et signum quo Christus 
suum erga sponsam Ecclesiam amorem quodammodo ad- 
umbrare dignatus est. Frequenter et gravibus verbis in- 
culcent pium ilium et laudabilem Ecclesiae ritum, quo fideles 
non noctu sed Missae tempore cum benedictione nuptiali con- 
trahunt. Qua ratione fidem suam Catholicam tacite pro- 
fitentur, et coram omnibus ostendunt quam alte, ut decet, ac 
splendide de matrimonii dignitate ac sanctitate sentiant. Et 
hoc quidem non solum laude dignum sed fere necessarium 
videtur nostris hisce temporibus, quando nihil intentatum 
relinquunt religionis hostes, ut matrimonio omnis sanctitatis, 
omnis sacramenti species si fieri potest adimatur et quasi 
merus civilis contractus aestimetur." — Porro quis dicet, in 
citatis verbis imponi fidelibus obligationem accipiendi bene- 
dictionem nuptialem ? Num, si ita res se haberet, Patres 
vocarent illam pium et laudabilem Ecclesia; ritum? Num 
adjectivum " necessarium " dupliciter modificarent, scilicet 
adverbio "fere" et verbo opinativo "videtur"? — Profecto 
non ita loquuntur legislatorcs qui veri nominis praeceptum 
aut ferunt aut promulgant. — Prasterea ex toto contextu 
apparet Patres Concilii hoc unum velle, ut receptio bene- 
dictionis nuptialis assumatur tanquam medium ostendendi 
animum catholicum erga magnum hoc sacramentum ; 
medium sane non unicum et absolute optimum aut necessarium, 
sed quod, inspectis circumstantiis in quibus versamur, pru- 


dentia suadet utile esse et opportunum. Fidelibus igitur 
nullum, rectoribus autem animarum imponitur a Patribus 
Baltimorensibus praeceptum inculcandi sanctitatem matri- 
monii, et hoc facile obtinebitur si sponsi suaviter inducantur 
ad benedictionem nuptialem recipiendani. 

Haec omnia pulcherrime confirmantur Decreto XX. Cone. 
Prov. Neo-Eboracensis IV., quod etsi fuerit habitum ante 
Tertium Cone. Plenarium, ejus tamen recognitio a Romana 
auetoritate, et solemnis promulgatio facta ab aetuali lUustris- 
simo illius sedis Metropolita non nisi post absolutum ultimum 
Cone. Plen. Baltimorense locum habuerunt. Porro in citato 
Decreto ita legitur: " Ad sacramentum hoe magnum Matri- 
monii ita deberent accedere Christiani, ut abundantiam 
gratiae, quam conferre valet, paratum in cor plene recipiant. 
Ideo jubet Eeelesia ut ad id se disponant per peccatorum 
eonfessionem .... ideo etiam eadem pia mater solemnibus 
ritibus rpatrimonium cohonestat . . . ; ideo denique pulchram 

illam Missani pro sponso et sponsa celebrari eupit Quam- 

obrem et Nos quo certius Matrimonii Sacramento suum 
servemus honorem, eique debitam eonciliemus reverentiam, 
declaramus ardens esse Nostrum desiderium ut hunc Ee- 
elesiae spiritum raagis ac magis in Nuptiarum eelebratione 
sequantur missionum rectores." 

Videamus nunc quid probet reeens illud responsum S. R. et 
U. Inquisit. ad quod alludit P. Ambrosius. Referara tantum 
verba quae ad rem faciunt : *' Benedictionem nuptialem 
quam exhibet Missale Romanum in Missa pro Sponso et 
Sponsa (decreverunt E. et R. DD.) semper impertiendam esse 
in matrimoniis catholicorum, infra tamen Missae celebra- 
tionem, juxta rubricas, et extra tempus feriatum." Si hie 
sisteret lector sane eonficeretur quod eontendit Pater Am- 
brosiuS; et ita revera legunt qui novas leges novasque 
obligationes ubique inveniunt. At Decretum base addit : 
" omnibus illis conjugibus qui eam in contrahendo matrimo- 
nio quacumque ex causa non obtinuerint ; etiamsi petant, post- 
quam diu jam in matrimonio vixerint, dummodo mulier, si 




vidua, benedictionem ipsam in aliis nuptiis non acceperit." — 
Porro ex his infertur mentem praedicti Decreti banc unice 
esse, ut asseratur apud conjuges jus petendi benedictionem 
nuptialem quamdiu iliam non obtinuerunt, etiam iongo post 
tempore a celebratione matrimonii, quia hoc est quod in 
controversiam vocabatur. Obligatio igilur impertiendi bene- 
dictionem nuptialem poni debet non absolute, sed ut conse- 
quentia exercitii hujus juris conjugum. Hoc autem nihil 
favet obligationi quam Pater Ambrosius vult inducere. Haec 
interpretatio admittenda est turn ex tenore ipsius Decreti, 
tum ex statu controversiae seu ex dubiis quae antea circum- 
ferebantur hac de re, tum demum ex reliqua parte Decreti. 
quae ita se habet : " Insuper hortandos esse eosdem con- 
juges catholicos, qui benedictionem sui matrimonii non obti- 
nuerunt, ut eam primo quoque tempore petant." — 

//. Deveniendo nunc ad practicam solutionem casus, dicam 
Patrem Ambrosiura imprudenter egisse. Monent Patres Con- 
cilii Plenarii Secundi ut Pastores animarum, in exigendis 
promissionibus quae respiciunt matrimonia mixta, "fortiter 
quidera in re, in modo tamen suaviter se gerant, ne aemula- 
tionem quidem Dei habentes, sed non secundum scientiara 
utrumque sponsum exasperent, indeque mala oriantur gra- 
viora." Porro si ita res se habet cum agitur de lege certo 
gravi, atque ab ipso jure divino imposita, quid dicendum erit 
de casu ubi lex ipsa deest, et si adesset, sane sub gravi non 
urgeret?— Periculosum est ab uno extremo ad aliud statim 
gradum facere ! Periculosum et incertum subitam reforma- 
tioncm introducere I Quoniam autem scimus, non multis ab 
hinc annis consuetudinem apud nos viguisse celebrandi ma- 
trimonia hora vespertina, ita ut rara essent exempla solem- 
nis benedictionis nuptialis, prudentia exigit ut pium hunc et 
laudabilem ritum paulatim introducamus, atque ut potius ad 
suasiones recurramus quam ad leges et obligationes. Quare 
temperata erat lex Synodalis Neo-Eboracensis facta anno 
1882, ubi Cap. VI., n. III., legebatur " Matrimonia, quoad fieri 
potest, non solum in ecclesia contrahi, verum etiam mane, atque 


cum Missae celebratione benedici volumus," sed magis adhuc 
temperata iuit anno 1886, nam in Synodo tunc habita ita res 
tota fuit expressa, n. 183: " Studeant Rectores consuetudi- 
nem nuptias celebrandi sub vesperede medio tollere, et praxim 
introducere qua non solum in ecclesia contrahantur, sed infra 
Missam solemni benedictione consecrentur, vel saltem comi- 
tante Missa celebrantur." — Temperate etiam et sapienter to- 
tam banc rem conclusit in ultima Synodo, n. LIV., Eminentis- 
simus Cardinalis noster hisce verbis : " Curandum ut peccata 
confiteantur (sponsi) et ad sacram Eucharistiam accedant in 
Missa /r^ sponso et sponsa, quam pro Ecclesiae more cupimus 

Cf. Cone Plen. Bait. II., n. 335, e\ III., n: 125. — S. Alphons., 
Lib. VI., n. 984 et 988.— Salmant. Tract. IX., Cap. VIII., n. 
80. — Palaum Disp. II., Punct. XII., §. V., n. 8. — Sanchez, Lib. 
III., Disp. XII. — Lehmkuhl, Vol. II., n. 693 et seq. — Sabetti, 
n. 864, Quaer. 2, 3, et 4. 

A. Sabetti, S. J. 



, {Over 87 Churches reported in the United States .) \ 

Jan. 31, Vesp. de seq. (Or. Exaudi.) Nulla com. 

Pro Clero Romano, idem. 

Nota. — Off. S. Ignatii, M. permanenter mutandum est in diem 
primam liberam quae potest esse 14' Febr. et in hoc casu fest. 
S. Cyrilli translatum transferend. est in diem seq. 
Feb. I, Sabb. Alb. S. Brigidae V, Dupl. i cl. cum Oct. Off. de. com. 
Virg. tant. I loco. Miss. Dilexisti Gl. Cr. In 2. Vesp. com. 
Dom. Septuag. 

Pro its, qui fer. 7,. prcec. Off. vot. usi sunt, ut supra cum 9. 
Lect. de hom. Dom. 4. post Epiph. antic, et ejus com. in Laud, 
et Evgl. in fine. 


Pro Clero Romano^ omnia ut supra pro iisqui Off. vot. utunt. 

a, Dom. in Septuag. a. cl. Viol, de Dom. Semid. Off. ut in 

Calend. Omitt. Suff, et ProEc. Com. Oct. in Laud, et Miss. 

Non dicit. 3 Or. nee Gl. Vesp. de seq. Com. Dom. tant. Jesu, 

tibi sit gloria. 

Pro Clero Romano, ut supra. In Vesp. Com. S. Dion, et 
Dom. tant. . De S. Dion, hoc anno fit ut simplex. 

3, Fer. 2. Alb. PURIFICATIO B. M. V. Dupl. 2 cl. (fuit heri.) 
Ut in calend. cum com. S. Bias. tant. in Laud. 2. Or. in Mis. 
priv. S. Bias. tant. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. tant. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut in Calend. sine com. Oct. In 
2. Vesp. com. seq. S. Andreae Corsin. et S. Dion, tant 

4, Fer. 3. Alb. S. Andreae Cors. Ep. C. Dupl. Ut in Calend. cum 
com. Oct. in Laud, et Miss, in qua Gl. Cr. Vesp. a cap. 
de seq. Com. praec. et Oct. 

Pro Clero Romano, Rub. Rest. Orat. D. N. J. C. Dupl. 
maj. ut in Calend. cum com. Oct. post com. S. Andr. in Laud, 
et Miss. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. S. Andr. et Oct. 

5, Fer. 4. Rub. S. Philipp. a Jesu M^rt. Dupl. ut in Calend. 
cum com. Oct. in Laud, et Miss, in qua Gl. et Cr. Vesp. a 
cap. de seq. cum com. praec. Oct. et S. Dorotheas. V. M. {Antipk. 
Laud. Vers. Specie tua. ) 

Pro Clero Romano, ut supra. Vesp. a cap. de seq. Com. 
praec. Oct. {^Ant. Laud. Vers. Specie tua). et S. Dorolh. M. V. 
{Antiph. Nigra sum et Vers. Elegit earn ex 3. Noct.) 

6, Fer. 5. Alb. S. Titi Ep. Dupl. ut in Calend. Com. Oct. in 
Lau 1. et Miss. ante. com. S. V. {pro hac in Laud. Antiph. et 
Vers, ex i. Vesp.) Gl. Cr. Vesp. a cap. de seq. Com. praec. 
et Oct. 

Pro Clero Romano, Alb. S, Hyac. de Marisc. V. Dupl. ut 
in Calend. cum com. Oct. {Antiph. et Vers, ex 2. Vesp.) et S. 
Doroth. (^Antiph. Nigra sum et Vers. Elegit earn ex 3. Noct.) 
in Laud, et Miss. Gl. Cr. Vesp. a cap. de seq. Com. praec. et 
Oct. {Antiph. ex Laud. Vers, ex i. Vesp.) 

7, Fer. 6. Alb. S. Romuald. Alb. Dupl. Ut in Calend. cum com. 
Oct. in Laud, et Miss. Gl. Cr. Vesp. a cap. de seq. Com. praec. 
et S. Joan, de Matha C. De hoc fit ut simplex. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 


8, Sabb. Alb. Oct. S. Brigid. V. Dupl. Lectt. i. Noct. de Script, 
occ. 2. Noct. ut in Octavar. de Virgin, vel ut in festo 3. Noct. 
ut in Octavar, vel festo ; 9 Lect. (e 3 fit una) et com. S. Joan, 
in Laud, et Miss. DilexisH. Gl. Cr. In 2. Vesp. com. Dom. 
Sexag. S. Joan, et S. Apollon. V. M. {Antiph. ex Laud.) 

Off. S. Cyrilli transfert. in 14. hujus. 

Pro Clero Romano, ut supra. In 2. Vesp. com. Dom. Sexag. 
S. Joan. S. Zosim. et S. ApoU. V. M. Antiph. ex. Laud. 

De S. Zosim, hoc anno fit ut simplex. 


(^Four Churches 0/ this Title Reported.) 

Feb. I, Sabb. Vesp. de seq. com. Domin. Septuag. tant. Conclud, 
\\jva.r\. /esu, tibi sit gloria per tot. Oct. 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 

2, Dom. in Septuag. Alb. Purificatio B. M. V. Dupl. i. cl. cum 
Oct. Off. pr. ;9..Lect. de horn, et com. Dom. in Laud, et Miss, 
pr. cum. Gl. Cr. Praef. Nativ. Domini per tot Oct. et Evgl. 
Dom. in fine. In Vesp. com. Dom. tanL 

Pro Clero Romano, ut supra. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. et Dom. 

3, Fer. 2. Alb. de Oct. Semid. Lectt. i. Noct. de Script. Incip. 
liber Genesis (ex heri) 2. Noct. ut in Octavar. pr., vel de com. 
Breviar. 3. Noct. ut in Octavar. vel ut in festo. 9. Lect. de S. 
Blasiocom. S. M. in Laud, {sine Suff.) et Miss. 3. or. de Spirit. 
S. Gl. Cr. Praef. Nativ. Vesp. de seq. Com. Oct. 

Pro Clero Romano, Alb. S. Dionys. Pap. Conf. Dupl. Lectt. 
I. Noct. Imip. lib. Genes. 9. Lect. S. Mart, et ejus. com. post 
com. Oct. in Laud, et Missa, in qua Gl. Cr. Praef. Nativ. Vesp. 
a cap. de seq. com. Oct. 

Per. reliq. hebdom. pro utroq. Cler. ut in Calend. cum 
com. Oct. in Vesp. Laud, et Miss, in qua Cr. et Praef. Nativ. 
8, Sabb. In. Vesp. Com. Dom. Sexag. Oct. (ut in i. Vesp. festi) 
et S. Apollon, V. M. — De Oct. eras fit ut simplex. 

Pro Clero Romano, in 2. Vesp. Com. Dom. Sexag. Oct. (ut 
upra) S. Zosim. et S. Apollon. — De Oct. eras fit ut simplex. 

Fest. S. Zosim. est permanenter mutand. in primam diem 


liberam quae potest essa 14 Februar. et turn fest. S. Cyril, hoc 
ann. est transferend. in 15. 
9, Dom. in Sexag. 2. cl. Vio/. de Dom. Semid. ut in Calend. 
cum com. Oct. in Laud, et Miss. 3. or. S. V. Omitt. Suffr. et 

Pro CUro Romano, omnia ut supra. 


(7>« Churches reported.^ 

Feb. 4, Vesp. de. seq. sine. ulla. com. 

Pro CUro Romano, idem. 

Nota. — Fest S. Philippi a Jesu pro ecclesiis S. Agathae dedi- 
catis permanenter locandum est in prima die libera quae ante 
concessionem officii Septem Servor. B. M. V. erat 13. Feb- 
ruarii, nunc potest esse 14. 

5, Fer. 4. Rub. S. Agathae. V. M. Dupl. i. cl. cum Oct. OflF. pr. 
Miss. pr. cum GL Cr. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. tant. 

Pro CUro Romano, omnia ut supra. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. 

6, Fer. 5. Alb. S. Titi Ep. C. Dupl. m. t v. 9. Lect. et com. 
S. Dorotheae V. M. {Antiph, et Vers, ex 1. Vesp.) in Laud, et 
Miss. post. com. Oct. Miss. pr. Gl. Cr. Vesp. a cap. de seq. 
Com. praec. 

Pro CUro Romano, Alb. S. Hyac de Marisc. V. Dupl. 9. 
Lect. et com. S. Doroth. V. M. {^Antiph. Nigra sum et Vers. 
£legii earn ex 3. Noct.) post com. Oct. {Antiph. et Vers, ex i. 
Vesp.) in Laud, et Miss. {Dt'lexisti or. pr.) Gl. Cr. Vesp. a cap. 
de seq. Com. praec. et Oct. {Antiph. ex Laud. Vers, Specie tua 
ex I. Vesp.) 

7, Fer. 6. Alb. S. Romualdi Alb. Dupl. ut in Calend. cum com. 
Oct. in Laud, et Miss. Gl. Cr. Vesp. a cap. de seq. Com. praec. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 

8, Sabb. Alb. S. Joan, de Matha C. Dupl. ut in Calend. cum 
com. Oct. in Laud, et Miss. Gl. Cr. In 2. Vesp, com. Dom. 
Sexag. Oct. et S. ApoUon. V. M. (Or. Indulgenticm.) 

Pro CUro Romano, Off. et Miss, ut supra. In 2. vesp. com. 


Dom. Sexag, S. Zosimi Pap. C. (Or. Da, qucesumus) Oct. et S. 
Apollon. V. M. (or. Indulgentiam) — De S. Zosim. hoc anno fit 
ut simplex. 
9, Dom. in Sexag. 2. cl. Viol, de Dom. Semid, Com. Oct. et 
S. V. {Aniiph. et Vers, tit in i. Vesp. Or. Indulgentiam) in 
Laud, et Miss, omitt. Suffr. et Prec. Miss. pr. (sine GI.) Non 
die. aliae orationes. Cr. Praef. Trin. Vesp. de seq. (or. pr.) Com. 
Dom. et Oct. 

Pro Clero Romano, ut supra cum com. S. Zosim. Oct. et S. 
V. in Laud, et Miss. Vesp. de seq. Com. Dom. S. Zosim. et 

10, Fer. 2. Alb. S. Scholasticae V. Dupl. Com. Oct. {Antiph. el 
Vers, ex i Vesp.) in Laud, et Miss. Gl. Cr. Vesp. a cap. de seq. 
Com. praec. et Oct. {Antiph. de Laud. Vers, ex i Vesp.) 

Pro Clero Romano, ut supra. Vesp. de seq. Com. S. Antheri 
Pap. M. praec. et Oct. (ut supra). — De S. Anthtro fitut sim- 

1 1, Fer. 3. Alb. S. Septem Fundat. Ord. Serv. B. M. V. Off. novissi- 

mum ut in Calend. (Pustet, 1890, et in hoc numero ephe- 
meridis) Com. Oct. in Laud, et Miss. pr. Gl. Cr. Vesp. a cap. 
de seq. ut in i Vesp. fest. Com. praec. 

Pro Clero Romano, Rub. Com. Pass. D. N. J. C. Dupl. 
Maj. off. pr. 9. Lect. (tant. prima) et com. S. Antheri et Oct. 
in Laud, et Miss, cum Gl. Cr. In i. Vesp. Com. seq. et S. 

12, Fer. 4. Rub. Oct. S. Agathae V. M. Dupl. Lectt. i Noct. de 
Script, occ. 2 Noct. ex Octavar. de com. Virg. vel ex Breviar. 
Quoniam hodie. 3 Noct. ut in Octavar. 2. loc. vel ut in festo. 
In 2. Vesp. Com. seq. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia et supra. Vesp. a cap. de seq. 
Com. praec. 

13, Fer. 5. Alb. S. Raymund. a Pennafort. C. Semid. (fix. ex 
23 Jan.) ut in Calend. 

Pro Clero Romano, S. Gregorii H. ut in Calend. 




There are but two churches in the United States reported as dedicated 
to this holy virgin. We shall, therefore, only indicate the principal 
changes to be made on account of her feast, which occurs in the Breviary 
as a simple on the 9th of February. 

8, Vesp. de seq. Com. Domin. Sexag. tant. 
Pro Clero Romano, idem . 

9, Dom. in Sexag. Rub. S. Apolloniae, V. M. Dupl. i cl. cum 
Oct. Off. pr. et de commun. Virg. Lectt. 1 Noct. Df virginibus 
4. pr. 5. et 6. Quoniam hodie, etc. 3. Noct. decom. i. loc. Com. 
Dom. in Laud, et Miss. Loquebar. Gl. Cr. Praef. Trinit. In 2. 
Vesp. com. seq. et Dom. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 

Feriis 2, 3, 4, 5, et 6, omnia ut in Calend. cum com. Oct in 
Vesp. Laud, et Miss., in qua etiam dicit Cr. Commem. mu- 
tanda ubi eadem quae in Off. diei Cfr. Octava S. Agathae. 

15, Sabb. Rub. de Oct. Semid. Lectt. 1. Noct. de Script, occ. 2. 
Noct. ex Octavar. 7. die vel de com. 2. loc. 3. Noct. ex Octavar. 
vel ut in die festo com. SS. Faustin. et Jovit. MM. in Laud, (sine 
suffr.) et Miss. 3. or. A cunctis. Cr. Praef. commun. Vesp. a 
cap. de Dom. quinquag. Com. Oct ut in i. Vesp. festi (Omitt 
Suffr. etprec.) 

Pro dUro Romano, de S. Martina V. M. Dupl. In 2. Vesp. 
com. Dom. et Oct {utin i Vesp. festi.) — De Octava eras fit ut 

16, Dom, in Quinquag. 2. cl. de Dom. Semid. Ad Laud, (sine 
suffr.) com, Oct tant Reliqua utin Calend. Omitt /r^f. In 2. 
Vesp. com. Oct. (ante com. seq. pro iis qui Off. votiv. utunt) 

Pro Clero Romano, ut in Calend. cum mutationibus supra 
indicatis. Com. Oct. fit ante Com. S. Gregor. 


This Saint is also the Titular of only three or four churches in the 
United States. Her Octave will, therefore, be given very briefly. 
Feb. 9, Vesp. de seq. Com. Dom. Sexag, 

Pro Clero Romano, idem. Non commem. S. Zosimus. 
10, Fer. 2. Alb. S. Scholasticae V. Dupl. i. cl. cum Oct off. 


Virg. tant. etpr. loc. Lectt. i.Noct. De Virginibus. Reliqua ut 
in Calend. cum Cr. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. (S. Raym. de Pennaf.) 

Pro Clero Romano, ut supra. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. et S. 
Antheri Pap. Ad com pi. et eras dox. pr. 

Feriis 3, 4, 5, et 6. ut in Calend. cum com. Oct. in Vesp. 
Laud, et Miss, in qua dicit. Cr. et commemorationes mutantur 
quando eaedem ac in off. Cfr. Oct. S. Agathae. 

15, Sabb. Alb. de Oct. Semid. Lectt. i Noct. de Script, occ. 2. 
Noct. ut in Octavar. 6. die vel Quoniam hodie in Breviar. 3. Noct. 
ut in Octavar. vel ut in festo. Com. SS. Faustin. et Jovit. in 
Laud, (sine suffr.) et Miss. 3. or. A cunctis Gl. Cr. Vesp. a cap. 
de Dom. quinquag. Com. Oct. Omitt. suffr. ciprec. 

Pro Clero Romano, S. Martinae V. M. Dupl. Com. Oct. 

16, Dom. in quinquag. Viol. Com. Oct. sine 3 Or. Vesp. de seq. 
(ut in I. Vesp. festi) Com. Dom. (sine suffr. et Prec.) 

Pro Clero Romano, ut in Calend. cum com. Oct. post Com. S. 
Greg, in Laud, et Miss. Vesp. de seq. ut supra. Com. Dom. S. 
Hygini et S. Gregor. — De S. Hygino fit ut simplex. 

17, Fer. 2. Alb. Oct. S. Scholasticae Dupl. Lectt. Noct. de Script. 
Occ. 2. Noct. ut in Octavar. vel in Breviar. 2. loc. 3. Noct. ut 
in Octavar. i. loc. vel Breviar. i. loc. Miss, ut in festo. In 2. 
Vesp. com. seq. 

Pro Clero Romano, ut supra, cum Com. S, Hygin. in Laud, 
et Miss, a cap. de seq. com. Oct. et S. Hygin. 


{Six churches reported^ 

Feb. 23, Dom. i. in quadr. Vesp. de seq. (or. pr.) Com. Dom. 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 
24, Fer. 2. Rub. S. Matthias Ap. Dupl. r . cl. sine Oct, (ratione 
quadrag.) Off. totum ut in Calend. 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 

OTHER titulars; 

There occur in this month a few other Saints, to whom churches, in 
small numbers, however, and nearly all of them mission churches, have 


been dedicated in this country. We shall content ourselves with indicat- 
ing the day of their feast with one or two remarks about its celebration 
as that of the Titular. 


{One Church in U. S. reported.") 

Feo. 5, Rub. Dupl.- i. cl. cum Oct. OflT. pr. ut in fine Breviarii et 
Missalis, ubi concessum vel de com. plur. Mart. 2 loc Miss. 
Sapientiam dicit. Gl. Cr. per tot. Oct. et fit com. Oct. in Vesp. 
Laud, et Miss, aliorum officiorum. Die 12 Febr. fit Off. Octavae 
et permanenter mutantur officia S. Philippi a Jesu et S. Agathae. 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 


{One Church reported^ 

Feb. 6, Off. Ep. C. Alb. Dupl. i. cl. cum Oct. off. de com. conf. Pont 
Or. Exaudi Lectt de com. 2. loc. Miss. Scuerdotes tut. Gl. 
Cr. per. tot. Oct. et hujus com. in Vesp. Laud, et Miss, aliorum 
officiorum. Die 13 Febr. fit off. Octavae et permanent, mutant, 
offic S. Tit et Sept Fundat ord. Serv. B. M. V. 

Pro Clero Romano, idem. Permanent mutantur S. Hyac. de 
Marisc. et S. Gregor. H. 


{One Church reported.) 

Feb. 7, Off. C. Alb. Dupl. i. cl. cum Oct. Off. pr. et de com. ut in 
Brev. et Missal. Lectt i. Noct. Beatus vir 3. Noct. de com. Abbat 
Or. Intercessio. Gl. Cr. per tot. Oct et hujus com. in Vesp. Laud, 
et Miss aliorum offic. Die 14 fit off. Octavae et ulterius trans- 
fertur off. S. Cyril. Alexandrini. 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 


{One Church reported.) 

Feb. 18, Off. un. Mart Pont. Rub. Dupl. i. cl. sine Oct. (ob Quadra- 
gesimam) Off. pr. et de com. ut in Brev. et Missal. Lectt i. Noct 


A Mileto 2. Noct. 4. pr. 5. el 6. Triumphalis 3. Noct. Si considere- 
mus Or. Infirmitatem Gl. Cr. Com. fer. 

Pro Clero Romano, ex die 18 ulterius permanenter mutatur 
Oflf. S. Agathae. 


(Two Churches reported^ 

Feb. 25, Alb. Dupl. i. cl. sine Oct. Off. de com. Virg. i. loc. Lectt. i. 
Noct. DeVirginibus 2. Noct. Quoniam hodie. 3. Noct. ScBpe vos 9. 
Lectt. de hom. et com. fer. in Laud, et Miss. Dilexisti Gl. Cr. 
In 2. Vesp. com. fer, post, com S. Petr, Dam. qui in diem seq. 
ulterius transfertur. 

Pro Clero Romano, ut supra. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. et fer. — 
Off. S. Felicis III. potest permanenter mutari in ^7 Febr. 


{One Church reported.) 

Feb. 26, Alb. Dupl. i. cl. sine Oct. Off. nee V. nee. M. Lectt. i. Noct. 
Mulierem fortem 2. Noct. pr. ut in fine Brev. ubi concessum 
vel Agrum hunc 3 Noct. Ccelorum regnufu 9. Lect. de hom. et 
com fer. in Laud, ac Miss. pr. cum. Gl. Cr. et Evgl. fer. in fine. 
In 2 Vesp. com. fer. (post com. seq. pro eis qui ofiic. vot. utunt.) 
Pro Clero Romano, ut supra. In 2 Vesp. com. seq. et fer. 

H. Gabriels. 


The " Oratio Imperata." 

Qu. Will you give in your '' Conference " column the pre- 
cise rules regarding the Oratio imperata at Mass? The 
prayer " Pro papa " has of late been ordered to be said in 
this Diocese. I find that the prayer " In die consecrationis 
episcopi " is the same as that " Pro Papa," with the excep- 
tion of the name to be inserted. Are we on that occasion 
to say the prayer twice, or substitute another in its place ? 


In fact, might we omit this prayer without sin for any valid 
reason, such as weakness of the voice or the unusual length 
of the service, etc., or is it of strict obligation ? 

Resp. The Oratio imperata, whether it issues from the Pope 
or from the Ordinary of the Diocese, is de prcecepto. 

Rubricists distinguish two classes of orationes imperata: 
(i) The ^rst, pro re gravissima, which is ordered on extraor- 
dinary occasions, such as holding a synod, imminent or 
present calamities, and the like. These are to be said, irre- 
spective of the rank of the feast, in the following manner : 

In duplicibus I cl. sub una conclusione cum oratione festi 
(unless there be another commemoration in the Mass, in which 
case the imperata is added to the commemoration sub eadem 

In duplicibus II cl. sub secunda conclusione. 

Omnibus aliis diebus, praster in missis de Requie — nisi im-^ 
perata sit de Requie. 

(2) The second is the ordinary oratio imperata ordered for 
special reasons, but not extraordinary (non pro re gravissima). 
These are said on all days except : 

In Duplicibus I cl. 

In Duplicibus II cl. cantatis (in privatis pro arbitrio cele- 

In Dominica Palmarum. 

In Dominica IV. Adventus occurrente Vigilia Nativitatis. 

In Vigiliis Nativitatis et Pentecostes. 

In Feria V. in Coena Domini et in Sabbato Sancto. 

In Votivis solemnibus I. cl. (such as the masses of Expo- 
sition, etc., at Forty Hours' Devotion). 

In Missis de Requie (unless the imperata is " pro defunct."). 

(3) The oratio imperata always follows the ordinary com- 
memorations, but precedes the votive prayers, which the 
celebrant is at liberty to add (in simpl. et Missis votiv. 
privat.). If there be more than one imperata^ they follow 
each other in the order of dignity. 

(4) Ordinarily no prayer is to be omitted on account of 


the imperata, even though the Rubrics prescribe that the 
number should be uneven, three, five, etc. But " In anni- 
versario electionis seu consecrationis " the oratio " pro Papa " 
is omitted, it being the same for both. 

When the Rubrics prescribe for the third prayer the 
Oratio pro ecclesia vel pro papa, the former must be said as 
the third prayer, and the latter added as imperata. 

The Votive Offices— Are They Obligatory At Any Time ? 

Qu. There is an impression here, that a priest, if he make 
use once of the privilege granted to the Universal Church 
by the Decree of July 1883, to recite the Votive Offices, 
would thereby bind himself to their constant recital when- 
ever the Rubrics permit it. Is there any ground for this 
belief, or are we at liberty to use or not to use the Votive 
Offices on the days specified in the original Decree? 

Resp. There is no restriction in regard to the use or non- 
use of the Votive Offices by those who are not bound by a 
special canonical title to the recitation in choro. 

An exception is to be made, however, with respect to the 
Votive Offices of Thursday and Saturday. These bind priests 
in the United States (as in some other countries) because 
they had been obtained from the Holy See, at the special 
request of our Bishops, previous to 1883, and were always 
binding by reason of being adopted into the national calen- 
dar. Hence we are not at liberty to substitute the ferial or 
simple office for that of the Blessed Sacrament, or for that of 
the Immaculate Conception. 

In regard to those who are obliged to the recitation in 
choro the S. Congregation decides that they determine in 
chapter whether to recite the Votive Office or that of the 
day, and having once determined, they will be bound to the 
office chosen, both in their public and their private recitation. 

The following Decrees will assure those who are in doubt 
about this matter. 



I. An verba Indulti quoad privat am vero recti at ionem ad libi- 
tum singtilorum de clero intelligenda sint de eis tantum, qui 
nullo canonico titulo ad chorum tenentur? 

II. An statuta de consensu capituli, seu communitatis ab 
Ordinario adprobato, recitatione Officii votivi, liceat quando- 
cumque ab ca acceptatione recedere ? 

Emi porro ac Rmi Patres, omnibus accurate perpensis, 
sic rescribere rati sunt : 

Ad I. Affirmative. Ad II. Negative. 

S. R. C. Die 10 Nov. 1884. Deer. auth. 5895. 


Cum ex Decreto diei 5 Julii 1883 liberum sit iis, qui nullo 
canonico titulo ad chorum tenentur, recitare quibusdam feriis 
exceptis, vel officium feriale, vel officium votivum huic feriae 
respondens, quaeritur : Utrum obligatio adhuc manet solum 
officium votivum recitandi, ubi istud officium antea jam fu- 
erat speciali privilegio alicui Dicecesi concessum : ita ut prse- 
fatis diebus ferialibus non detur optio inter officium ferias et 
officium votivum? Et quatenus affirmative, an optio detur 
diebus contentis in novo Indulto 5 Julii 1883 in alio praece- 
denti exceptis ? 

Affirmative ad primam et secundam partem. 

S. R. C. Die 24 Nov. 1883. Deer. auth. 5896 I. 

The Biretum. 

Qu. How is the biretum to be made ? In Europe I have 
seen many priests who use a biretum with four wings, and 
sometimes such are met with here. Are they lawful ? 

Resp. The black biretum with four wings is used by Doc- 
tors, Bachelors, and Licentiates in Theology. It is rather an 
academical than a liturgical headcovering, and hence should 
not be used in the sanctuary, nor in any of the liturgical 
functions, such as processions, etc. 


In all sacred functions the threecornered biretum is pre- 
scribed, made according to the Roman fashion, according 
to which the proper material is considered to be black silk,, 
green lining, and a simple tuft in the centre. 

Note the following Decree : 


An in choro, et Processionibus quae capitulariter aguntur,. 
possit is, cui ob Magisterium et Lauream, aut Licentiam in 
Disciplinis Theologicis vel S. Canonibus obtentam, facultas 
conceditur deferendi Biretum cum quatuor apicibus, eodem 
Bireto uti ? 

S. R. C. rescribendum censuit : Negative in omnibus ni- 
minim : nee uti posse in ecclesiasticis functionibus tali Bire- 
to, nee amittere distributiones, siquidem Biretum non est 
chorale indumentum. 

(Die 7 Decemb. 1844, n. 4991). 

Vespers on Sundays. 

Qu. My organist insists upon having an " Ordo " and sing- 
ing the regular Vespers of the day on Sundays and holydays, 
alleging that the Rubrics demand this. I have no Rubrics to 
the contrary, yet the practice of my choir-master is very in- 
convenient, because he has to do the responding (and frequent- 
ly the singing) for the most part himself, the choir finding it 
difficult to follow the changes every time. Can we sing the 
Vespers of the B. V. M., as I know is done in many churches? 

Resp. The Vespers of the B. V. M. or any others may be 
sung on Sundays and holydays. This holds good in all cases 
except for those who are obliged to the recitation of the. 
Canonical hours. The following decree explains the matter, 


Utrum in ecclesiis mere parochialibus ubi non adest obli- 
gatio chori, Vesperae quae ad devotionem populi diebus Do- 
minicis et Festiviscantantur, conformes esse debent officio diei 


ut in Breviario, vel desumi possint ex alio officio, puta de SS. 
Sacramento vel de B. V. M. ? 

Resp. Licitum est in casu Vesperas de alio officio cantare, 
dummodo ii qui ad canonicas horas tenentur, privatim reci- 
tent illas de officio occurrenti. 

(S. R. C. 29 Dec. 1884.) 


ON Catechetical Instruction. 

The Holy Father sends the following Brief to Cardinal Capecelatro, 
president of the Catechistical Congress in Piacenza. 

Dilecte Fili Noster, salutem et Apostolicam Benedictio- 

Satis tibi compertum est paternum studium quo pro- 
sequuti sumus salutare consilium a te initum aliisque 
pluribus antistitibus Italicarum dicecesium qui tecum 
Placentiam convenere vel istuc misere legatos suos, ut 
collatis sententiis adscitisque aliis ecclesiasticis viris doc- 
trina praestantibus, inquisitio fieret de optima ratione 
tradendi christianae fidei rudimenta. Exhinc facile intelli- 
gis quam jucundae Nobis acciderint obsequiosae litteras 
qui bus ante discessum Nos adire voluit, te praesente, 
spectabilis iste Consessus opere jam perfunctus. Equi- 
dem in iis litteris perlegendis non mediocrem cepimus 
voluptatem cum ex verbis quibus consociatissimam Nos- 
trae voluntatem vestram testamini, tum ex pio studio 
quo vos incendi perspeximus ut naviter illud praestetur 
quod Christus voluit, quum Apostolos jussit docere omnes 
gentes servare quaecumque iis Ipse mandaverat. 


Nec praeterire volumus partam Nobis jucunditatem e 
spe quam ostenditis fructuum optimorum quos merito ex- 
pectatis ex his inceptis vestris communique conatu ad 
ea perficienda. Namque et Nos censemus fieri non posse 
ut diutius detrectent Nostram audire vocem et auctorita- 
tem vereri ii quorum mentibus penitus insederit divinae 
legis rerumque coelestium notitia. Supplices itaque preces 
effundimus ut laboribus vestris gratia ccelestis adspiret, 
eorumque fructibus ampla det incrementa. Sic fiat ut 
latius per vos verbum Dei multiplicetur et crescat, et 
complures ad salutem instructi a tristi recedant via quae 
temere ingressos ad interitum ducit. Ejus autem quam 
adprecamur gratiae auspicem esse cupimus Apostolicam 
Benedictionem, quam tibi, Dilecte Fili Noster, Venera- 
bilibus Fratribus, aliisque qui tibi in Placentino Con- 
ventu adfuere, peramanter in Domino impertimus. 

Datum Romm apud S. Peirum die VI Novemhris Anno 
MDCCCLXXXIX Pontificatus Nostri duodecimo. 


Dilecto Filio Nostro Alphonso Tit. S. Mariae a Populo 
S. R. E. Presbytero Cardinali Capecelatro Archiepiscopo 

FUNDATORUM (nth February). 

As the office of the seven holy Founders of the Servite 
order is inserted in the Calendar of the Universal Church for 
the first time this year, we publish the authentic text of it for 
the benefit of those who may not have the new Breviaries 
and Missals. 


Die II. Februarii, 

In Festo, 


Ordinis Servorum B. M. V. 



Omnia de Comtn. Confessoris non Pont., 
frctter sequ. 

In I. Vesperis. 

Capitnlum. I. Petr. iv. 
Carissimi : Commanidmtes Christi pas- 
si6nibus gaud^te. ut et in revelati6ne gWrite 
ejus gaudeitis exsultintes. 


Bella dum late furerent, et urbes 
Csede frat^rna g^merent cru^ntae, 
Adfuit Virgo, nova semper edens 
Munera matris. 
En vocat Septem Fimulos, fiddles 
Ut sibi in lacta, r^colant dol6res, 
Qaos tulit Jesus, tulit ipsa consors 
Sub cruce Nati. 
niico parent Ddminae vodinti : 
SpI6ndidis tectis opibusque spretis, 
Urbe sec^dunt procul in Seniri 
Abdita mentis. 
C6rpora hie poenis crucian t ac^rbis, 
S6ntium labes h6minum pi&ntes: 
Hie prece av^rtunt lacrimisque fusis 
Ntiminis iram. 
P^rdolens Mater fovet, atqne amfctum 
Ipsa lugubrem monet indudndum : 
Agminis sancti pia ccepta surgunt 
Mira pat^scunt. 

Palmes in bruma vfridans Iion6res 
Nunliat patrum: prdprios Marise 
Ore lact^nti v6citant pu^lli 

N6mine Servos. 

Sit decus Patri, genitseque Proli, 
Et tibi, compar utriusque Virtus 
Spiritus semper, Deus anas, omni 
T^mporis aevo. Amen. 

"yf. Hi viri misericdrdix sunt, qaoram 
pietiites non defu^runt. R. Semen ed- 
ram, et gl6ria e6ram non derelinqu6tur. 

Ad Magntf. Ant. Non recWet laus 
tua, Virgo Maria, de ore h6minam, -qui 
m^mores fuerint virtiitis Di^i in aet6rnum, 
pro quibas non peperdsti dnimae taae. 

D6mine Jesa Christe, qui ad recol^ndam 
mem6riam dol6rum sanctissimx Genitrfcis 
tuse, per Septem beAtos Patres nova Ser- 
v6rum ejus Famflia Eccl^siam tuam foe- 
cundasti: concede propftius ; itanose6ram 
consociiri fl^tibas, ut perfruAmar et gafi- 
diis : Qui vivis et regnas. 

In QttaJrag. comm. Ferut. 

Ad Matutinum. 

Sic patres vitam p^ragont in umbra, 
Lflia ut septem nfvei decdris, 



Virgini exc^lsse bene grata, Petro 
Visa njt^re. 
Jamque divfna rapi^nte flamma, 
Cursitant urbes, loca quseque ob^rrant, 
Si queant cnnctis dnimis dol6res 
Ffgere Matris. 
Hinc valent iras domufsse csecas, 
Ndscia et pacis fera corda jungunt, 
Erignnt moestos, r^vocant noc^ntes 
Dicta pidrum. 
At suos Virgo comitdta servos 
Evehit tandem silperas ad oras : 
G^mmeis sertis d^corat per sevum 
Omne bedtos. 
Eja nunc ccetus g^mitum precdntis 
Audiant, doros vfdeant lab6res : 
Semper et nostris fdveant benigno 
Lumine votis. 
Sit decus Patri. genitaeque Proli, 
Et tibi, compar otridsque Virtus 
Spfritus semper, Deus unus omni 
Tfemporis sevo. Amen. 

In I. Nocttimo Lectiones de Scripiura 

In Quadragesima Laud^mus viros glori- 
<5sos, de Comm. Conf. Pont 2. loco. 


Lectio iv. 

Saeculo t^rtio d^cimo, quum Friderfci 
secundi diro schfsmate, cruentlsque facti- 
6nibus culti6res Itdlise p6puli scinde- 
r^ntur, pr6videns Dei miseric6rdia prxter 
dlios sanctitdte illustres, septem et Floren- 
tina nobilitdte viros suscitdvit, qui in cari- 
tdte conjiincti, praecldrum frat^rnse dilecti- 

6nis praeb^rent ex^mplum. Hi, nimfrnm 
Bonfilius Mondldius, Bonojuncta Man^ttns, 
Man^ttus Antell^nsis, Amid^us de Ami- 
d^is, Ugiiccio Ugucci6num, Sosten^us de 
Sosten^is et Alexius Falcon^rius, quum 
anno trig^simo t^rtio ejus sseculi, die sacra 
Vi'rgini coelo receptee, in quodam pi6rum 
,h6minum conv^ntu, Lauddntium nuncu- 
pdto, ferv^ntius ordrent; ab eddem De(- 
para singulis appar^nte sunt adm6niti, ut 
sdnctius perfectiiisque vitse genus amplec- 
ter^ntur. Re itaque prius cum Florentine 
praesule coUdta, hi septem viri, generis 
nobilitdte divitiisque posthdbitis, sub vilis- 
simis detritfsque v^stibus cilicio indtiti, 
octdva die Sept^mbris in rardlem quam> 
dam aediculam secess^re, ut ea die pri- 
mdrdia vitse saucti6ris auspicar^ntur, qua 
ipsa Dei G^nitrix mortdlibus orta sanc- 
tissimam vitam inc^perat. 
R. Hon^stum fecit. 

Lectio V. 

Hoc vitae instUiitum qnam sibi foret ac- 
c^ptum Deus mirdculo ost^ndit Nam 
quum paulo defnceps hi septem viri per 
Florentfnam urbem ostidtim eleem6synam 
emendicdrent, dccidit ut rep^nte infdntium 
voce, quos inter fuit sanctus Phillppus 
Benltius quintum setdtis mensem vix in- 
grdssus, Bedtse Marfae Servi acclamar^ntur: 
quo defnde n6mine semper appelldti sunt. 
Quare, vitdndi p6puli occursus ac solitti- 
dinis am6re ducti, in Sendrii montis rec6s- 
su omnes conven^re, ibfque ccelfete quod- 
dam vitae genus aggr^ssi sunt. Victitdbant 



enim in speliincis, sola aq«a herblsqae 
cont^nti : vigfliis lifsqae asperititibus 
corpas atterdbant: Christ! passi6nem ac 
mcrstfssimx cjusdem Genitricis dol6res 
assiduc meditdntcs. Quod qaam olim 
sacra Parasceves die imp^nsius exseque- 
rentur, ipsa Beita Virgo illis iterdto 
appdrens, lugobrem vestem, qaam in- 
diierent, ost^ndit, sibfqae acceptissimum 
fore significdvit, ut novam in Eccl^sia 
regaldrem Ordinem excitdrent, qui jugem 
rec61eret ac protnov^ret mem6riam dol6- 
rom, quos ipsa p^rtulit sub cruce D6mini. 
Haec sanctus Petrus, inclytus Ordinis 
Praedicat6rum Martyr, ex familidri cum 
Sanctis illis viris consnettidine ac peculidri 
<tiam Defparx visi6ne quum didicfsset; 
lis auctor fuit, ut Ordinem Reguldrem sub 
appellati6ne Serv6rnm Bedtae Virginis in 
stitderent : qtfi p6stea ab Innoc^ntio quarto 
Pontffice Mdximo approbdtus fuit. 
R. Amdrit eum. 

Lectio vi, 

* Porro sancti illi viri, qnnm plures sibi 
ft6cios adjunxissent, Itdliie civitdtes atque 
6ppida, praes^rtim Etniriae, exctirrere coe- 
pdrant, prxdicdntes ubfqae Christum Cru- 
ciflxum, civiles disc6rdias compesc^ntes, 
et inniimeros fere d^vios ad virtlitis s6mi- 
tarn revocdntes. Neque Itdliam modo, 
sed et Gdlliam, Germdniam ac Poldniam 
suis eTang^Hcis lab6ribus excolu^runt. 
IMnique qnam bonum Christi od6rem lon- 
ge lat^que difTudfssent, portent6ram quo- 
qae gl6ria illiistres, migrdrunt ad D6mi- 

num. Sed qaos unas rerx fratemitdtis 
ac religi6nis amor in vita soddverat, nnnm 
pdriter dem6rtuos cont^xit sepdlchmm, 
dnaque p6puli venerdtio proseciita est 
Qaapr6pter Qemens und^imus et Be- 
nedfctus d^cimus t^rtius Pontffices Mdximi 
deldtum ifsdem a pluribns saeculis indiv(- 
duum cultum confirmdrunt : ac Leo d^ci- 
mus t^rtius, approbdtis dntea mirdcnlis, 
post indultam venerati6nem ad collectfvam 
eonimdem invocati6nem a Deo patrdtis, 
e6sdem anno quinquag^simo sacerd6tii sui 
Sanct6ram hon6ribas cumnldvit, eonimque 
mem6riam OfHcio ac Missa in univ^rsa Ec- 
cl6sia quotdnnis recol^ndam instftuiL 

R. Iste homo. 

In III. NoctumoHomil. in Evang. Ecce 
nos reliquimus, de Comm. Abb, prim. loc. 

In Quadrag. Lect IX. de Homilia et 
commem. Per. in Laud. 


Capitulum. I. Petr. W. 

Carissimi : Commanicdntes Christi pas- 
si6nibus gaud^te, at et in revelati6ne gI6riaB 
ejus gaudedtis exsultdntes. 


Matris sab almae numine 
Sept6na proles ndscitur: 
Ipsa vocdnte, ad drduum 
Tendit Sendri v^rticem. 

Quos terra frnctus pr6feret 
Dam sacra proles g^rminat, 
Uvis rtp^nte tiSrgidis 
Onusta vitis prsemonet 



Virtiite daros n6bili 
Mors sancta coelo c6nsecrat: 
Tenent olympi Ifmina 
Servi fiddles Virginis. 

Cohors bedta, Niiminis 
Regno potita, rdspice 
Quos hinc rec6dens fr&adibus 
Cinctos reUnquis h6stium. 

Ergo, per almse vtilnera 
Matris rogdmus supplices, 
Mentis tendbras disjice, 
Cordis proc611as c6mpriine. 

Tu nos, bedta Trinitas, 
Perfunde sancto robore, 
Possimus at feliciter 
Exdmpla patrum subsequi. 


y* Sit momdria iI16nim in benedicti6ne. 

R. Et ossa eoram piillalent de loco sao. 

Ad Benedictus. Ant. Ecceqoam bo- 
num et quam juciindum habitdre fratres in 


D6mine Jesu Christe, qui ad recoldndam 
mem6riam dolorum sanctissimse Geaitricis 
tU3e, per septem beatos Patres nova Serv6- 
rum ejos Famflia Eccldsiam tnam foecan- 
disti: concede propftius, ita nos eorum 
consocidri fldtibus, ut perfrudmur et gau- 
diis: Qui vivis et regnas. 

In II. Vesperis. 
Omnia ut in primis, prseter 

Ad Magnificat. Ant. Nomen e<5rum p6r- 
manet m aetdrnum, pdrmanens ad filios 
e6rum, sanct6rum virorum gldria. 




JUSTI decantaverunt, Domine, nomen sanctum tuum, et 
victricem manum tuam laudaverunt pariter : quoniam 
sapientia aperuit os mutum, et linguas infantium fecit disertas. 
Ps. 8. Domine Dominus noster, quam admirabile est nomen 
tuum in universa terra. 
V. Gloria Patri. 


Domine Jesu Christe, qui ad recolendam memoriam dolo- 
rum sanctissimae Genitricis tuae, per septem beatos Patres 


nova Servorum ejus farailia Ecclesiam tuam foecundasti: 
concede propitius, ita nos eorum consociari fletibus, ut per- 
fruamur et gaudiis : Qui vivis et regnas cum Deo Patre. 


Laudemus viros gloriosos, et parentes nostros in genera- 
tione sua. Multam gloriam fecit Dominus magnificentia sua 
a saeculo. Dominantes in potestatibus suis, homines magni 
virtute et prudentia sua praediti, nuntiantes in prophetis 
dignitatem prophetarum, et imperantes prassenti populo, et 
virtute prudentiae populis sanctissima verba. In peritia sua 
requirentes modos musicos, et narrantes carmina scriptura- 
rum. Homines divites in virtute, pulchritudinis studium 
habentes : pacificantes in domibus suis. Omnes isti in ge- 
nerationibus gentis suae gloriam adepti sunt, et in diebus suis 
habentur in laudibus. Qui de illis nati sunt, reliquerunt 
nomen narrandi laudes eorum, Et sunt quorum non est 
memoria ; petierunt quasi qui non fuerint : et nati sunt, quasi 
non nati, et filii ipsorum cum ipsis. Sed illi viri misericordia& 
sunt, quorum pietates non defuerunt. Cum semine eorum 
permanent bona, liaereditas sancta nepotes eorum, et in testa- 
mentis stetit semen eorum : et filii eorum propter illos 
usque in aeternum manent : semen eorum et gloria eorum 
non derelinquetur. Corpora ipsorum in pace sepulta sunt, et 
nomen eorum vivit in generationem et generationem. Sapi- 
entiam ipsorum narrent populi, et laudem eorum nuntiet 

Graduate. Isai. Ixv. Electi mei non laborabunt frustra, 
neque germinabunt in conturbatione : quia semen bene- 
dictorum Domini est, et nepotes eorum cumeis. 

V. Eccli.xxxxiv. Corpora ipsorum in pace sepulta sunt, et 
nomen eorum vivit in generationem et generationem. 

AUeluja, alleluja. 

V. Sapientiara ipsorum narrent populi, et laudem eorum 
nuntiet Ecclesia. Alleluja. 

Post Septiiagesimam, omissis ALLELUJA, et V. sequenti, dicitur: 


Tractus. Ps. cxxv. Qui seminant in lacrimis, in exsulta- 
tione metent. 

V. Euntesibant et flebant, mittentes semina sua. V. Veni- 
entes autem venient cum exsultatione, portantes manipulos 
suos. • 

Tempore Paschali omittitur Graduate, et ejus loco dicitur: Al- 

V. Eccli. xxxxiv. Sapientiam ipsorum narrent populi, et 
laudem eorum nuntiet Ecclesia. Alleluja. 

V. Ps. xxxvi. Non derelinquet Dominus sanctos suos : in 
aeternum conservabuntur. Alleluja. 

Evangel. Ecce nos reliquimus, ex com. pro Abbat. 

Offertorium. Isai. 56. Adducam eos in montem sanctum 
meum, et laetificabo eos in domo orationis meae : holocausta 
eorum, et victimas eorum placebunt mihi super altare meum. 


Accipe, quaesumus Domine, hostias quas tibi offerimus : et 
prassta ut, intercedentibus Sanctis tuis, libera tibi mente 
serviamus, Perdolentis Virginis Genitricis Filii tui amore 
inflaramemur. Per eundem Dominura. 

Communio. Joan. xv. Ego vos elegi de mundo, ut eatis, et 
fructum afferatis : et fructus vester maneat. 


Coelestibus refecti mysteriis te, Domine, deprecamur : ut 
quorum festa percolimus imitantes exempla, juxta Crucem 
Jesu cum Maria Matre ejus fideliter adstemus, et ejusdem 
redcmptionis fructum percipere mereamur. Per- eundem 
Dominum nostrum. 


Tertio Idus Februarii. 

Etruriae in Monte Senario Sanctorum Septem Fundatorum 
Ordinis Servorum Beatae Marias Virginis, qui post asperri- 
mum vitae genus, meritis et prodigiis clari, pretiosam in 


Domino mortem obierunt. Quos autem in vita unus veras 
fraternitatis spiritus sociavit et indivisa post obitum populi 
veneratio prosecuta est, Leo decimus tertius una paritcr 
Sanctorum fastis accensuit 

Indulgentia pro oratione a clericis in sacris constitutis recitanda, 


Domine J'esu Christe, sponse animae meae, deliciae cordis 
mei, imo cor meum et anima mea, ante conspectum tuum 
genibus me provolvo, ac maximo animi ardore te oro atque 
obtestor, ut mihi des servare fidem a me Tibi solemniter 
datam in receptione Subdiaconatus. Ideo, o dulcissime 
Jesu, abnegem omnem impietatem, sim semper alienus a car- 
nalibus desideriis et terrenis concupiscentiis, quae militant 
adversus animam meam, et castitatem, te adjuvante, interne- 
rate servem. 

O Sanctissima et Immaculata Maria, virgo virginum et 
mater amantissima, munda in dies cor meum et animam me- 
am. impetra mihi timorem Domini et singularem mei diffi- 

Sancte Joseph, custos virginitatis Mariae, custodi animam 
meam ab omni peccato. 

Omnes sanctae virgines, divinum agnum quocunque sequen- 
tes, estote mei peccatoris semper solicitae, ne cogitatione, 
verbo, aut opere dclinquam et a castissimo corde Jesu un- 
quam discedam. Amen. 

55. D. N. Leo Papa XIII in audientia habita die 16 Martii i88g 
ab infrascripto Sccrctario S. Congrcgationis Indulgentiis Sacris- 
que Reliquiis prcepositce, omnibus, de quibus in prcecibus, corde 
saltern contrito ac devote recitantibus propositam orationem In- 
dulgentiam centum dierum, defunctis quoque applicabilem, 
semel in die lucrandam, benigne concessit. Prcesenti in perpe- 


tuum valituro^ absque ulla Brevis expeditione. Contrariis qui- 
buscumque non obstantibus. 

Datum Romae ex Secretaria ejusd. S. C. die 16 Martii 1889. 

lii C. Card. Cristofori, PrcBfectus. 
Alexander Episcopus Oensis, Secretarius. 


REVUE DE L'ART CHRETIEN. Lille (Brouwer et Cie.) Tome 
VII, 4me. livr. 

What a magnificent spirit of Iionorable purpose and faith there breathes 
out of the address to the readers of this " Revue " at the conclusion of 
its seventh year. Nothing of cant, no self-quotation, nothing of the 
brave weakness that waits for the popular intonation to shape its songs 
and prophecies to the reading public. Canon Corblet started out with 
the high purpose of securing for Christian art its honored place in 
France ; to direct towards it the aspirations of those who seek a loftier 
ideal than that which the study of the antique and of nature can inspire. 
And a faithful coterie of noble-minded artists have since then devoted 
their efforts to make known and appreciated those monuments of genius 
whch arose out of the vivifying spirit of faith and the teaching of Christ. 
The " R6vue " not merely reproduced the old specimens of archaeology 
and ecclesiastical art, but it constituted itself the defender and guardian 
of the purity of contemporary art against the materialistic tendency which 
appeals without disguise to sensualism. Beautiful and attractive in 
form, the publication is not merely a lecturer, but a teacher of art. 
Having succeeded by strict adherence to its principles in establishing 
itself among those who could recognize its value, the publishers, with 
that rare spirit of generosity which one hardly meets with outside of 
Catholic France, devote the gain to the propagation of Christian art, by 
making the Quarterly a Bi-monthly Review, without any change in price, 
and without detracting from any of its <f ciner excellent features. We 


wish it entrie among those of our clergy who could profit by its reading, 
for it seems not to have any circulation in this country at present. As 
we have no space to dwell on any of the articles in the current number, 
we give the contents, whence an idea of the scope of the publication may 
be gathered — Les ^p^es d'honneur distributes par les papes pendant les 
xiv, XV, xvi sidles (premier article), par Eug. Muntz. — L* Etendard de 
la Ste. Ligue d la bataille de L6pante, par C. Fernandez Duro, — Minia- 
tures de Frangois Clouet au tr6sor imperial de Vienne, par F. Mazerolle. 
— Un Missel de Marmoutiers du xi si^cle, par L. A. Bosseboeuf. — Etudes 
d'anaglypiique sacr^e (premier art.), par l*abb6 Ch. DideloL — Les 
tapisseries des 6glises de Paris, par Jules Guiffrey. — Les statuaires, i 
Rome, par Mgr. X. Barbier de Montault. — L'art a Amiens vers la fin du 
moyen age dans ses rapports avec I'^cole flamande primitive (premier 
art.) par C. Dechaisnes. — Melanges. — Travaux des Soci^t^ Savantes. — 
Bibliographie. — Periodiques. — Index bibliographique. — Chronique. — 
Questions et Reponses. — (Planches et Vignettes). 


Dr. Gutberlet defends with excellent tact and some humor the school 
of the so-called Neo-scholastics against i\\Q furor antithomisticus of an 
anonymous writer, Julius L He shows that the latter is only partially 
familiar with the writings of such men as Kleutgen, Stoeckl, Schneider, 
etc., whom he undertakes to criticise. The author of the brochure Was 
sol/en wir glauben barely escapes the charge of stating heresy on the sub- 
ject of Transubstantiation, by being permitted to be obscure in the use 
of his terms, since he does not profess to be a philosopher, but styles 
himself "a country parson." There is also a critique from the indefati- 
gable Bellesheim of Ireland and the Anglo-Norman Churchy by Prof. 
Stokes. The book is said to be a well-drawn and more than usually fair 
review of the Irish Church from 11 70- 1509. The same critic reviews 
The Holy Scriptures in Ireland One Thousand Years Ago. Selections from 
the VVvirtzburg glosses. Transl. by Rev. Thomas Olden, vicar of Bally- 
clough — Dublin: Hodges. — Students of Assyriology will be glad to have 
their attention drawn to Fred. Delitzsch' Assyrian grammar, which is the 
most complete analysis of that mysterious tongue yet attempted. Reuther 
(Berlin) also publishes a library of all the cuneiform writings, comprising 
a full collection of Assyrian and Babylonic texts with Latin transcription 
and literal translation (German). The first part, containing the historic 


texts of the old Assyrian reign, has already appeared. The rest follow in 
chronological order. 

The number opens with a Congratulatory letter of the Cardinal-Vicar of 
Rome to Fr. Mancini, Editor of the Ephemerides, in which he sets forth 
the importance of the labor undertaken by the projectors of the publica- 
tion, in order to bring about a uniform practice in liturgical discipline. 
The Holy Father has also expressed his high satisfaction with the work 
done by the Congregation of the Mission, under whose patronage it 
appears. Although the Ephemerides are not, strictly speaking, the 
authoritative interpreters in liturgical matters, they nevertheless discuss 
on scientific grounds the doubts proposed, and if necessary refer them for 
final solution to the respective S. Congregations, with whom the right of 
decision properly belongs. The present issue contains among other 
things an able plea by Dr. Piacenza in favor of having the feast of St. 
Joseph, Patron of the Universal Church, raised to a Dupl. I cl. cum Octava. 
It appears not unlikely that the argument will take effect. 


MORALE in Busenbaum, Medullam Absolvit et Edidit Dominicus 
Palmieri ex eadem Soc. Vol. I., tractatus continens generales.— De 
actibus humanis. — De conscientia — De legibus — De peccatis, cum 
duabus appendicibus. S'^, pp. Ixxxvi, 687. Prati, ex officini libraria 
Giacchetti, Fil et C. 1889. 

In his lectures at the Roman College Fr. Ballerini was wont to use 
as a text the Moral Theology of Busenbaum. The brevity, clearness, 
close logical connection of conclusion with principle, above all, the 
absence of anything savoring of the Jansenistic spirit in the Medulla, com- 
mended it to his theological temper. It was his intention to fashion his 
notes into a complete treatise, but death came ere he could carry out his 
design. To Fr. Palmieri, at one time his pupil, and afterwards associate 
professor, were entrusted his MSS., with the commission of arranging and 
perfecting the proposed work. We have the first part of the result in the 


volume before us. Busenbaum had not written on human acts (nor on 
the first pan de jure et Justitia.) Fr. Ballerini arranged a compendium 
on this subject, and it, together with the treatises by the older theologian 
on conscience, laws, and sin, are given in the present work, the elaborate 
commentary following each paragraph of the text. There were also some 
lacuna in the author^s MSS. These have been supplied by the editor, 
asterisks designating their source. 

Fr. Ballerini is well known to students of Moral Theolopy by his 
notes to Gury's compendium. In the latter commentary we admire in 
him the keen critic, the erudite polemist. In the Opus Morale he ap- 
pears as the Moral Theologian in the exact sense of the term. The 
principles of Moral Theology are divine revelation, natural, civil, eccle- 
siastical law, and the doctrine of men whose works prove them to have 
been gifted with those qualities of mind and heart which enabled them 
to induce from first source those truths in whose evolution the moral 
science as such exists. Amongst these great minds are the Fathers St 
Thomas, Suarez, De Lugo, St. Alphonsus, etc. It was Fr. Balleiini's 
aim to draw his" teaching from these pure streams. "In toto opere illud 
sibi constantissime proposuit, ut Theologiam Moralem ad veteres et puris- 
simos fontes revocaret, unde profecta est, eamque idcirco exigeret secun- 
dum magisterium summorum Theologix luminum et praeserlim S. 
Thomae, cujus doctrinam qualibet in qusestione, quam S. Doctor attigit, 
fideliter refert." (Praef. vii). In citing his authorities, he is careful to give 
the context in essential fulness (and with scrupulous exactness — no 
small merit on such a subject — for, as Fr. Palmieri pleasantly obsen'es 
— non perinde est, pro aliqua amplectenda opinione sive auctor tibi sit S. 
Antoninus, sive Antoine). In this. respect his work is in some measure 
not unlike that of the great Petavius. But whilst setting forth his wealth 
of extrinsic argument, it is mainly because of its inherent strength, and 
whenever the latter quality is not cogent, its deficiency is clearly pointed 
out. An instance of critical sifting of authorities may be found in the 
author's treatment of the nature of morality, and more especially as re- 
gards the moral indifference of human acts (pp. 75, 117). Fr. Ballerini 
deals, of course, exhaustively with the question of probability in the body 
of his work, (pp. 164-229) and in the elaborate appendix, " Degenuina 
S. Alphonsi sententia circa usum opinionis probabilis." 

To illustrate his method by extracts from these closely woven portions 
of his work were unjust. To abridge would be to mutilate tliem. We 



might venture on an example from his pages, on the obligation of human 
laws. Busenbaum's text is cited and explained. It suggests the famous 
question as to the existence of purely penal laws. All theologians admit 
such laws, when they are known to have been the object of the legisla- 
tor's intention. In this case his enactments do not per se bind the con- 
science "ad vitandas transgressiones, sed obligant utique in conscientia 
solum ad subeundam poenam." The criterion whereby a merely penal law 
may be discerned is the form of the law expressing the sanction : e. g.. 
Qui hoc fecerit, subeat eam pcenam, etc. — custom and general opinion aid 
in their interpretation. " Hinc quando agitur de legibus ejusmodi, 
deficit regula, quam cum aliis S. Alph. proponit N. 145, ut scil. gravitatem 
obligationis desumamus ex poenae gravitate . . . . Ita gravissima est poena 
captivi bellici, si fugiat ; nee tamen per se tenetur non tentare fugam." 
The Salmanticenses, De leg. c, ii., n 53, give as an example of a penal law 
that which binds a sentinel, sub poena mortis, to remain at his post. " At 
cum mica salis id est intelligendum. Nam tempore belli ac communis 
periculi nescio, an quis concessurus sit, legem custodiendi muros esse 
pure poenalem." 

Theologians disc-uss the question whether human laws (civil especially, 
■whose matter does not fall under the natural, the divine positive laws, 
^ic.) called mixed bind ad culpam. " Dicentur mixtae quae poenam simul 
imponunt et praecipiunt: quod patet, si addantur verba imperium jus- 
sum, praeceptum significantia.^' 

S. Alphonsus first cites the opinion of those who, following Navarrus, 
•deny or seem to deny the obligation ad culpam {ad poenam ceterfiam et 
iemporaleni) of these laws. He then decides against this negative opin- 
ion, " Ratio, quia nullum esset discrimen inter legem mixtam et mere 
poenalem. Deinde frustra praecipere videtur superior, si non velit ad cul- 
pam obligare.^' 

" Verumtamen," says Ballerini, " haec quaestio non videtur sic generali- 
ter in alterutram partem definienda. Ratio, quia utrique parti aliquid vi- 
detur concedendum et reipsa falso affirmaremus, nunquam in conscientia 
obHgare has leges, si adjunctam poenam habeant. Nam reipsa vix lex 
• aliqua civilis sanctione caret, et sic nulla obligaret in conscientia. ..." 

There can hardly be any doubt regarding the ancient custom of in- 
terpreting certain laws as not binding in conscience. Moreover, if the 
measure of obligation were to be sought in the interior of the legislator, 
we should have to concede that this norm is often extremely uncertain. 


"maxime aetate hac nostra, quando regimen civile habetur ceu omnino 
separatum a foro conscientiae." ' 

*' Nee pariter valde firma est ratio S. Alphonsi, petita ex formulis ver- 
borum. Nam si reipsa constaret, tunc velle conscientias ligare legisla. 
torcm, cum praeceptivas formulas adhibet, has vero formas eum omittere, 
cum vult solum obligare ad pcenam, aliquid /t?r/^ ea ratio concluderet. 
Sed cum non constet^hanc regulam a legislatoribus servari, eo ipso nequc 
constat, quod S. Alph. supponit, poenales a mixtis distingui per diversas 
illas formulas." 

We must therefore look for some other norm of obligation. And in 
the first place it is unnecessary to recur to the intention of the legislator, 
for such intention may be lacking " et saltem negative se habere potest 
legislator, nihil scil. de hoc cogiians." Moreover, all must admit that 
the necessity of observing the laws required in certain circumstances by 
social order and the common weal is such as -to give rise to moral obliga- 
tion, " postulante scil. Deo, auctore naturae et ordinis." Hence we may 
find a standard of obligation in the matter of the law and in the relation 
of its matter to the attainment of the common good — the end of the law. 
Herein custom may be the best interpreter, as Navarrus observes. For, 
if the matter and end of the law be such that the good for which the 
law had been promulgated may be sufficiently attained by mere penal 
sanction, such law, e. g., those regarding custom duties, etc., plainly is 
not binding ad culpam. "Et sic ex consuetudine evadent leges mere 
pcenales, etiamsi formulae sint simul praeceptivae. Secus vero dicetur, 
«i leges proxime et valde conferant ad commune bonum, ad commu- 
ncm quietem et ordinem." 

The Opus Aforale is evidently not a book for beginners, nor for those 
who wish to gel a " bird's eye view " of moral science. But the student who 
wishes to make thorough study of its subject-matter, who is willing to 
analyze principles, to follow the working out of their wealth of conclu- 
sions, to compare patiently the thoughts of great minds, will find Fr. 
Ballerini's Opus Morale probably the clearest and most comprehensive 
work that has yet been published on the science of Moral Theology. 

I should like here to touch upon a point which is of general interest. 
It frequently occurs in this country that, husband and wife having 
separated from each other, a doubt is raised by one party whether the 
other be still alive. As the priest would require sufficient testimony to 

' On theM two points Navarrus appears to rest his opinion. 



prove the death of the absent party, before sanctioning a new marriage, 
the latter is contracted before a civil magistrate or minister. Afterwards 
one or both of the newly married couple come to confession. What are 
we to say to the guilty party ? What to the other in case he or she 
found out only after the marriage that the first husband or wife of his 
accepted partner may be still alive ? What if both parties were doubtful 
before contracting, and entered marriage with that doubt ? P. Konings, 
in his Compendium, n. 1574, qu. 6, answers the question : "An liceat 
conjugibus uti matrimonio, si post nuptias initas dubium probabile de 
aliquo impedimento oriatur," by saying : "Affirmative, dubio post 
debitani iiiquisitionem perseverante et matrimonio bona, imo satis proba- 
biliter dubia etiam fide inito. . . . excipe . . . b) casum dubii de morte 
prioris conjugis, idque, ut S. Alph. VI., n. 904, 906, contra alios docet, 
sive nuptise sint initae cum bona fide sive cum dubia fide "... Here is 
a difficulty. Dubitans de morte prioris conjugis ergo nunquam nee 
etiam casu quo dubium exortum sit post nuptias bona fide celebratas 
posset petere, reddere autem tantum si altera pars in bona fide petat 
— casus admodum rarus ! But let us carefully compare the teaching of St. 
Alphonsus in the passages cited and see what Aertnys says. The latter 
asks (pag. 102, n. 30) : An dubius de valore matrimonii possit petere 
debitum, si adhibita diligentia dubium vinci non potest ? He answers : 
I. Si matrimonium bona fide contractu m fuit, communissime et proba- 
bilissime affirmatur. He makes no limitation as regards a dubium 
exoriens circa mortem prioris conjugis. Nor does St. Alphonsus restrict 
his opinion here (n. 904), as we should have expected him to do if he 
had intended to deny the jus petendi on account of a dubium super- 
veniens de morte prioris conjugis to the party who entered matrimony 
bona fide ; for it is of this dubium that St. Thomas speaks when he 
maintains the opposite opinion. It may be objected here that in the 
above passage (n. 906) he says expressly : sive nuptiae initae sint cum bona 
fide, sive, etc. Very true. But the bona fides does not of necessity 
exclude the dubium ante nuptias. Experience teaches (and Lehmkuhl 
cites Lacroix in favor of the same, n. 844) that a person may have doubts 
about the death of a former husband or wife and still enter marriage 
"bona fide . . . Dubitans ex probabilibus argumentis utique aliqu^ndo 
potest bona fide nuptias celebrare, scil. ignorans majorem certitudinem 
ad hoc requiri.*' (Lehmk. loc. cit.) There is no doubt, then, that the 
text of P. Konings in this place needs correction in the sense of P. 


Aertnys* interpretation. And the able successor of the former, P. 
Kuper, whom death has also recently taken from us, remarks this 
feet in a note in the seventh edition of P. Konings' Compendium, of 
which he became the editor. 

2. Si matrimonium mala fide, i. e., cum dubio de morte prions conju- 
gis initum est, turn pars dubia et manens dubia non potest petere, quia 
tunc praevalet jus prioris matrimonii. (Aertnys, loc. cit.) Ergo si 
uterque ita matrimonium init, neuter potest petere. This will serve to 
elucidate the matter for those who may be in doubt. I would suggest, 
however, that, in order to present the text of St. Alphonsus at n. 906 in 
a just light, the thesis might have been stated somewhat differently from 
P. Aertnys' manner. It would have been more to the point to put it in 
this form : Si matrimonium cum dubio stricto antecedente, etsi forsan 
cum bona fide apud nuptias, initum est, tum . . .etc. — We may aptly 
conclude this critique of P. Aertnys' excellent fascicle by repeating the 
words of P. Lehmkuhl (Theol. Mor. , Ed. 4, vol. II., p. 795), who speaks 
of Aertnys' Theologia Moralis in the following appreciative terms: 
"Opusculuni omninolucide et moderate compositum, dignumest, quod 
cum magna laude commemoretur. " 

J. P. 

Conway, S.J. Second Edition. New York & Cincinn.: Fr. Pustet 
& Co. 1890. 

This brochure has been highly recommended" by competent critics, and 
that must be gratifying to the author. But good thoughts and sound 
views on so important a subject, put into this form, do not fulfil their 
mission by receiving the meed of praise due to the ability and industry of 
a conscientious author. If we are alive to our needs, and would remedy 
them speedily, and save ourselves much mutual misunderstanding and 
jarring, then pamphlets like this are our weapons. We agree that we 
have no time to read books, and the papers fail to satisfy us on the sub- 
ject, as they deal with facts rather than with principles. Hence we would 
say, read an essay like this, read it again ; there is time enough in the 
waiting room or on the railway ; read it with a friend and exchange 
thoughts of a practical character, which will make the thoughts an action; 
have it read to the young men in their literary gatherings; spread it 


broadcast among intelligent and reading people, for this is disseminating 
true views of education and liberty. Then we may enter society and find 
that our Catholic laity have correct views of the state of the question, and 
will readily prepare the way for and help in our efforts to raise schools, 
not by driving our people into them, as has been said we do, but by 
making them conscious of their rights and duties, and anxious to obtain 
the privileges of a Catholic education. It is a sad fact that men like the 
Hon. Zachary Montgomery should have been struggling for years, single- 
handed and — we are not exaggerating or guessing — with no greater 
opposition than that which has come to him from the want of under- 
standing on the part of those whom his noble efforts were designed to 
benefit first and foremost. There is no better method of righting our 
position than that of spreading constantly and everywhere by means of 
brochures the principles that underlie the burning questions of the day. 
These include not only the topics of school, of labor, of temperance, but 
also the everlasting falsehoods manufactured by anti-Catholic bigotry, 
which is hydra-headed, and will not — alas! cannot die. 

THE SPANISH INQUISITION. By Rt. Rev. Joseph Dwenger, D. D., 
Bishop of Fort Wayne. New York, Cincinn., Chicago : Benziger 
Bros. 1890. 

Although the subject of the Inquisition has a somewhat trite sound 
about it, its discussion, with a view of keeping the historic facts in the 
case before the reading public, can never be superfluous as long as anti- 
Catholic prejudice continues periodically to revive an error and a slander 
which has, unfortunately, received support from writers who hold high 
rank as literary historians. We would not abuse Prescott, though he 
does great injury to us by his want of just discrimination in a matter 
which, we cannot deny it, has something of the air and gesture of truth, 
as against the Church, about it. He did not, after all, mean to pose as 
the critical historian, which r61e Mr. Henry Charles Lea has lately chosen 
to impersonate. The latter, being professionally in the way of books, had 
the fortune, good or ill, to gather much printed matter on this as on 
other subjects. From the endless variety of things said about the Span- 
ish Inquisition by different men in different languages, he makes a 
judicious choice, places the names which he calls original sources, 
together with frequent citations in foreign tongues, at the bottom, cor- 
responds with some gentlemen abroad who must send him something 



from the "archives" which has never appeared in print before, suggests 
here and there that he really admires the old Latin Church, about vhich 
he knows so much, and — behold, the newspaper critics, who are wise in 
their generation, hail the advent of a new work printed by a very respect- 
able firm, and coming from a scholar equally erudite and impartial. 
Alas, what tragedies the world enacts with cap and bell, and all to save 
its bit of earthly vanity ! Mr. Lea's work is a sham and a libel. Never- 
theless, our school-book-makers, the essayists, the novelists, and the so- 
called well-read Salon people will copy after this pattern and pass off the 
counterfeit of all real worth, because they know no better, and sometimes 
Catholics have no answer to make to the charge so lightly preferred 
against their Church and faith because not enough of correction is put 
in their way. For this reason books, and especially pamphlets of the 
kind before us, are exceedingly useful, if they contain no over-statements 
of fact In some cases we may be perfectly sure, from our knowledge of 
the methods which faith suggests and the Church invariably makes use 
of, that certin things are true, yet we could not prove them to those who 
are outside of Catholic influence, because the material facts to establish a 
legal proof happen to be missing. Under such circumstances we think 
it wise to withhold them, or else to state them merely for what they are 
worth. There are a few such facts connected with the history of the 
Inquisition. — We recommend the reading of this pamphlet, and would 
suggest similar ones from equally competent hands to expose other oft- 
refuted yet never discredited historic falsehoods making against the 
Catholic Church. 

FASCICULUS THEOLOGIiE MORALIS tractans L de occasionariis 
et recidivis. IL de usu matrimonii, juxta doctrinam S. Alphonsi de 
Ligorio, Doctoris Ecclesiae, Auctore Jos. Aertnys, C. SS. R., Theolo- 
giae moralis et S. Liturgiae professore. Editio quarta.— Tornaci : 
Casterman, 1888. (pag. 118.) 

Father Aertnys has held the chair of moral theology at the College of 
the Redemptorist Fathers in Wittem (Holland) for over twenty-five years. 
He published the above two tracts first in 1881, but they were subsequent- 
ly incorporated in the "Theologia Moralis'' by the same author (Caster- 
man, Tournai, 1886), which latter work was highly and universally 
recommended by theologians through the press, both in Europe and 
America. This speaks sufficiently of the worth of the two tracts, which 


have passed through four editions, separately printed because of their 
extreme importance to the practical theologian. 

Of the subject treated in the first tract, St. Alphonsus (Praxis Conf., n. 
63.) speaks as follows: " Maxima confessarii cura debet esse se bene ge- 
rendi cum iis, qui sunt in proxima occasione peccandi aut in vitiis con- 
suetudinarii aut recidivi. Hi sunt duo scopuli in quos major confessario- 
rum pars impetunt et deficiunt." Our author contents himself to lay 
down in a clear and well-defined manner the principles of St. Alphonsus, 
without entering into the old controversy as to their interpretation. He 
is satisfied with the sentence of Leo XHI, who says: " Tutam plane prae- 
bet normam quam conscientiae moderatores sequantur.^' (Leo XIII, 28 
Aug., 1879. Cf. Acta S. Sedis, XII., pag. 273.) Moreover, the Jesuit 
Father Desjardins, who undertook to examine the question in detail, has 
stated his decided opinion that the doctrine of St. Alphonsus regarding 
Eecidivi differs only apparently and not in reality from that of the older 
theologians (Cf. Katholick, Bd. LVL, pag. 613, where the Revue des 
Sciences Eccl6siastiques is cited). Hence the opinion that the teaching 
of St. Alphonsus in this matter savors of rigorism and can find no just 
application in our own day is wholly unwarranted, as Berardi in his " De 
recidivis et occasionariis " (Ed. 2, Faventiae, 1877, Introd. n. 3.) rightly 
remarks. Fr. Aertnys has taken advantage of this eminently practical 
and timely work of Berardi, and hence it cannot be said to be inappli- 
cable to our conditions, which hardly differ from those of Holland. 

The second tract touches a subject in regard to the treatment of which 
our moral theologians have been much criticised by Jansenists old and 
new, and St. Alphonsus is made to be a sharer in the general condemna- 
tion. Every one conversant with the requirements of the care of souls 
knows how necessary it is that this matter de usu matrimonii be studied, 
and that in doing so the latest results of physiological science should be 
taken into consideration. P. Aertnys not only brings the explicit teach- 
ing of St. Alphonsus well and logically arranged, but also takes note of 
whatever useful light modern research has thrown upon the subject. 
He cites the decisions of the S. Poenitentiaria which have reference to 
the matter. He makes use of the best possible authorities on the sub- 
ject, such as Capellmann, the well known " Disputationes physiologico- 
theologicae " by A. E. (Alph. Eschbach, Rome?) Parisiis 1884, the 
Casus conscientiae of Paul Villada, S. J., Paris, 1887, etc. The answer 
"Negative" of the S. Office, Feb. 3, 1887, to the question, "An ma- 



trimonium mulieris per utriusque ovarii excisi defectum sterilis effecta, 
sit impediendum ? " is cited on page 99 to settle a doubt which is becom- 
ing daily more practical. The matter was treated in extenso some years 
ago in tl»e Nouv. Revue Tli6ologique, Vol. XVII., pag. 304, to which we 
would refer the interested reader. The question "quoad matrimonium 
exciso utero mulieris," as it occurs in the operatic Porro, is not mentioned 
by P. Aertnys, but the answer is self-evident and, according to the above 
mentioned decision, also "negative." (Cf. Lehmkuhl, II., n. 835, ad 4,) 
On the same page (n. 25) we read: "Conjux obstrictus voto castitatis 
non potest petere debitum; debet tamen reddere." The question natural- 
ly rises: " Si tamen petit, quid turn? teneturne alter reddere ? " The answer 
is found on page 105. n. 34, viz., "alter potest et debet reddere, prsemissa 
correctione fiaterna, si profutura speretur. Ita ex sententia probabiliori." 
Here, it seems to us, P. Aertnys might have also given the contrary opin- 
ion, which St. Alphonsus, VI., n. 944, expressly cites as probabilis, and 
which would serve to extend the range of freedom, advantageous under the 
circumstances. It may be that the author did not consider the opinion 
as cited by the Saint in the light of solide probabilis, because in his 
*' Homo Apostolicus " (tr. 18, n. 46) St. Alphonsus says: " prima senten- 
tia cum Pontic, La Croix et aliis paucis tenet, non licere ei red- 
dere. . . . sed communis et probabilior sententia docet, posse et teneri 
ad reddendum, quia vovens retinet jus ad petendum. Upon compar- 
ing the last edition of the large opus of St. Alphonsus with the second 
I find that no change has been made in the passage referred to (n. 944), 
and that the final decision of the Saint on this i)oint must be looked 
for in his "Homo Apostolicus," which appeared later. In the Moni- 
tum, which he placed before his TheoK)gia Mcralis, the holy doctor 
says: "Quando unam ex sententiis probabiliorem appello, nullo judicio 
date de probabilitate alterius. . . . non propterea intelligo eam probabi- 
lem dicere, sed judicio prudentiorum remittere.*' Hence it is evident with 
what thorough care P. Aertnys has studied and prepared this tract, giving 
here the true teaching only of the holy Doctor. P. Lehmkuhl does not 
mention the second opinion given in the Moral Theology of St. Alphon- 
sus, and appears to endorse the one mentioned as probabilior as the only 
correct one (Cf Lehmkuhl, II. n., 854). 

A LUCKY FAMILY and Don't you wish you knew us. By Marion J. 
Brunowe, Author of " Seven of us." A. Riffarth. 1889. 
These stories are told in a happy style and with a vivid realization of 


what goes on in the heart and mind of the child. There is, too, in 
them a genuine and sensible Catholic tone. We notice with particular 
pleasure that the young authoress dedicates her second, as she has done 
her first book, to the Religious to whose care she owes her training, and 
who appear to have given her the first impulse in the laudable direction 
which she pursues. Writers for our Catholic young people who can 
wholly be trusted to sow only good seed into the fertile soil of the child's 
heart are rare enough, and deserve all possible encouragement. We 
presume that Mr. Riffarth would have ventured a little more to make a 
thoroughly handsome edition of these admirable stories, if he could have 
reckoned with certainty upon a ready sale. For this reason we bespeak, 
for the book a generous encouragement, so as to allow Miss Brunowe 
not only to continue her work of writing, but to command also that style 
in publication which is by itself an education for the young readers, and 
which would be the most appropriate advertiseihent of the excellent matter 
contained in the pages. We are glad to hear that Rev. Fr. Hudson has 
secured the services of the authoress for the "Ave Maria." 


The mention of books under this head does not preclude further notice of 
them in subsequent numbers. 

D. LUIGI TOSTI, Benedettino Cassinese. SCRITTI VARI, vol. II. 

Roma: L. Pasqualucci, editore. 1890. 
HANDBUECHLEIN zu den " Anfangsgruenden der Katholischen 

Lehre " fuer die Kleinen Schueler (1-3 Schuljahr). Von St. D. Reger, 

Kath. Stadtpfarrer.— Regensburg, New York & Cincinn.: Fr. Pustet. 

1889. pr. S5C. 
GESCHICHTSLUEGEN. Eine Widerlegung Landlaeufiger Entstellun- 

gen auf dem Gebiete der Geschichte. Neunte Auflage. — Paderborn: 

Ferd. Schoningh. 1889. 

XIII, Translated by Rev. J. F. X. O'Connor, S. J. Second edition.— 

New York, Cincinnati, Chicago. Benziger Bros. 
ORATIO in Dedicatione Catholicae Universitatis Americae habita a Jos. 

Schroeder, SS. D. N. Leonis XIII cubicul, S. Theol. et Phil. Doct., 

Theol. Dogmat. in Acad. Washingftoniensi prof. ord. et facult. Theolog. 

Decano.— Washingtonii : Typis W. H. Lepley. MDCCCLXXXIX. 



Vol. IL — March, 1890.— No. 3. 


The ecclesiastical year is divided into three great periods. 
They correspond to the threefold character of the Messiah, 
and show forth the prophetic, the sacerdotal, and the royal 
office of Christ in His Church. Easter, with its cycle express- 
ing the priestly dignity of the Son of man, is the greatest of 
all the feasts, and dominates, so to say, the movement of the 
entire year. This not only in regard to the liturgical obser- 
vances, but in point of time also. ' The joy and triumph of the 
resurrection of Our Lord are preceded by His manifesting the 

' In the early dttys the calcalation by which Easter, and accordingly the begin- 
ning of Lent, was fixed, became the recognized duty of the Bishop of Alexandria. 
The Egyptians were held to be well skilled in astronomical and mathematical 
science, and the Roman Pontiffs received each year notice of the day on which Easter 
would fall. On the feast of the Epiphany the Archdeacon, vested in cope, ascended 
the pulpit and announced the days on which Septuagesima, Ash Wednesday, Easter- 
Sunday, the diocesan Synod, Ascension, Pentecost, Corpus Christi, and the first 
Sunday of Advent would occur. This was done in the manner of a solemn chant, 
similar to that of the Prefaces. The formula is still retained in the Roman Pontif- 
ical and begins : Know ye, dearest brethren, that, as through the Divine mercy we 
have rejoiced in the birth of Our Ix)rd Jesus Christ, so we announce to you likewise 
joy on account of the resurrection of the same. Our Saviour. Cf. Pontif. Rom., par* 
in., De publicatione festoruni mobiliam in Epiphania Domini. 


scope of His mission. He is the Atonement, the Victim, for 
the sins of man. If before Septuagesima the gospels of 
each Sundays present Him in His public life, it is as teacher 
explaining the meaning of the Kingdom of heaven, or as the 
wonderful prophet who cures the infirmities of the Children of 
Israel, and stretches his kindly hand out to the stranger. His 
life so far spoke of humility and beneficence. Henceforth it 
speaks of humiliation and sacrifice, to end with the oblation 
in Gethsemani, then the consecration in thecenacle, the eleva- 
tion on Calvary. And whilst He is the Sacrifice He is also 
the High Priest. After the elevation there will be the Holy 
Communion. When the Son of man shall be lifted up on 
high, then He shall draw all things unto Himself. " By His 
own Blood, entered once into the Sanctuary, having obtained 
eternal redemption," ' He will bring back the poor children 
of men into the communion with their heavenly Father ; will 
open the gates of Paradise not merely for the Patriarchs of 
old but for the countless heirs to be born, " not of blood, nor 
of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God."* 
Thus we see the priestly character of Christ pictured in the 
Easter-cycle of the ecclesiastical year. 

The preparatory season leading up to the central point, the 
elevation on Golgatha, divides itself into three periods. First 
that of reflection, from Septuagesima to Ash Wednesday. 
Some writers have called it the time of vocation, because it 
represents Our Lord as inviting His followers away from the 
profitless vanity of the world and instructing them in the 
secret of His ways. Thus on Septuagesima Sunday we hear 
Him relate the parable of the laborers. " Why stand ye 
here all the day idle? Go ye also into my vineyard." He 
will give them what is just, but He will also act out the full 
liberty of His generosity. On the following Sunday of Sex- 
agesima He speaks of the word of God, how some will hear 
and others despise it. Some will not understand it because 

' Heb. ix. 12. 
2 John. i. 13. 


of the hardness of their hearts, " but to you it is given to 
know the mystery of the' Kingdom of Christ." And the key- 
note of His teaching is : Listen ye who have ears. Let the seed 
fall upon a good (in corde bono et optimo) heart and bring 
forth fruit in patience. Patience is the virtue in which every 
follower of Christ, will preserve his soul. 

The epistle of this Sunday deeply impresses this lesson. 
" Brethren, gladly suffer." It puts before us St Paul, to 
whom this Sunday seems especially dedicated, ' as the apostle 
of patience. " Thrice was I beaten with rods. Once I was 
stoned. Thrice I suffered shipwreck. A night and a day I 
was in the depth of the sea. In labor and painfulness, in 
watchings often, in hunger and thirst,"* etc. Then follows 
Quinquagesima. Our Lord takes the Twelve apart. He 
tells them plainly how what the prophets had foretold of the 
Messiah of old shall be fulfilled in Him. He shall be be- 
trayed into the hands of the gentiles, mocked and scourged 
and spit upon ; and after they shall have scourged Him, He 
shall be put to death, and on the third day He shall rise again. * 
But strange to say, they do not understand Him. And then, 
as if to reprove them by His action, He passes with them 
along the road to Jericho, where they find the blind man, 
whom He cures, because of his exceeding great faith. Thus 
finishes the preparatory season of the Easter cycle and brings 
us to the Eve of Lent. Meanwhile the office of the Breviary 
points out the necessity of a change of life. The lessons of 
the Scripture are taken from the First Book of Moses. There 
must be, as it were, a new creation ; the old man with his 
worldliness must give place to the new man in thoughtful- 
ness and recollection of his true and ultimate end. In har- 
mony with this idea, the Church assumes gradually the gar- 
ment of penance. Purple, a blending of the martyr's red and 
the somber mystery of black, tells from her altars on Sunday 

' The prayer of the Mass is in honor of St. Paul, teacher of the gentiles. 

» II. Cor. xi, 25.28. 

' Cf. gosp<>l of Quinquagesima. 


that she meditates sacrifice and sorrow. From time imme- 
morial the three weelcs before Ash Wednesday have been set 
aside for devotions of reparation. The enjoyments of the 
bacchanalia are to give place to the exercise of works of 
piety. Benedict XIV ' ordains that three days of devotion to 
the Bl. Sacrament be kept successively in all the churches. 
He grants special indulgences to those who participate in 
these pious exercises, in order that the people may be pre- 
pared for the rigors of Lent, which is to be a time of active 
penance and mortification. 

Lent begins the long fast of forty days. The number forty 
is itself significant of penance. The Deluge, the wanderings 
of the Israelites in the desert, the atonement of Ezechiel for 
the house of Juda, the fasts of Moses, of Elias, of our divine 
Lord Himself, all are counted by this mysterious number. 
In the law of abstinence the Church aims at the simultaneous 
purification of body and soul, as is expressly set forth in the 
prayer on Saturday before Quadragesima : " hoc solemne 
jejunium, animabus corporibusque curandis institutum." All 
ornaments except the crucifix and candlesticks are removed 
from the altar. The organ ceases to play at the ordinary 
solemn service. The deacon and subdeacon do not assume 
the dalmatics (dalmatica and tunicella) because these are 
called in the language of the Church " garments of jo)'." 
They wear the purple chasuble, but folded in front, as a 
distinction between the celebrant and the ministers. Only 
on exceptional festivals and on the fourth Sunday of Lent 
there is a brief interval of joy amid this season of penance, as 
shall be explained further on. The offices of Mass and 
Breviary become more definite in their appeal to enter into 
the spirit of recollection and penance. Hitherto we daily 
celebrated the feasts of saints, and the office of the week 
assumed its character from the preceding Sunday. Now 
each day has its own history, connected with the leading 
thought of atonement. Even when the office permits the 

> Bullar. M. XI., 213. 


celebration o( the feast of some saint,' a prayer of the par- 
ticular ferial is added, and the gospel at the end of Mass is 
not that of St. John, as at other times, but one especially set 
apart for that day. The epistles and gospels of each day 
stand to each other in the relation of prophecy and fulfilment. 
Hence the former are not taken from the New but on the 
whole from the Old Testament. The antiphons of the Bene- 
dictus and Magnificat in the daily office are taken from the 
gospel. Thus all thoughts are directed towards one and the 
same end. Instead of the prayer " ad libitum " in the Ferial 
Masses outside of Lent, which the celebrant was free to 
choose and thus express his own individual needs and de- 
sires, he now prays in the name of the Church " pro vivis 
atque defunctis." And to express furthermore the character 
of sorrow and humiliation in the liturgy of this time, a 
prayer " over the people " is added to the customary number; 
and this prayer is preceded by the invocation : " Humiliate 
capita vestra." 

This is the attitude of the Church at the beginning of 
Lent, and her head bends lower, and her sorrow becomes 
more expressive as she goes on towards Passiontide. But 
she must bring home the meaning of it all to her children. 
She calls them together on the first day, and strews ashes 
upon their head, and bids them remember death and the 
mouldering dust to which the body will return. It is as if 
she would encourage them to undergo more readily the 
mortification of fast and abstinence. But it is also in itself an 
expression of heartfelt repentance for sin. Thus did Thamar 
bewail her shame. Thus did Mardochai show the anguish of 
his mind. Thus did the Ninivites, from the greatest to the 

' Formerly the celebration of all feasts of saints was prohibited during the entire 
season of Lent. At present they are only excluded in Holy Week. In harmony 
with the leading thought which pervades this time of penance, and to give full scope 
to the devotion in honor of the passion of Our Lord, the Church sanctions the use on 
Fridays in Lent of certain offices celebrating some of the mysteries or instruments of 
the passion. In some dioceses, as with us in the United States, these offices ad lib- 
itum have become obligatory. 


least, turn away the fierce anger of God, and Corozain and 
Bethsaida might have been spared the accomplishment of the 
awful prophecy of their doom from the lips of the meek Son of 
God. As the strewing of ashes upon the head was a public ac- 
knowledgment of sin, the use of the ceremony was in former 
times confined to those who had given public scandal, and 
were to be separated from the communion of the faithful by a 
solemn act which took place at this time. Those who submit- 
ted themselves to it gave thereby proof that they were not 
contumacious, but recognized their offence. The Roman Pon- 
tifical describes the ceremony. Those who on account of 
great crimes were obliged to do public penance, came together 
in the cathedral church on this day (Ashwednesday) about 
the third hour. They are clad in penitential garments 
(vilibus vestimentis) and barefoot. After the recitation of 
the office they are led forth into the circle of the assembled 
clergy, near the door of the church, where they prostrate 
themselves upon the ground. In the meantime the bishop, 
.vested in purple, with mitre and staff, approaches and places 
ashes, which he has previously blessed, upon the head of 
each penitent, saying the well known words : Remember, O 
man, that thou art dust, etc. Then the bishop blesses robes 
of sackcloth, and covers the head of each penitent with the 
same, reminding him that there is mercy with the Lord, 
who thus helps fallen man by the discipline of penance. 
Then he intones theantiphon : " Remember not, O Lord, our 
sins, etc.," whereupon the whole congregation prostrate them- 
selves, together with the penitents, and recite aloud the seven 
penitential psalms and other prayers. After this all rise, and 
the bishop speaks to the penitents, reminding them how sin 
was the cause why our first parents were cast out of Paradise, 
and how they who had scandalized the faithful by their 
crimes were to submit to the same punishment. He then 
takes the foremost penitent by the hand and leads him out of 
the church, the rest following, amid the doleful chanting of 
a Response in which the sin of Adam and Eve and their 


beins: cast out of Paradise are set forth. At the door the 
bishop ajjain speaks to them, bidding them not despair but 
hope, to do penance in labor and fasting and prayer, and to 
return on Holy Thursday, when they will be again admitted 
to the bosom of their Mother, whom they grievously offended. 
The doors are then closed to them, and Mass begins for the 
faithful. — This isthe origin of the ceremony of Ashwednes- 
day, in which now every Christian participates. For the 
devotion of the faithful soon prompted many to present 
themselves voluntarily to the bishop in the company of public 
penitents, wishing thereby to humble themselves, to atone 
for their private sins and perhaps for those of their brethren, 
or else to lessen the feeling of shame among those who had 
incurred public censure. And the Church, approving of this 
spirit, gradually admitted all her children to this rite, and 
finally ordained that it be observed as part of the liturgy for 
priest and people. *' Priests and the laity, men and women, 
shall have ashes strewn on their head on Ash Wednesday," 
says a decree of the Council of Beneventum, in the eleventh 
century. The origin and character of the ceremony show 
that its principal purpose is to bring the penitent to an 
acknowledgment of his sins and to proportionate satisfaction, 
or, in other words, to animate him to the making of a good 
confession, with works of penance, in order that he may be 
reconciled on Holy Thursday and receive worthily the 
Paschal Lamb in holy Communion. Sustained meditation 
upon the nature of that immaculate oblation in which Christ 
is at once priest and sacrifice, as plainly set forth in the litur- 
gy of Holy Thursday and characteristic of this entire season, 
is calculated to insure the casting off of the man of sin and 
worldliness, and to make the heart a worthy receptacle for 
the sacred body of Christ, and with it for every grace which 
can insure perseverance. This meditation is expressed in the 
thoughts presented day after day during this holy season in 
the Mass and office. Blessed the man who, living in the 
midst of this inspiring atmosphere of holy thoughts, realizes 


the Spirit of the Church as she breathes it forth in htr liturgy, 
and is able to present it to the faithful, who, without a guide 
skilled in the secrets of the divine Spouse, cannot grasp the 
beautiful meaning of the divine service. Let us briefly out- 
line the principal thoughts underlying the liturgy as suc- 
cessively disclosed in the office of the Church from Septua- 
gesima until Passion Sunday. 

The fundamental idea expressed in the Mass of Ash Wednes- 
day is the devout resolution to begin and complete this time 
of penance in the spirit of Jesus Christ. Thursday : The re- 
flection on death and how the Lord may avert the sting of it. 
** Take order with thy house ; for thou shalt die — and Ezechias 
turned his face toward the wall and prayed to the Lord." ' 
Friday : Repentance and works of justice will gain the mercy 
of God. Hence " cry, cease not, lift up thy voice like a 
trumpet, and show my people their wicked doings. Deal thy 
bread to the hungry ; and bring the needy and the harborless 
into thy house. Then shalt thou call and the Lord shall hear." ' 
Saturday: Trust in the Lord. He " will give thee rest con- 
tinually and will fill thy soul with brightness — will feed thee 
with the inheritance of Jacob, thy father. For the mouth of the 
Lord has spoken it." ^ And in the gospel we have the same 
thought, Christ watching His disciples from the shore as they 
struggle against the stormy waves. Then He goes to them, 
saying: " Have confidence, it is I, fear not." * 

On the first Sunday of Lent (Quadragesima) the leading 
thought in the liturgy is the fight against temptation. The 
enemy, seeing the struggle of the soul away from the allure- 
ments of worldliness, presents the difficulties of the attempt, 
the sweetness of the pleasures abandoned, and the battle before 
it. St. Paul exhorts : " Brethren, now is the acceptable time. 
In all things let us exhibit ourselves as the ministers of God, 

' Epistle. 

• Isa. Iviii.; cf. Epistle. 
» Ibid., Epistle. 

* Mark vi. 


in much patience, in tribulation, in necessities, in distresses, 
in stripes, in prisons, in seditions, in labors, in watchings, in 
fastings." The Gospel presents to us Christ after His fast 
tempted by the devil, whom He overcomes, and how angels 
approach and administer to Him. Every day during the 
week repeats this thought in a peculiar way. The Good 
Shepherd watches- over His sheep. Turn to Him in the 
midst of temptation. Keep close to the law, for it is that 
which gives a title to His friendship and protection. "Who 
is my mother and my brethren? Whoever does the will of 
my Fiither who is in heaven, he is my brother and sister and 
mother." ' You have chosen the Lord. Follow Him without 
hesitation. " Dominum elegisti hodie — et custodias omnia 
praecepta illius." ' The second Sunday of Lent gives us a 
glimpse of the reward and blessing which follow the valiant 
fight. Our Lord shows Himself to Peter and James and John 
for a moment, glorified, in the midst of Moses and Elias. So 
ravishing is the vision that St. Peter would remain there forever 
without a hut for himself, feasting his heart and eyes on the 
contemplation of that celestial beauty. But they must again 
descend. Follow the law. Guard humility. Drain the chalice 
of sufTering. Remember Lazarus and Dives, for there will be 
just retribution. Despised like Joseph by his brethren, one 
day you will rule over them. All this will come to pass through 
Christ, the Son of God, with whom you are coheirs of a heav- 
enly kingdom. These are the successive thoughts of each 
day in the second week of Lent. The third week takes up 
the thought of the preceding Saturday, and applies to the 
inner life what has been s^id of the outward life of man, who 
is to shun worldliness, observe the Law, and follow Christ in 
the sustaining of temptation and hardships. The motives 
which are to prompt us to follow Christ are no longer those 
of fear or satisfaction or reward, but those higher ones of 
charity. Grace establishes for itself a kingdom in the heart. 

' Evang. Fer. IV. 
* Epist. Sabb. 


Its interior workings are indeed analogous to those which 
prompted us hitherto to follow Christ, but they catch deeper 
root, they completely undo the past with its germs of weak- 
ness and instabilit}'. They guarantee in a manner persever- 
ance. Hence the fourth Sunday of Lent begins with an 
outburst of joy. Hitherto we followed the hard paths of 
the law and self-denial from a conviction that it was neces- 
sary to insure our salvation. Now, like the apostles, we 
begin to rejoice that we are considered worthy to suffer 
for the sake of Christ; for it is to make us children of His 
household. "I rejoiced in the things that were said to me: 
We shall enter into the house of the Lord." ' Therefore 
" rejoice with Jerusalem, and be glad with her, all you that 
love her : rejoice for joy with Jier, all you that mourn for her." " 
These last words contain the substance of what the liturgy 
teaches at this time. The joy of Laetare-Sunday is the joy of 
a lover who consciously makes a great sacrifice for the be- 
loved one. The organ sounds forth her notes of expectant 
triumph. Flowers decorate the altar. The ministers wear 
once more the garments of joy (dalmatics), which, though they 
are of the color of mourning, betoken the undercurrent of a 
happy realization of victory and gain. This Sunday is also 
called Dotninica de rosa : for it is on this day the " Golden 
Rose " is blessed by the Sovereign Pontiff, which he, accord- 
ing to ancient tradition, presents to some illustrious Catholic 
prince or princess. The words with which this beautiful 
emblem of joy growing out of sacrifice (thorns) is handed to 
the chosen recipient throw additional light upon the charac- 
ter of this season. " Receive from our hands the Rose, 
which signifies the joy of the twofold Jerusalem, namely, the 

triumphant and the militant Church take it, beloved 

child, that, more and more ennobled by every virtue, you may 
be as a rose planted by the riverside." Monday and Tuesday 
following, contrasting the Old and New Dispensation once 

' Introit. Miss. Laetare. 
2 Ibid. 


more, remind us of the abundance of graces which are in store 
for those who follow Christ Crucified. Wednesday of this week 
was from early times set apart for the examination of those 
who would present themselves for Baptism at Easter, and we 
see reference to this act in the liturgy of the day. " Be 
washed and be cleansed " are the words with which the 
second epistle begins, which seems to have been introduced 
especially with reference to this act. Thursday and Friday 
are devoted to impressing this idea, renovation and sanctifica- 
tion through the merits of the death of Christ. In the liturgy 
of Saturday we are invited to approach : " Sitientes, venite 
ad aquas, dicit Dominus." ' Jesus speaks in the treasury- 
hall of the temple : '* I am the light of the world." The Pha- 
risees show their hatred, and He denounces their blind- 
ness, but " no man laid hands on Him, because His hour 
was not yet come." * Yet it is close at hand. The next step 
brings us to passion-tide, for the realization of which all the 
preceding days since Septuagesima have served as the grad- 
ual preparation. 


AS time rolls on, there is more or less of danger that 
the annual collection for the negroes and Indians 
may begin to suffer. Not that the desire for the sal- 
vation of our less favored brethren will grow less ; but 
rather that the feeling of having done our duty will 
supplant it. As yet the negro missions are an un- 
ploughed field. Up to this hour, in fact, the vast bulk 
of the negro race have never heard the Gospel from 
a priest's lips. We are enabled to lay before our readers 
a very satisfactory synopsis of the work now being 

' Introit. 
* Evangel. 



carried on in the South, together with the hopes and 
conclusions expressed by Bishops in those parts. 





















300! 1 















Notre Dame 

1 1 Oblatei 
J 2 Francia. 
) 3 Holy CroM 
( 4 N. Dame 

Lay teach'rs 


Charleston, S. C. 









See note [(]. 















Lay teach'rs 

j Si<ter> of 
\ Charity. 


Little Rock 






1 Crphan'ge 

















■ i' 






New Orleans 

New York 

I 3 CommunI 
i tie* Colored 

1 Sisters. 

1 Sisters of St 
1 Dominic. 

\n Or- 
1 ph.ns 

1 24 Aged 
1 women. 

1 Orplian'ge 

North Carolina. . . 























St. Augustine 

St Louis 


San Antonio 


1 Orplian'ge 




I Sisters of 
( Notre Dame. 



188,213 1 26 





1 6,093 

Speaking of a school for negro children, which he had 
just built in Cairo, 111., the Bishop of Bellville goes on to say: 

•* A Sister of Loretto already instructs 55 to 60 children. 
This number is larger than we expected, and will increase, so 
that very probably we shall have to enlarge the school." 

South Carolina, as is well known, has a negro population 
far in excess of the whites, 650,000 negroes to about 400,000 
whites. In that immense number only 900 negroes are 
Catholics; in other words, of 700 negroes in the Palmetto 

* Josephltes. + 90 per cent. Colored. 
S St. Jos. Seminary. 5 Seminarians; Epiphany Ap. College. 35 Students; Boys' Orphan Asylum, 
building ; Girls' Orphan Asylum, 70 ; Foundling Asylum, 53; Academy, 50 ; Industrial School. 30. 


State only one is a Catholic. The Bishop of Charleston, who 
is responsible for the spiritual welfare of South Carolina, 
regards the social, political, and religious separation of the 
races as injurious to the evangelization of the negroes. 

Very cheerfully does Bishop Maes of Covington speak of 
the negro work in his diocese. True, there are only 93 
colored Catholics in it, out of a negro population of 75,000. 
His words are here given : 

"Our school for colored children, with a hall for Church 
services when needed, opened last September under the 
protection of St. Peter Claver. Three Sisters of Charity of 
Nazareth, Ky., teach the elementary branches, besides music 
and needle work to attract the children. The opening was 
very successful ; within four weeks, two hundred and fifty 
children, clean, orderly, and respectful, all Protestant but three^ 
and varying in age from six to sixteen, presented themselves. 
For want of proper accommodation, the Sisters had to send 
away a considerable number, restricting the attendance to 
two hundred. 

" The city of Lexington, Ky., where our colored school is 
located, has built a beautiful brick public school (for colored 
children) within three blocks of our own. When our school 
had been in operation some three months, the colored Protes- 
tant ministers, urged and encouraged by others, notably by 
some New York Gospel Society, held weekly meetings and' 
passed resolutions to the effect that parents should be com- 
pelled to withdraw their children from the Catholic school. 
This procedure has had some effect, the daily attendance 
being at present 180 boys and girls. But on the whole, the 
colored parents hold out bravely. Only three of the chil- 
dren are Catholics, but forty three attend Sunday catechism." 

Crossing the Father of Waters, let us look at the Diocese of 
Leavenworth, in which is a negro population of 48,000, among 
whom but 200 are Catholics, that is, i in every 240. Notwith- 
standing the odds, Bishop Fink is strenuously laboring to do 
something for those unfortunates. We quote from his letter: 


" If we could keep all our negroes that were converted, we 
would have a larger number ; but owing to their removing to 
other regions, we have not much of an increase to show. 
On the whole, however, the work looks more encouraging 
than before. Our negro school at Leavenworth, in charge of 
the colored Sisters of Providence from Baltimore, gives great 
satisfaction. At Topeka, the State Capital, we should build 
a church, the sooner the better ; and I would expect more 
conversions at Topeka than at Leavenworth, as the Catholic 
colored population forms the upper class among the negroes, 
and as our Catholics, now over loo, are very pious people. I 
have had no priest who could take charge of the colored con- 
gregation, and even if 1 had a priest, he would have to depend 
for his support almost exclusively on the poor Bishop." 

Leavenworth is far better off, however, than Little Rock. 
Catholicity seems not to have taken much root in Arkansas ; 
this is true of the whites, but particularly so of the blacks, but 
one of whom is a Catholic out of every 4,000; in other words, 
there are in the diocese 450,000 negroes, and only about 100 
Catholics. Bishop Fitzgerald, while expressing his own hopes 
to be meagre, writes : 

" The teachers, who are brought into more direct contact 
with the colored children, have great hopes. We meet with 
opposition from preachers white and colored, from school- 
teachers, from the colored population, and in places from 
the whites ; and, I am sorry to have to add, from white 
Catholics. Many, I might say all, the colored people permit 
their children to be taught prayers and catechism. They 
generally refuse to let them be baptized. Among the less 
ignorant, prejudices are lessening. The children are de- 
lighted with their teachers, and proud oi them." 

The next diocese, following the alphabetical order, is that 
of Mobile, which embraces the state of Alabama and West 
Florida. Over 600,000 negroes live in this diocese, of whom 
2500 are Catholics. These live mostly on Mobile Bay, area 
farming class, and of good morals. It is said that of the 10,000 
negroes in Mobile itself, one half were baptized Catholics. 


" There is no church, exclusively, for the colored people, 
but there are four churches in which 90 per cent, of the 
congregations are colored. A fifth church, or chapel, is 
almost completed at Molino, Florida, where nearly all the 
congregation (fully 90 per cent.) are colored. This will make 
five churches which may be said to be for the use of the 
colored people. Our only success, up to the present time, 
has been in bringing back to the Church many who had 
strayed away from the fold. We have not been able to 
attempt any more ; and it will be some time before we are 
able to make any well-sustained eflfort for the conversion of 
the colored race. The best hope is through schools for the 
children." (BiSHOP O'Sullivan.) 

As in Mobile, so in the diocese of Nashville there is as 
yet no church set apart for the colored people. Every desire 
is expressed for priests who will devote themselves to this 
neglected field. As elsewhere, schools are being founded 
in Nashville ; with what results, the following extracts tell. 

" We expect to find a larger building for our school in 
Memphis, in order to accommodate the girls applying for 
admission, and also to find room for a bovs' school. To 
judge from the eagerness with which they learn the prayers 
and easier questions of the Catholic doctrine, as also the 
spirit of the parents, we hope to have, in a comparatively 
short time, a class prepared for Baptism. 

" These, as well as the few Catholics residing there, will 
form the nucleus of a colored congregation. In like manner, 
we intend to proceed in Nashville and other large places." 
(Bishop Rademacher.) 

" There is a large and promising field here for a priest 
and school devoted exclusively to the negro. Our poverty 
and scarcity of priests— consequences of the war and yellow- 
fever epidemics, have prevented us so far from giving the 
necessary attention to the negro. Last week I baptized a 
blind negro, 40 years of age, who, after about two months of 
instruction, manifested a faith that was edifying, and an in- 


telligence in learning tlie Catholic doctrine which was very en- 
couraging." (V. Rev. Father Gleason, V. G., of Nashville.) 

South of Tenessee, lies the large State of Mississippi. In it, 
more than in any other, the negro problem is of vital impor- 
tance. More than a million negroes, we are reliably informed, 
live in this state ; in fact, Mississippi seems to be the Mecca 
of our blacks. So great has become the scare in consequence 
of the increase of the sable race, that actually is discussed 
the question of turning over to the general government, at 
least for a time, that part of the state in which the negroes 
for the most part live. It seems a desperate move, but is 
evidence enough how serious the question of the negro has 
become. The following extract is from the letter of V. Rev. 
F. Meersch^rt, Adm. of the See of Natchez. 

"Every year we try to do a little more; and all our 
priests do the best they can for the colored people. If means 
and good religious could be had, a larger school and a little 
church for colored people would, I think, be a great success 
in Natchez. If priests could be spared and schools opened, 
there is no doubt that a great deal of good could be done. 

•' The greatest good can be done by religious teachers. 
Their influence is not only great upon the pupils, but soon 
the parents and relations will come around, commence to go 
to church, and, finally, begin their instruction in the Catholic 
religion. For two years we had a Sister of Charity (Emmits- 
burg, Md.) teaching our colored school in Natchez, and her 
influence was remarked at once. The loss of the Sister, who 
was removed by her superiors, was a great detriment^ but we 
have good teachers, who do their utmost to keep up the good 
spirit. The visits of religious or priests to the colored 
people, when they are sick, have the best results. At that 
time they are very often neglected by their own, and very 
little cared for by others, except such as may have good 
friends among the whites. 

" We visit the colored people very often in the hospital, 
and most of them die in the Catholic religion." 


Once more crossing the Mississippi, the Frencn Diocese of 
Natchitoches is entered. It has 15,000 Catholic negroes, 
who frequent the ordinary parochial churches. Notwith- 
standing this, separate schools are demanded, of which 
Bishop Durier writes : 

" With regard to my colored schools, under the charge of 
the Daughters of the Cross and Sisters of Divine Providence, 
I have a certainty of success, as it is a fact that they do 
splendidly. With regard to the Isle Brevelle Convent, and 
the Clouterville Convent, which I expect to establish this fall, 
having the written permission of the Sisters of Divine Prov- 
idence that they will next October send three Sisters to one, 
and three to the other, I have a moral certainty they will suc- 
ceed as at Natchitoches and Fairfield." 

The State of Georgia is one that is very much spoken of as 
rapidly increasing, and making great progress. One aspect 
of its progress is most noticeable ; viz. : the number of its. 
negro population. We shall be surprised if this year's census 
does not show as many blacks as whites in Georgia. Of the 
negroes' spiritual welfare. Bishop Becker hopefully says: 

" Well, I think we do much more now than barely hold our 
own. Yet those who are so very sanguine of great success 
should be slow in finding fault. 

"An industrial school would do unmeasured good. Why 
not get some American or French religious community to 
help poor Southern Bishops in this work? I am sure, the 
negroes now fully appreciate our work, and I am pleased 
to state that there is nothing but good among our Catholics." 

Nearly ten years ago, the whole country rang with the 
well-deserved praises of a widow lady who built a church in 
San Antonio. She was not rich by any means, but still 
longed to share her Master's gifts with His less favored 
children. Of that church and school, in which this noble soul 
also teaches without any remuneration, Bishop Neraz writes 
in the highest terms. May Mrs. Murphy's example find 
many imitators ! 


Florida as a winter resort is prominently before the public. 
Its large negro population, about one half of the whole, are 
with a few hundred exceptions outside the Church. Of his 
hopes among them, Bishop Moore declares : 

"The schools are doing well, and I have the best hopes 
from them in the future. I also hope for the very best re- 
sults from separate churches for colored people in St. 
Augustine and in Jacksonville. It would not do to build a 
mean church. In order to attract the colored people I must 
have a better and handsomer church than any of those the 
Protestants have here now." 

In the Diocese of Richmond, very great success has at- 
tended the work for the negroes. Two years ago, outside 
of Norfolk, there were hardly a score of Catholics among the 
750,000 negroes in Virginia. To-day there are in Richmond 
a church, an industrial school, and mission schools. In 
Norfolk a mission has just been opened. In Petersburg, 
Lynchburg, Alexandria, and Keswick, are schools, and the 
Catholic negroes are now over 600. 

" In the Diocese of New Orleans," so writes Archbishop 
Janssens, " are 26 schools for colored children, 6 of these 
managed by colored Sisters, 9 by w^hite Sisters, and 11 by lay 
teachers. The aggregate attendance is 1330 school-children, 
besides 74 orphan children and 21 old colored women. With 
the official reports of the parishes of 3924 colored baptisms, 
I have calculated the total number of colored Catholics in the 
Diocese to be 75,000, which I think rather below than above 
the real number. Of this number, especially in New Orleans, 
many are Catholics only in name. The young men, from 18 
until they marry, are nowhere seen at church in this city : 
few even of the married ever come to the sacraments. We 
have lost an immense number of colored Catholics in the 
city ; on careful information, I might say 20,000. The 
reasons are various: political commotions, secret societies, 
immoralit)'', and especially the greater prevalence of the 
English language. As soon as our Creole (French) popula- 


tion (and we have few others) commence the use of English, 
they drift off into the Baptist and Methodist churches. 

"The public schools are daily encroaching on the French 
language ; not merely in the city, but it is beginning to be felt 
in the country parts also. With many of the colored Creoles, 
French means Catholic, and English (or American, as they 
call it) means Protestant. What is to be done? We can do 
nothing without priests and money, and we have neither. 
It seems to me that we need priests who will exclusively 
occupy themselves with our colored people, especially the 
young, and particularly in the city ; otherwise, we shall lose 
them more and more. If priests are a necessity, special 
churches are equally so. The 26 schools do much good ; 
1,330 school-children are not a bad figure, but it is not much 
compared to the 75,000 colored Catholics." 

North Carolina has less Catholics than any other State, 
aye, than most parishes in the country. It cannot claim 3,000 
Catholics. But even there the courageous Benedictines, 
loyal to the traditions of their noble order, wJiich evangelized 
Europe, are laboring strenuously for the negroes. Bishop 
Haid has already built a church for them and has opened 
several schools in diflferent parts of the State. 

Little need be added about our Indian missions. The 
same difficulties which meet the negro work attend the mis- 
sionaries among the Indians. There is more halo, however, 
in laboring for them than for the blacks. The priest on the 
negrro mission is ever between two fires : between the whites 
and blacks. The negroes are destined to become a great 
factor m our country. The greatest proof is the continued 
noise we hear about them. Dailies, Weeklies, Monthlies, 
Quarterlies, vie with one another in discussing the negro 
question. No small proof of its seriousness. The little cur 
along the street is unnoticed, but the strong mastiff is feared 
and watched. 

There is no agitation in the country over the Indians* 
future; there is unceasing discussion of the negroes. While 


the Church for centuries has been laboring among our red 
men, only within about two decades of years has she at- 
tempted anything for the blacks. The prospects of large 
conversions among the seven millions beyond the Potomac 
and Ohio, aliens far more in creed than in race, are bright- 
ening. This will be assured by the prospects of the Semi- 
nary and Apostolic College, recently started in Baltimore. 
St. Joseph's Seminary for the colored missions will, we hope, 
in time send out thousands of missionaries, while its feeder, 
the Epiphany Apostolic College, will not fail, with God's 
blessing, to provide worthy aspirants. The extracts given in 
this paper will enable our Rev. Pastors to make a favorable 
showing to their congregations on Quinquagesima Sunday 
and the following one, when the annual collection will be taken 
up. Any word of ours urging this matter would be super- 
fluous. The clergy are too fond of their Master to allow so 
many millions of souls to famish because of means wherewith 
to break them the Bread of Life. — 


1. Histoire Critique des Doctrines de V Education en France, Par Gabriel 
Compaire. 2 vols, Paris, 1879. 

2. The History of Pedagogy. By Gabriel Compayre. Translated, with 
an introduction, notes, and an index, by W. H. Payne. Boston, 1886. 

3. Les Jesuites Instituteurs de la Jeunesse. Par Pere Charles Daniel, 
S.J. 1880. 

4. Lehrbuch der Geschichte der Pedagogik. A. Stockl. Mainz, 1870. 


M. Gabriel Compayr^ seems to have given much attention 
to the subject of pedagogy. He has come to be a recognized 
authority,/even amongU those who do not agree with his 
views, uporT^U matters pertaining to education^ He has a 




happy manner of putting things. He writes well. In 1876, 
he gave out in two volumes a book detailing the doctrines 
and theories of pedagogy — that is, such doctrines and such 
theories as it suited him to weave out of the original materials 
— from the sixteenth century down to the present time. The 
work was written with an air of judiciousness that won the 
approval of thd French Academy. M. Greard reported upon 
it favorably and enthusiastically, and it was crowned. But 
the judiciousness was only assumed. The small meed of 
praise sparingly doled out to any man or woman, system or 
institution knoWmgly Christian, was wrung from the author 
because he was conscious that among his judges were men 
truly learned and truly critical, who could not be imposed r\ 

upon by grossly palpable misstatements. Withal, palpable - • 
misstatements abound. 

The volume which Mr. VV. H. Payne has translated is a 
later work, an'd\ certainly no improvement upon the larger t^ 
and earlier one. It is simply a condensation of all the bile ^ jvt^ 

and virulence and hatred for everything Catholic therein,-'"^ 
^t ill concealed b"^Trea,th a tone of philosophic moderation. 6Lv, ([3' 
It is the expression of extreme partisanship adapted to the 
audience for which it was prepared. No longer speaking 
to a dignified body of learned academicians, but addressing 
students who are taught to hate clericalism in all its forms ; 
who are in training to profit by the laicization of the schools i^ 
of France, and Supplant religious teachers throughout the 
land ; who are disposed to swallow any calumny that may be 
a dministere d to them, and who are still too young and too 
ignorant to unravel the sophistries into which the true and the 
false are woveniM. Compayr6 excels himself in artful misrep- 
resentation. His book is superficial, untnltWul to history, and 
shamefully misleading. It is unfortunate that Professor Payne 
did not translate some other manual for students. It is even 
damaging to his reputation as a professor of pedagogy that he 
should have found the book, in aught save the mere technical 
form, an ideal book. " It represents to my mind," he says, 



\ ^> 




" very nearly the ideal of the treatise that is needed by the 
teaching profession of this country." ' Professor Payne has 
done the teaching profession of America a great wrong in 
placing in their hands such a tissue of misrepresentation, be 
it ever so gracefully wftven. The teaching profession need 
not thank him for the poom A glance at the spirit animating 
the book will make thisclear. 

To^^gin^^ith^: M. Compayr6 is unfair in his mode of 
presentation. When he would belittle, he closes his eyes to 
every merit ; he accumulates isolated instances and calls them 
the rule; he unearths usages dead and buried, and blames 
those of the present for them ; he rakes up a scandal here, a 
tid-bit of gossip there, a random assertion in another place, 
and upon them grounds some monstrous charge or lays down 
some general proposition. Where is the sense of fair play in 
such treatment ? Why apply to an institution a different rule 
of criticism from that /we would apply to an individual? 
Now, he who would know a man thoroughly would not be 
content with the account his enemies give of him. He would 
go to his friends as well. Acting otherwise, he would find 
himself grossly deceived in l^s conception and estimate of 
him he would know. Take a man of the most unblemished 
character. , Let envy, or jealousy, or any other petty passion, 
or the whisperings of those slimy things of humanity, that 
besmirch men's good names, blind you to every merit he may 
possess ; pry into his daily life, and pick out of it all that is 
weak and imperfect; dwell upon the divergencies of thought 
and action that tally not with your own conceptions ; pile 
together the blunders he may have made in a life-time ; at- 
tribute to his every action, even that the most indiflferent, a 
sinister motive; read a malicious meaning in his most inno- 
cent expressions, and you can finally succeed in convincing 
yourself and others that he who may be the most genial of 
friends and the truest of men, is a monster unworthy to 
breathe the same air and bask in the same sunshine with your 

* " History of Pedagogy," Translator's Preface, p. vi. 


noble self. You no longer know the man as he lives and 
moves among men. Even so is it with an institution. And 
it is for just such treatment of institutions that we attach 
blame to M. Com pay r6. 

Take the Society of Jesus. Was there ever a religious 
order more deservedly the pride and glory of the Church? 
Its members live and move under the discipline of a well- 
regulated army in face of the enemy. They are equipped for 
the guidance of every condition of life. We find amongst 
them men learned in the sciences ; men adepts in the arts ; 
men trained in the school of spiritual life. They are the body- 
guard of the interests of Jesus. They are foremost in all good 
works. They seek by preference the post of danger. They 
are faithful sentinels, never caught sleeping, always on the 
alert to raise the alarm at the slightest note of danger, in- 
variably the first to be attacked by the enemy. The Order 
is a marvellous embodiment of science and art, zeal and 
energy, all moulded under one will and guided by one aim. 
Great in its history, great in its devotedness, great in the 
great lights which it has given the Church and the world 
during the past three centuries, it is above all great in its 
filial devotion to the Church andythe singleness of purpose Vv- 
with which, at all times and under all circumstances, it seeks 
the greater honor and glory of God. Atid yfet^ we have seen \ \ 

the Society of Jesus blackened by men ; we have seen it pro- 
claimed in more than one language "that the Jesuits are 
down-right complete atheists ; " ' we have seen a pope forced 
to disband the Order and scatter its members to the four 
quarters of the globe. But we now know that the blackening 
was the slanderous work of black hate. It was the penalty 
paid by successful greatness. 

' The full title of the English version is: "A truth known to very few: viz : — 
That the Jesuites are downright compleat atheists : Proved such and condemned for 
it by two sentences of the famous Faculty of Sorbonne, well known to be the best 
Divines of all the Roman Catholick party : and by the French Bishops and Pope 
Alexander VII. London: T. Dawks. 1680. 


Now, how does M. Compayr6 speak of the Jesuits as 
educators? He cannot abide them. He does not find in 
them a single redeeming trait. Every book that speaks in 
their praise is studiously ignored ; every passage in their 
writings, every piece of gossip about their doings, that tells 
against them, and that he can lay hold of, is deftly woven into 
his narrative. Their method is, in his estimation, false, 
superficial, laying stress upon forms rather than upon sub- 
stance. " For the Jesuits," he says, "education is reduced to 
a superficial culture of the brilliant faculties of the intellect."* 
In their failures and in their successes, they are censured alike. 
Do they succeed in making college life agreeable to their 
students by means of sport, fencing, theatricals, and other 
forms of recreation ? Be it so ; student-life in a Jesuit college 
is still only prison-life with the prison bars gilded. " — Do they 
send out their young men polished, refined, accomplished ? 
Thereupon we are told : " They wish to train amiable gentle- 
men, accompHshed men of the world ; they have no concep- 
tion of training men." ^ — This sentence has about it an air of 
epigrammatic terseness. But is it true that, in becoming ac- 
complished, one loses one's manhood ; and if not, is not the 
expression simply rubbish ? Out of such stuff does M. Com- 
payre manufacture a history of pedagogy. A piece of gossip 
from Saint Simon is quoted to sustain the charge that in 
disciplining the students they were respectors of persons. * 
Upon a story told of a young novice who received his mother 
coldly, this monstrous assertion is built: "The ideal of the 
perfect scholar is to forget his parents." * From the ancient 
and time-honored rule of all mediaeval college life, that the stu- 
dents be required to converse in Latin, the inference is drawn 
that the mother-tongue is proscribed, and that the teachers of 

' History of Pedagogy, p. 139. 

« Ibid. 

» Ihid. p. 145. 

4 Ibid. p. 148. 

» Ibid. p. 146. 


Voltaire, Bossuet, and Moli^re despise the French language 
and French literature. ' Because the Jesuits do not teach in 
the poor-schools, therefore they despise the people and seek 
to keep them in ignorance ; for, according to this philosopher, 
" the ignorance of a people is the best safeguard of its faith."* 
The children of the Revolution are indeed hard to please. 
To-day they tell us we want to keep the people in ignorance. 
A hundred years ago, they attributed all the ills of France to 
the fact that we educated too generally. If the University 
of Paris is brought to ruin, it is due to "the crafty liberality 
of the Jesuits in teaching the youth."* In 1762, the Univer- 
sity of Bordeaux, in a memorial addressed to Parliament, 
gives as one of the signal causes of decadence in attendance 
** the infinite number of school-masters and heads of board- 
ing-schools." * To the same cause the people attributed the 
falling off in trades and agriculture. '• The country would 
never flourish," said they, " whilst the rectors of schools re- 
mained. If the fields lack strong arms, and the number of 
mechanics diminishes, and the clan of vagabonds increases, it 
is because our burghs and villages swarm with schools." * La 
Chalotais fears the Revolution will have no chance of success 
for the tell-tale reason that education is too widespread. He 
says : " Are there not too many writers, too many academi- 

' History of Pedagogy, p. 144. Among the regulations of the College of Troyes, 
bearing date of 1436— that is, 150 years before the Ratio Studiorum was constructed 
— there is a rule insisting upon the speaking of Latin and preferring even bad Latin 
to French. (Boutiot, Ilistoire de F Instruction publique et populaire a Troyes, pp. 
21, 22.) We cannot forbear recalling here that P^re Por^e, to whom Voltaire dedi- 
cated his Merope, and of whom he elsewhere wrote : " His greatest merit was to 
make his disciples love virtue and letters" (Sifecle de Louis XIV., jtcrivains 
Franfais, p. 48). P^re Por^e taught Rhetoric for thirty years in Clermont College, 
and among his pupils counted nineteen members of the French Academy (Crdtineau- 
Joly, Hist, des Jlsuites, t. iv., p. 227). 

' Ibid. p. 155. 

^ The Jesuits' Catechism, or Examination of their Doctrine, published in French 
this present year, 1602, and now transl-ited into English. 1602. B. II., chap, iv., p. 87. 

* Alain, V Instruction primaire avant la Rh'olution, p. loi. 

* L. Maggiolo, De la Condition de P Initructton primaire et du Mattre d'Ecole en 
Lorraine avant 1789, p. 514. 


oians, too many colleges ? There were never so many 

students .... the people even want to study. . . . The Broth- 
ers have succeeded in spoiling everything; they teach 
children to read and write who should only know how to 

dig and carry the hod The well-being of society requires 

that the knowledge of the people does not extend beyond 
their occupation." ' Another child of the Revolution — Vol- 
taire — thanks La Chalotais for these sentiments, with which 
he is in full sympathy : " I thank you for proscribing study 
among the laboring class." ' And yet, these men are pro- 
claimed the apostles of light, whilst the Jesuits and the 
Brothers are set down as the abettors of ignorance and 
paralyzers of brain-force. 

In the same spirit and after the same truly original method 
M. Compayr6 discovers and reveals to us that the Jesuits 
disdain history, and especially the history of France. In a 
paragraph ominously headed, " Disdain of history, of philo- 
sophy, and of the sciences in general," we read : "No ac- 
count is made of history, \or of the modern history of France." 
Now, this is a serious charge, and we naturally look for 
sustaining proof. M. Compayr6 gives his authority, and gives 
it in all seriousness. It is a piece of hearsay, anonymously 
quoted : " History," says a Jesuit Father, " is the destruction 
of him who studies it."" It matters little to M. Compayr6 
which one of the ten thousand Jesuit Fathers now living, or 
of the ten times ten thousand that have lived during the 
past three centuries, made use of the imbecile expression. 
A Jesuit Father has said so ; therefore all the Jesuits hold 
by it, and teach their pupils to despise histor}'. Such reason- 
ing needs no comment. However, we find a charge of the 
same nature made against the colleges of France general- 
ly in the seventeenth century. Louis XIV., through his 

' Essai d' Education Nationale, 1763, pp. 25-26. 

' Jules RoUand, Histoire Littiraire de la Ville d^Albi. 1879. See also the article 
of M. Bruneti^re in the Revue Jes Deux Mondes, Oct., 1S79. 
' History of Pedagogy, p. 145. 


minister Colbert, complains that the students " learned at 
most only a little Latin, and were ignorant of geography, 
history, and nearly all the sciences that avail for business 
purposes." ' But so far as the Jesuits are concerned, P^re 
Charles Daniel, in a very instructive little book, has trium- 
phantly refuted the charge. He has shown how Jesuit 
Fathers— Sirmond, Petau, Labbe, Du Cange, Baluze — have 
taken the lead in historical studies ; ' how Jesuit Fathers 
— Riccioli, Grimaldi, Delisle — advanced geographical and as- 
tronomical researches ; * how Jesuit Fathers— Daniel, Griffet, 
Bougeant, Longueval, Berthier — unearthed documents bear- 
ing upon the history of France, and laid the foundation of 
the modern school of historical criticism. * And after all 
this had been written in direct refutation of M. Compayre's 
statements, M. Compayr6 still repeats the same old story, and 
Professor Payne has not a word of protest to enter. But 
we know the source whence M. Compayr6 has imbibed his 
inspiration. It is from a work which purports to be a trans- 
lation of the Constitutions and Declarations of the Society of 
Jesus. ' Both the preface and the appendices are written in a 
spirit of hostility. In the former we are told that these 
rules are the outcome of pious zeal on the one hand, which is 
the inspiration of the saintly Loyola, and of a thoroughly 
Machiavellian policy on the other hand, which is the inspira- 
tion of the plotting Laynez. * In the appendices are to be 
found chapter and page for many of the accusations quoted 
both in the smaller and the larger work of M. Compayr6. ' 
It is a book according to his thinking, but it is also a book 

' Ch, Jourdain Histoire de V Universiti de Paris au XVII. et au XVIII. SiicU. 
Paris, 1867. p. 239. 

' Les JisuiUs Imtituteurs de la Jeunesse Frarifaise, chaps, ii. iii. 

* Ibid, chaps, iv., v. 

* Ibid, chaps, x., xi. 

• Les Constituiious des Jisuites avec les Diclarations. Paris, 1843. 

• Ibid. Pref. p. viii. 

^ Cf. Histoire critique, t i., p. 196, and Les Constitutions, appendix, in the Ratio 
Studiofum, p. 436. Therein is also to be found allusion to the gossip of Saint Simon. 


upon which no man with a reputation tor historical ac- 
curacy could rely, and retain his reputation. ' 


In proportion as the Jesuits are abused, are the Jansenists 
of Port Royal praised." We will not stop to inquire how far 
the praise is merited ; or whether, had the Jansenists of Port 
Royal continued docile children of the Church, they would 
have Cousins and Sainte-Beuves to eulogize them. P^re 
Daniel has shown how much they borrowed in their methods 
from their Jesuit antagonists. M. Compayr6 is no less en- 
thusiastic over Luther, whom he represents as a great creator 
of schools and systems.' Far be it from us to deprive Luther 
of the credit of any good act of his life. He did interest 
himself greatly in schools. He had a just and an exalted 
appreciation of the schoolmaster. " Were I not a minister," 
he said, " I know of no position on earth which I would 
rather hold."* But while Luther respected the school- 
master, and gave primary education rules that were only a 
repetition of what Councils had decreed, he introduced into 
educational matters no new principle. Here is the program 
of studies for primary schools, which Melanchthon had drawn 
up, under the eye of Luther, in 1527: "The master should 
explain simply and clearly the Pater, the Creed, the Ten 
Commandments, and inculcate the principles of politeness. 
He should teach reading, writing, and singing." ^ Luther 

' It is phenomenal to note the persistency with which fair-minded men instinctively 
rely upon the avowed enemies of the Jesuits for views and opinions concerning 
their methods. We have before us a short history of pedagogy, modelled after the 
French volume of Paroz— ^ History of Education. 1887, from the pen of Professor 
Painter of Roanoke College— and the author sketches the Jesuits' principles of organ- 
ization according to the Provincial Letters of Pascal (p. 167), Herein he is follow- 
ing Raumer. Further on (225) the Professor names F^nelon among the adherents 
of Jansenism ! And this is the kind of information our American teachers are 
given as history. 

* Hist, of Ped., pp. 139 seqq. * Ibid. p. 119. 

* Stockl, Lehrbuch der Geschichte der Pedagogik, p. 211. 

* See E. Rendu, De P Instructim Populaii-e dans V Allemapie du Nord, p. 11. 


would have boys attend school only two hours, and girls 
only one hour a day. " My idea," he says, " is not to create 
schools like those we have had, where twenty years were 
spent in studying Donatus and Alexander without learning 
anything useful .... A boy should pass one or two hours a 
day at school, and let him the rest of the time give himself 
to learning some trade in his father's house ... So also 
should girls give an hour a day at school." ' All this does 
not show a very high conception of public primary educa- 
tion. He laid greatest stress upon the Latin or secondary 
schools." But in all that Luther said or wrote about educa- 
tion, he was only remembering what he had learned in his 
native town or with his Augustinian masters. He recognized 
the importance of schools ; he attempted to awake interest in 
them ; but men were too busy with religious controversy, or 
engaged in wars, to give much heed to his warnings. How- 
ever, the int-ellectual activity begotten of the Reformation led 
both Protestant and Catholic to renewed eflforts in behalf of 
schools. Both parties looked to the school-room as the final 
battle-ground. Both sought to possess themselves of the 
child and mould its soul into their respective forms of belief. 
Hence the deep interest evinced in popular education both 
in Protestant Germany and in Catholic France during the 
sixteenth century. In the seventeenth century interest 
flagged, and in France the primary schools were in a Wretch- 
ed condition when Blessed John Baptist De La Salle came 
upon the scene and organized his Brotherhood. 

And what has M. Gabriel Com pay r6 to say of these 
educators of the people? — He has, indeed, a kind word for La 
Salle, and seems to appreciate his greatness of soul. Withal 
he shows but little sympathy for the disciples of La Salle. 
We recognize the ring of his accent. He speaks by the 

' Schrift an die Rathsherren. 1 524. 

' St6ckl.,loc. cit., p. 211. For the school-plan of Luther and Melanchthon, see 
Dr. Henry Barnard's Memoirs af Teachers ami Educators in Germany ^ pp. 169-172. 
This book is largely a translation of Raumer's History of Pedagogy. 


card. He finds fault with the Brothers and their methods, 
because to find fault with them is the fashion of the hour. 
They are in the way. The Jesuits were abused for not 
teaching the children of the people ; the Brothers are abused 
for teaching them the trades, because, forsooth, such indus- 
tries take bread from the workingmen's mouth.' When the 
Brothers were confided the normal schools of France, it 
was called a Machiavellian design. When they established 
boarding-schools and houses of higher studies, they were 
called ambitious and designing. No matter what they do, 
their motives are impugned and their actions criticised by 
the party now dominant. Do Brothers, like the late Brother 
Ogerian, dare cultivate the talents that God gave them, and 
by their writings conquer for themselves an honorable posi- 
tion in the domain of letters or science? Forthwith they 
are censured as men who have stepped outside their sphere, 
as though educators could be too well informed, or professors 
too advanced in the knowledge of their subject-matter.' In 
their historical text-books do the\' describe the horrors of 
the French Revolution in their naked reality ? They are 
called unpatriotic. ^ — Do they keep order in school ? At once 
they are set down as repressing the natural feelings of chil- 

M. Compayr6 finds fault with the silence which the Broth- 
ers cause to be observed in their classes. How is a teacher 
to instruct a large class of pupils if he is not sparing in 
his own words and does not insist upon silence on their 
part? How can children learn in a class which is a Babel? — 
All other things equal, he is surely the best teacher who can 
command order, and whose words are few and to the point. 

' See Meunier, Luite, p. 83. A vile book, which seems to have inspired more than 
one idea in M. Compayr^'s works. 

* Brother Ogerian died at Manhattan College, in 1869. He was greatly esteemed 
by Agassiz. He was member of the Institute ol France, officer of the Academy, 
and affiliated to many other learned societies. His chief work is the Histoire Natu- 
relle du Jura, in 4 volumes. 

^ Meunier, loc. cit., p. 24. 



That is the best method by which these conditions obtain. 
We defy M. Com pay r^ to state a better one. But M. Com- 
payr6, like a true philosopher, goes back of the order and 
silence, and in doing so makes a wonderful discovery. " Is 
there not," he asks, "in these odd regulations, something 
besides the desire for order and good conduct — the revela- 
tion of a complete system of pedagogy which is afraid of 
life and liberty, and which, under pretext of making the 
school quiet, deadens the school, and in the end reduces 
teachers and pupils to mere machines?"' Unfortunately 
for M. Compayr6, that which he discovers is of his own 
hiding. Great is the power of a .preconceived notion. To 
him who holds it, if to none others, it explains all things 
satisfactorily. That religious life is timid ; that it dreads the 
light; that it is afraid of life and liberty ; that it is palling: 
here is M. Compayre's preconceived notion, which he has 
projected from his brain into the order and silence and dis- 
cipline of the Brothers' class-room. But religious life has 
none of these fears ; religious men have made great sacrifices 
in their search after the light : they have died for truth and 
for liberty. And is activity deadening? — Is it deadening to 
be about one's duty, doing one's task and nothing but one's 
task ? Where does the machine-work enter into a silent and 
orderly class-room ? Suppose for an instant, that, instead 
of the order and silence now maintained in the Brothers' 
schools, there were disorder in every class, no regular plan of 
studies, no text-books ; that the Brother spoke loud and 
indistinctly, and did not wait for an answer ; that he boxed 
the boys' ears right and left ; that he ran about the class 
like a madman, with no necktie, without a coat, and his 
long shirt-sleeves hanging down over his loosely waving 
arms and hands. Suppose this picture given of La Salle or 
any of his disciples, would M. Compayr6 find in it aught to 
admire? Would he have words of commendation for the 
Brothers ? Well ; the picture we have drawn is no carica- 

' History of Pedagogy, p. 266. 


ture ; it is the faithful description of a loving disciple. It is 
the portrait that Ramsauer has left of his master Pestalozzi. ' 
And yet M. Compayr6 finds in Pestalozzi the alpha and 
omega of educational perfection. 

It is true that in the hands of an unscrupulous teacher, 
who would take the least possible trouble with his class ; 
who would not interest himself in the wants of each pupil ; 
who would therefore not give to his lessons the thorough and 
persistent preparation that they demand, the simultaneous 
method might become a piece of mere machine-work. But 
what evidence or authority has M. Compayre to infer that 
the teaching of religious rrjen and women is of this unscrupu- 
lous character? As men and women, they know, as well as 
their censor, that it is of duty and obligation for them to 
prepare the lessons they give, well and thoroughly, even 
though it be the tenth or the twentieth time that they impart 
the same lessons. As religious men and religious women, 
this duty is doubly binding. No teacher worthy of his sacred 
calling — and there is not in this world among human callings 
a more sacred one than that of moulding souls to higher and 
better things — -^'ill give his pupils to drink from the stagnant 
pool when he can control the running waters of knowledge. 

Professor Payne, not content with the amount of misrepre- 
sentation made in the original work, adds his share. He says ; 
'* The scarcity of teachers and the abundance of pupils led 
to the expedient of mutual and simultaneous instruction. 
Whilst this method is absolutely bad, it was relatively good." ' 
This is a rather meagre account and a totally false estimate 
of one of the greatest discoveries of modern times; for as 
such do we look upon the simultaneous method. It is this 
method that has made popular primary education a possible 
thing. It has enabled us to reduce instruction to a science. 
It has drawn order out of chaos. It is the only method used 
the world over at the present day. It is the only method 

1 See Oscar Browning, Educational Theories, pp. 156, 157. 
» History of Pedagogy, p. 277. 



Professor Payne himself makes use of in his daily lessons. 
Even M. Compayr^ has here been forced to admit its impor- 
tance. Speaking of its introduction by Blessed De La Salle, 
he says : " It was also an important innovation to renounce 
individual instruction — which was given by the teacher in a 
low voice, in the midst of a turbulent class, to pupils called up 
one after another — and to substitute therefor the only 
method of teaching applicable to public instruction ; namely, 
the simultaneous method." ' This is a candid admission. 
M. Compayr6 considers the simultaneous the only method of 
teaching applicable to public instruction. M. Compayre is 
now speaking the language of common sense and sound 
educational experience. But how shall we characterize the 
language of Professor Payne, when he calls this same method 
" absolutely bad " ? We shall leave master and man to 
settle the difference. 


We find many other statements to quarrel with in this book 
of misrepresentation, but we have said enough to show the 
animus of the author. After all, we seem to hav^e abandoned 
the subject of pedagogy entirely into the hands of our non- 
Catholic brethren. In Turin, in Rome, in Florence — in- all 
the state universities throughout Italy — in all the leading 
universities of Germany and France — in Cambridge, England, 
and the Johns Hopkins, America — we find chairs of pedagogy, 
and the professors are active, and the work they put forth 
is, in some respects, admirable. How few — if any — of our 
Catholic universities have a chair of pedagogy ? — How few 
are aware of the vast proportions to which education, as a sci- 
ence, has grown within the past two or three decades ? As 
a science, education is based upon psychology and moral 
philosophy. Now, anybody knowing the modern drift of 
these two subjects can easily infer what distorted pedagogical 
theories may be constructed upon a psychology without 

' Histoire critique des Doctrines de P Education en France, t ii., p. 333. 


the human soul and an ethics without God. And yet, what 
are we doing to counteract these irreligious views, applied to 
the young intellect where they are calculated to effect a 
most radical change ? — Will the Buissons and the Com- 
payres continue to write our histories, and formulate our 
theories of pedagogy ? Children of the Revolution, they find 
all excellence, all modern progress, all educational reform 
growing out of that terrible upheaval. Inimical to the 
Churchy they can see nothing good come out of Nazareth. 
Aspects of things taken from such a vantage-ground must 
needs be distorted. History written in such a spirit, becomes 
wofuUy misleading. To us Catholics it is a matter of pro- 
found regret that the field of pedagogy in the United States 
should begin to be cumbered with such briars and thorns. 
It is our own fault. The past is ours, but we treat it 
shamefullv. We neglect it ; we let its sacred memory be 
enveloped in a growth of rank weeds, that hide or efface its 
noble records ; we permit its deeds to be misrepresented, its 
honor to be stained, its glory to be tarnished ; and scarcely, 
or if at all, in feeble accents, do we enter protest. We allow 
our enemies to usurp ground that by every right and title 
should be ours. In the whole domain of pedagogy, what 
Catholic works in the English language are within our reach ? 
They are easily named. There is that admirable work of 
Theodosia Drane, a Dominican Nun. It is called Christian 
Schools a7id Scholars. ' It is charmingly written, and is well 
calculated to give an exalted idea of the work of the Church 
in the education of Europe. But it is mainly literary rather 
than pedagogical. 

We have the Li/c of Bernard Overberg, translated from the 
German of Krabbe, by the humble Passionist, the Hon. and 
Rev. George Spencer. ' There is a Protestant version pre- 
pared by Schubert, who simply re-wrote Krabbe's book, 
omitting the Catholic portions; this has also been translated. 

' Published, in two volumes, by Longmans, Green & Co., of London. 
* Derby, Richardson & Son, 1844. 



Overberg (1754-1826) was a devoted priest, rector of the 
Seminary of Munster, and head of the Normal School. He 
was one of the greatest educators of his day. Father Spencer's 
Life is an ennobling volume, calculated to fire every teacher 
with love and zeal for the education of youth. It is out of 

Another work is called The Spirit and Scope of Edu- 
cation. ' It is a translation from the German of Dr. Stapf. 
It is written in the spirit and according to the noble ideal 
that Overberg held of the teacher's mission. It is highly philo- 
sophical in its treatment of the relations of teacher and pupil ; 
its psychological analysis is natural and simple ; above all, it 
is imbued with a truly Catholic tone. But the book is also 
out of print. 

Rosmini left, in a fragmentary state, the first part of a 
great work on education. Like everything to which the 
saintly philosopher of Rovereto put a hand, this work was 
planned on a scale of vast proportions. Had the author com- 
pleted his design, we should have a monumental work, show- 
ing the evolution of intelligence from infancy to maturity, 
under a guiding hand, through all grades of education. In 
the first part of this book, dealing with the child, he antici- 
pated Froebel in many respects, and excelled him in others. 
This volume has been faithfully translated ; for this we may 
thank a Protestant lady and a Protestant publishing house. * 
We also have an English version of the first part of Dupan- 
loup's work on education. It is called The Child, ' and though 
lacking the depth of Rosmini's work on the same subject, is 
none the less suggestive reading. 

We still require a history of methods. Perhaps the one that 
would give most satisfaction, and would be a valuable acqui- 
sition to the library of every Catholic teacher, would be a 

• Published in Edinburgh, by Marsh and Beattie, 1837. 

' Rosmini's Method in Education, by Mrs. William Grey. Boston. D, C. Heath 
& Co. I887. 

» Published by the " Cajholic Publication Society," New York. 


translation of Stockl's Lehrbuch der Geschichte der Pedagogik. 
Now, that Dr. Stockl is becoming better known to English 
readers through the elegant translation that Father Finlay, of 
Dublin, is giving them of his " History of Philosophy," this 
other supplementary work should be all the more welcome. 
Only by means of such works can we make right the falsify- 
ings of slanderous books like those of M. Gabriel Compayre. 

Brother Azarias. 


According to a letter of the Prefect of the Propaganda, 
June 1889' the Holy Father had declared on the 31st March 
preceding, that the Congregation of the Propaganda still 
retained and exercised the right of granting among other 
faculties that of erecting Confraternities of the M. H. 
Rosary. This was to be independent of the privilege 
ordinarily granted by the Religious Communities, to whom 
the right of erecting said confraternities belonged in the first 
instance, as had been set forth by Decree of 16 July 1887. 
The letter of the Prefect of the Propaganda contained, how- 
ever, the following phrase : Confraternitates S S. Rosarii 
erigi posse tantum, ut fideles iis adscript! lucrentur indulgen- 
tias communiter concessas omnibus in genere confraternitati- 
bus canonice erectis. 

The question which presents itself at once is : what are 
these Indulgences communiter concessce of which the Prefect of 
the Propaganda speaks ? For, among the Decrees and Re- 
scripts of the S. Congregation of Indulgences is to be found 
the following clause : Non existit generalis aliqua pro qualibet 
Confraternitate indulgentiarum concession sed post erectionem 
canonicara recurri debet ad eas obtinendas. Referring to a 

' Am. Ecci. Review, 1889, page 465. ' 


paper on the subject in the Nouvelle Revue ThMogique, XXI. ^ 
pag. 492, wherein the writer fails to find any answer to the 
question, we said : •* We confess that we are unable to throw 
any further light upon the question of the writer and with 
him would be glad if some one else could add to our infor- 

Through the kindness of the Rev. Joseph Putzer, Professor 
of Moral Theology in the Redemptorist Seminary at Ilches- 
ter, we are enabled to present to our readers the following 
explanation of the difficulty, which appears to cover the 
groujid satisfactorily. 

The Bishops, by reason of this facult}^ obtain the power of 
erecting the Confraternity of the M. H. Rosary. But this 
confraternity does not enjoy the privileges and indulgences 
of a similar confraternity erected by the Dominicans. It 
partakes merely of the character of any other confraternity 
which may be erected by the Bishops jure ordinario, with 
this diflference, that in erecting other confraternities the 
Bishop must have special recourse to Rome for the purpose 
of obtaining indulgences for the same (quia non existit gene- 
ralis aliqua pro qualibet confraternitate indulgentiarum con- 
cessio, sed post erectionem canonicam recurri debet ad eas 
obtinendas), whilst in this^ case of the M. H. Rosary he can at 
once and without particular application to Rome avail himself of 
the Indulgences which are usually granted to confraternities 
erected by reason of this faculty obtained from the Propa- 

That there are such definite Indulgences usually granted to 
Bishops by the Holy See in favor of said confraternities is 
plain from the Rescripta authentica, n 74 and n. 113, where 
special mention is made of such. In the last case a request 
for an unusual extension of privileges is refused or limited by 
the answer : Pro gratia indulgentiarum aliis confraternitatibus 
concedi solitarum. 

Which are the Indulgences ordinarily granted to said con- 
fraternities, and which our Bishops could grant in each case 


without special recourse to Rome? P. Schneider, whose ed- 
itions of Maurel, " On Indulgences," have been approved by 
the S. Congregation of Indulgences, referring to Theodorus de 
Spiritu Sancto, Tract, de Indulg., Rom.,' 1743 P. II., Cap. II., 
art. II., § IV., page 161, says : The Confraternities which ask 
Indulgences from the Holy See usually obtain the following : 

I. Three Plenary Indulgences, which the members may gain 
on the day of their entering the confraternity, on the principal 
feast of the same, and at the hour of death. 2. Four Indul- 
gences of seven years and seven quarantines on four other feasts 
of the year to be determined or approved by the Bishop of 
the Diocese. 3. An Indulgence of sixty days for every work of 
piety. Behringer (in his later edition of the same work, page 
556) adds that usually the privilegium altaris was also con- 
ceded in these cases. 

In the Rescripta authentica, n. 358, mention is made of the 
fact that the above Indulgence had been granted by request 
of the Bishop to a sodality (sodalitas catechismi perseverantiae 
in Dicecesi Cenomanensi). Later on, n. 394, there is a peti- 
tion "ut pro Confraternitate animarum fidelium defunctorum 
concedantur indulgentise quce ejusmodi confraternitatibus con- 
cedi Solent" The same Indulgences were granted in this case 
as in the above, together with the privileged altar, probably 
because of its special reference to the souls in Purgatory. 

From all this it is plain, that in regard to the Indulgences 
granted by the Holy See to the ordinary confraternities 
there is, as in other things, a fixed and certain norm, of which 
those enjoying the faculty of erecting Confraternities of the 
M. H. Rosary may avail themselves without having special 
recourse to Rome. The only point which may possibly need 
an extended definition is, whether among the Indulgences 
which our Bishops are entitled to grant vi facultatis 9, formulas 
C, in the erection of the Confraternity of the M. H. Rosary, 
there is included that of the Altare privilegiatum. We need 
not enter here upon the question of whether it be not prefer- 
able to obtain the " facultas erigendi confraternitatem SS. 


Rosarii " from the Superior General of the Dominicans, since 
the latter has so much greater and numerous privileges with 
it. Particular circumstances must guide those who seek these 
spiritual advantages from one source or the other. It is 
worthy of notice that as early as 1863 the General of the 
Dominicans complained at Rome that the Bishops, without 
obtaining the consent of the superiors of his Order, were erect- 
ing confraternities of the M. H. Rosary. Pius IX called 
attention to this fact in a general Decree of the 1 1 April 1864. ' 
At the same time, however, he declared that all previously 
erected confraternities, about the canonical erection of which 
there existed any doubt, were to be considered as validly 
erected. " Sanctitas sua tali modo (i. e., inconsulto Magistro 
generali Ordinis Praedicatorum) confraternitates hactenus 
erectas, dummodo nihil aliud obstet, motu proprio et de ple- 
nitudine potestatis sanavit et validas esse declaravit." In 1887 
several representatives of other religious orders which claim 
the privilege of erecting confraternities joined with the Gen- 
eral of the Dominicans to have their rights secured to them 
exclusively. The S. Congregation of Propaganda declared 
that, whilst the Religious had the right together with certain 
exclusive privileges, the Holy See nevertheless had granted, 
and intended to continue doing so, similar rights of erecting 
confraternities, to Bishops in missionary countries. These 
confraternities would be independent of those of religious 
communities, and enjoy certain Indulgences, the nature of 
which has been explained in this paper, but which are not 
identical with those granted to confraternities erected under 
the authority of the Dominicans. — Cf. Americ. Eccl. Reviezv\ov 
1889, pp. 461 and 465, where the " Instructio S. Congreg. de 
Prop. Fide, June, 1889," is given in extenso. 

> Deer. auth. 405. 



{First Article.) 

THIS age of ours, which has developed so much activity 
in all lines of investigation and exposition, has not 
been found wanting in the department of Hymnology. The 
indefatigable presses of all lands and all sects have been 
flooding the world with collections: Songs of Praise, of 
Hope, of Love ; " Lyrae," Catholica, Anglicana, Brittanica, 
Americana, Germanica, Domestica, without end. The " Can- 
tate " psalms, and those words of St. Paul to the Ephesians, 
— " Speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual 
canticles, singing and making melody in your hearts to the 
Lord," have surely produced much fruit. Nor have Catho- 
lics anything to complain of in this matter. Father Faber, of 
whom, on his acceptance of a curacy in the Anglican Church, 
Wordsworth could say, " England loses a poet," has given us 
no less than one hundred and fifty hymns. Besides these 
might be mentioned the Hymns of the Heart, by Matthew 
Bridges ; The Catholic Choralist, by Rev. W. Young ; ' 
the musical and poetical English and Latin Hymns of his 
namesake, Rev. J. B. Young, S. J. ; ' the very excellent Lyra 
Catholica of Rev. Edward Casvvall, 1848 ; ^ and, of course, the 
translations of Breviary hymns made by Dr. Newman and 
others. I have mentioned some of the hymnal treasures of 
English-speaking Catholics. In France, as we might expect, 
there is really an " embarras de richesse " in the Dictionnaire de 
Noels et de Cantiques of Fr. P6renn^s, in Migne, containing 
words and music of some thirteen hundred sacred songs. 
But under all, and in the midst of all, and over ail this vast 
hum of hymnal industry, it does not require a very trained 
ear to- distinguish clearly the great Songs of the Ages — 

' Dublin, 1844. « Pustet, 1884. 

• Of which Dunigan, N. Y., gave us an American edition, 1851. 


solemn, sublime, full of heart-melodies alike joyful and sorrow 
ful, but always tender and confiding. And I have thus 
drawn attention to the multitude of hymn-writers and hymn- 
books in our day, only to illustrate the more forcibly a 
sentiment, penchant^ and a very decided preference for the 
old hymns of the Church, which must be deemed remark- 
able in many ways. The first striking feature is the number 
of different collections of Church hymns ; the patient re- 
search, the tender and loving sympathy, and the poetical 
talent, sometimes of a very high order, expended on the 
translation or elucidation of the hymns. Not, indeed, that 
such a majestic study should have been found lacking, in 
previous ages, in attractive elements for many writers and 
students, as the names of Walafridus, Strabus, Radulphus, 
dean of Tongres, Clichtoveus, George Cassander, Thomasius, 
Arevalus ' will indicate. But our century — especially the 
latter part of it — has witnessed the most prodigious activity 
in this line. Germany is foremost of the nations. It is 
enough to note Daniel's Thesaurus Hymnologicus^ containing 
Latin, Greek, and Syriac Hymns ; Mone's Ldteinische Hyni- 
nen des Mittelalters^ ' containing a very complete collection 
of Latin Hymns ; Mohnike's Hymnolo^ische Forschungen ; 
Schlosser's Die Kirche in ihren Liedern, * containing transla- 
tions with valuable notes of explanation and reference ; J. 
Kehrein's Kircheti und Religiose Lieder^" Kayser's Beitrdge zur 
Geschichte und Erkldrung der dltesten Kirchenhymnen. * And 
these are supplemented by the volumes of translations 
of others. 

In English we have Dean Tr^TiO^cx^ Sacred Latin Poetry;'' 
Neale's Hymns of tJte Eastern Church, and Mediceval Hymns 

' Hymnodia Hyspanica, Romae, 1786. 
' Lipsiae, 1841-1856, 5 vols. 

• Freiburg, 1853- 1855, 3 vols. 

• Freiburg, im Breisgau, 1863. 
» Paderborn, 1853. 

• PaderlK)rn, 1881. 

' Ix)ndon, Macmillan & Co., 1874. 


and Sequences; Chandler's The Hymns of the Primitive 
Church; Caswall's Lyra Catholica, containing a vigorous 
translation of all of the Breviary Hymns ; Mrs. Charles' 
Christian Life in Song; Dr. SchafFs Christ in Song \^ Prof. 
March's Latin Hymns; ' the Seven Great Hymns of the Medie- 
val Church; ' Dr. Coles' Dies IrcB, Staba't Mater etc.;* also Dr. 
Newman's translations of many of the Breviary Hymns, and 
the occasional translations, some of them of a high order of 
poetical merit, to be found in various Catholic periodicals. 
But a more remarkable feature of the movement is the 
identification therewith of so many minds that are not en- 
lightened with any conviction of the doctrinal truth con- 
tained in the hymns ; so many hearts that are warmed with 
no quickened affection for that Church whose voice alone, in 
her sacred canticles, seems able to satisfy them ; so many 
pens that not unfrequently evince, or indeed avow, something 
of antipathy for the Spouse of Christ. Thus Archbishop 
Trench has been guided in his selection of Latin Hymns by 
such principles as these: that " all hymns which in any way 
imply the Roman doctrine of transubstantiation," should be 
excluded ; as also those " which involve any creature- 
worship," or ask " the suffrages of the saints," or contain 
" addresses to the cross calculated to encourage superstition," 
etc. So, too, the editor of the Seven Great Hymns was 
impelled, even in these latter days, to apply the epithet 
" Romish " to such an inoffensive creature as the ecclesiastical 
calendar. Dr. Coles indulges a similar spirit of nick-naming. 
Others, again, whether editing or translating, could scarcely 
have shown a more Catholic appreciation of the mystical and 
poetical beauty of the hymns, amongst whom it gives us 
pleasure to note the names, so famous in other lines of 
intellectual activity, of Dr. J. M. Neale and Professor F. A. 
March, LL. D. 

> Randulph, N. Y., 1869. 

* Harper & Bros, N. Y., 1875. 

8 Randulph, N. Y. ■• Appleton, N. Y., 1868. 

TtyO MED/yliVAL HYMNS. 203 

Nor does this quickening zeal for the study and elucidation 
of Church hymns seem to have been born merely of the in- 
satiable spirit of antiquarianism, growing enthusiastic over 
the Past merely because it is not the Present, delving into trea- 
sures of other da3's to win no intrinsic worth or beauty from 
them, but merely their silent testimony to the spirit of their 
age. Surely, the patient toil, the tender sympathy, the pro- 
found learning of collectors and expounders and translators 
have aimed at higher things than the smack of an unusual 
culture, or the glamour of a peculiar individuality of /r//r//a«/. 
Professor March, for one, speaks in the language of a devotion 
and a conviction that shall scarcely be explained by any of these 
hypotheses. *' Those books of literature," he says, " are the 
highest educational powers which contain the most truthful 
delineation and expression of the noblest character. Christian 
is better than Augustan. For inspiring and elevating thought, 
and for vigor, harmony, and simplicity of language, the 
hymns are better than any Augustan Odes. They are the 
true Latin folk poems ; they have been called ' the Bible of 
the people.' " ' He testifies, again, to the universality of this 
love for Latin hymns : " Almost all our elder scholars have 
favorite Latin hymns, just as they have favorite poems in 
German or Old English, etc." 

Again, if we may here apply the principles regulating sup- 
ply and demand, we must judge the movement to be a 
very general one, as the volumes are many, and are got- 
ten up in the highest styles of the printer's and binder's 

Some may think it remarkable that this movement towards 
appreciation of the hymns of the Church should proceed mainly 
from those who are not of her own household ; and we must 
confess with some regret that but little is done amongst our- 
selves in this most fruitful field of literature. We do not need 
endowments* to further the study, but only a higher apprecia- 

' Pref. to Latin Hymns. 

' " The study of Latin and Greek as vehicles of Christian thought should be the 



tion of the classical literature of that ** victory which overcom- 
eth the world — our Faith." The study of the hymns of the 
Catholic Church should certainly be a pleasure to those who 
know how to appreciate the high consolations, the sublime 
themes, the sweet tenderness, the awful majesty of that divine 
faith whose vivid expression these hymns so eminently are. 
Their intrinsic worth and beauty have won the admiration 
and love of Protestants as well as Catholics. But for the 
latter they possess attractions other than these. They have 
about their sacred cadences the glamour of ages that fade 
away almost into Apostolic times. They come down to us la- 
den with the traditions of this venerable antiquity. They were 
inspirations of comfort to not a few of that vast throng who 
in all ages and in all climes have washed their robes in the 
blood of the Lamb. They were and are great creeds of ac- 
tion as well as of conviction, in the lives of bishops and priests 
and confessors and virgins. And again, some of them have 
nearer memories and associations for every Catholic heart, 
sad alike and tender. So the Dies Irce, while it conjures up 
a picture and a speculation of that dark future, pregnant with 
our own personal destiny, can bring before our mental vision 
many a scene of the dim Past, enfolding the accomplished 
destinies of souls once near and dear to us. So, too, the 
Pange Lingua, while it waters the soul with the present dew of 
heavenly consolations, can pour into the waiting heart a 
thousand memories of the innocent Past. Possessing, then, 
attractions for us which can be adequately explained only by 
the reason of that faith which is in us, it is indeed a matter of 
surprise that, in our tongue at least, these hymns should have 
received their just measure of appreciative editing almost ex- 
clusively at the hands of Protestants. 

most fruitful study known to philology, and have its place of honor in the University 

The present Series owes its origin to an endowment by Mr. Benjamin Douglas for 
the study of these authors in Lafayette College. — Notice prefixed to Latin Hymns for 
use in Schools and Colleges. — F. A. March, LL. D., N.Y. : Harper & Bros. 


While the hymns mean all this for the faithful at large, to 
the Catholic priest they mean much more. As a portion of the 
Divine Oflfice, they are a daily out-pouring of his soul in 
song — a song which, unlike other heart-melodies, does not 
merely reflect the subjective emotions of the singer, or the 
gleams of sunshine, or the tracks of shadow that checker 
his pathway ; but rather the holy longings and ecstasies, or 
the patient hopes and sorrows, it may be, of the Spouse of 
Christ. He can feel and claim, in a sense or in a measure 
which others cannot, his sacred kinship with the " mighty 
men of old," out of whose hearts poured forth the tides of 
living song. By the very nature of his priestly dignity, he 
can recognize a thousand subtle allusions, a thousand intan- 
gible hintings, a thousand kaleidoscopic plays of imagination, 
which possess for him a very real significance. We propose 
therefore to offer an occasional chapter on this interesting 
and useful. subject to the readers of the Ecclesiastical Review, 

As the title of this article indicates, we have grouped under 
one head two mediaeval hymns, — the Dies IrcB, and the Pange 
Lingua of St. Thomas. This juxtaposition of hymns differing 
so widely in authorship, in sentiment, in diction, in structure, 
may find apology in the fact that they are so eminently sug- 
gestive of the two great principles of the spiritual \iie, /ear 
and love: that fear which, excluding not the tenderness 
of filial confidence, but rather supposing it, or aiming at it, is 
the " beginning of wisdom ; " and that burning charity which 
only in its highest perfection " casteth out fear." And so, in 
the midst of the awful terrors of the Dies Irce, and while the 
*' tuba mirum spargens sonum " is still affrighting the ear, we 
have yet leisure to hear and utter the confiding prayer : 

Recordare, Jesu pie, 
Qaod sum causa tux vise. 

So, too, while in the Pange Lingua we sing the miracle of 
God's unspeakable love for us, and while, as flame kindles 
flame, our hearts burn within us at His near presence, we may 
never forget the duty of reverent fear, nor the lesson that we 


should Still venerate Him — cernui. Another reason might be 
found for such juxtaposition in the fact that these two hymns 
enter the most frequently into the striking offices of the priest- 
ly life — the Missa de Reqiiie, and the Benediction and Votive Of- 
fice M. B. S., and the Qitarajit 'Ore. And still another reason 
might be found in the judgment which so capable a critic as 
Dr. Neale has passed upon them — that amongst the hymns of 
the Western Church the Pange Lingua "contests the second 
place .... with the Vexilla Regis, the Stabat Mater, the Jesu 
dulcis Memoria, the Ad Regias Agtii Dapes, the Ad Supernam, 
and one or two others, leaving \.\\^Dies Irce in its unapproach- 
able glory. " ' 

Caro mea vere est cibus, et sanguii meus vere est potus. — St John vi 56. 

We shall not attempt to sketch even the merest outlines of 
the life and labors of the " Angelic " author. These are fa- 
miliar to all ; while the details fill the interesting and able 
volumes of Bishop Vaughan. We might note en passant that 
Prof. March calls him " the most eminent of the Dominicans, 
and the ablest ot the schoolmen,'' "and Dr. Schaff, ** the great- 
est divine of the Middle Ages. ' 

The translations of the hymn have not been many nor very 
felicitous. Mr. Edward Cas wall's is probabl}'^ the closest, 
but it lacks what in our opinion is not the least element in its 
beauty and popularity — the constantly recurring assonance or 
rhyme. Other translations, preserving the metre and rhyme, 
have found it necessary either to sacrifice some theologic 
thought (the while they eke out the stanza with something 
original), or to preserve it at the cost of the poetic beauty and 
flow of measure. Others, again, have chosen an entirely differ- 
ent metrical structure, without notable gain either in beauty 

* Mediaeval Hymns and Sequences, 3d Ed., p. 179. 

* Latin Hymns, p. 298. 

' Christ in Song, p. 584. 



or fidelity. Witness the version found in some old editions of 
prayer-books (I quote from memory) : 

Sing my tongue, adore and praise 
The depth of God's mysterious ways : 
How Christ, the world's great King, bestowed 
p His Flesh concealed in human food, 

And gave mankind the blood that paid 
The ransom for the souls He made. 

Passing over the " allowable " rhymes, bestowed and food, we 
should naturally expect more accuracy as a result of the 
change of metre— iambic being much more easy than the orig- 
inal trochaic — and of the abandonment of the double rhyming, 
than we find (if my memory serves me aright) in the line 
" flesh concealed in human food," which has something of a 
smack of impanation in its sound at least. 

The difficulty experienced in rendering into a flowing En- 
glish version the idiomatic condensation of the Latin is much 
increased by the masterly crystallization of profound theo- 
logic thought in the Pange Lingua.^ 

" It has been a bow of Ulysses to translators," says Dr. Neale, 
in Mediceval Hymns, where he gives a version '* which claims 
no other merit than an attempt to unite the best portions of 
the four best translations with which I am acquainted, Mr. 
Wackerbarth's, Dr. Pusey's, the Leeds book, and Mr. Cas- 
• wall's (which last, however, omits the double rhymes "(p. 
189, 3d. Ed.). This version has, with slight emendation, been 
selected by the Marquis of Bute for The Roman Breviary? 
The version given in the Manual of Prayers ordered by 
the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore seems to be a similar 
compilation of previous translations. The extracts we shall 

' A French critic has summed up some of the elements of this difficulty : " Rien 
de plus difficile en eflTet que de bien traduire les poesies liturgiques, et surtout les 
hymnes du moyen ^ge: Le latin de cette dpoque, tout corrompu qu'il ^tait en effet 
et tout barbare qu'il peut par^lre, avail une force particuli^re pour exprimer les choses 
thtologiques ou mystiques que nos langues modernes n» possMent plus." A. Con- 
stant, Ed. LitUfature, Migne, col. t-io. 

' Vol. I., p. 2 in addit. 


make from Dr. Neale show a difficulty in finding a vigorous 
and faithful English version, even when it is a compilation of 
the " best portions oT the four best translations, etc." We 
have, nevertheless, ourselves essayed a new translation — to 
use Dr. Neale's words, " ventured another attempt, possibly 
to display another failure." 


Sing, my tongue, the mystic story 
Of the Saviour's Flesh and Blood: 

How our King, the Lord of glor}', 
Gave Himself to be our food, . 

And our drink, the ransom gory 
Poured out on the Holy Rood. 


For us born and to us given 

Of a Virgin pure as snows — 
Wondrously our night is riven 

By the seed of light He sows : 
His indwelling with us, Heaven 

Yet more wondrously doth close. 


Christ, the last sad supper eating 
Ere He break His mortal bands. 

First the types and forms repeating 
With the meats the Law commands. 

To the Twelve, all types completing, 
Gives Himself with His own hands. 

Into Flesh the true bread turneth 

By His word, the Word made Flesh ; 
Wine to Blood : while sense discerneth 

Nought beyond the sense's mesh, 
Faith an awful mystery learneth, 

And must teach the soul afresh. 



To this Sacrament most lowly 
Bow the head and bend the knee ; 

And depart, ye types that solely 
Shadows were of things to be ! 

Faith, Faith, do Thou teach us wholly 
What the senses fail to see ! 


Praise and jubilee exceeding 

To the Father and the Son ! 
Let hosannahs upward speeding 

Through the endless ages run I 
And to Him from both Proceeding, 

Equal be the honor done ! 


Pange lingua gloriosi prcelium {iaurcam) certaminiSy sings Ve- 
nantius Fortunatus. Not the metre only has St. Thomas 
followed, but, apparently, the inspiration as well of the first 

Et super crncis tropaeo die triumphain nobilem, 
Qualiter redemptor orbis immolatus vicerit — Fortunatus. 

Quem (sc. sanguinem) in mundi pretium Rex effudit gen- 
tium. The metre and inspiration found another home in the 
hymn of the fifteenth century : 

Pange lingua gloriosae 
Lanceae prreconium, 
Quae reclusit pretiosae 
Cataracts fluvium, 
Passo Christo dolorosx 
Pro salute gentium. ' 

Indeed, the metre seems to have been a favorite one of the 
ages : " L'une (c'est le Pange Linpid) est 6crite en grands 
vers trochalques, tels qu'on en trouve dans CatuUe, dans 

1 Daniel, Tbes. Hymn, T. iv., p. 265 seq. 


S6n^que, chez les Latins; et chez les Grecs, dans Sophocle ' et 
dans Euripide. * C'est ce vers, qui, d6pouill6 de la quantity 
et accentu6, fait aujourd'hui ce grand vers, ou vers h^roique 
des Grecs modernes, form6 sur le vers politique du moyen 
§,ge," etc., says M. de Marcellus, quoted in Litt&ature. 

The Marquis of Bute has substituted noble for generous in 
Neale : In a generous {generosi) womb once dwelling. The 
"Council" prayer-book has: "In a Virgin's womb once 
dwelling," and omits the double reference to Our Lady, which 
is, after all, somewhat tautological. We have reversed the 
order ; and, omitting the allusion to her in the first strophe, 
have preserved it in the second ; thus, perhaps, allowing the 
simple theme to stand out more clearly in the first. 


Neale has: 

Given for us, for us descending 

Of a Virgin to proceed, 
Man with man in converse blending, 

Scattered He the Gospel seed : 

The poverty of rhyme in seed zx\d proceed has scarce apolo- 
gy in any compensatory felicity of expression.— e. g., to pro- 
ceed o{ a Virgin. 

Nobis natiis, nobis datus : in Lauds he sings, Se nascens dedit 
sociuni ; just as in the first stanza. Quern in mundi pretium, 
and in Lauds, Se moriens in pretium, 


Se dat suis manibus. In Matins, Corpus Dominicum datum 

discipulis ejus fatemur manibus. Again, cibum turbce 

duodence ; in Lauda Sion: Turbce fratrum duodence. Ad Lau- 
des ; se tradidit discipulis. Indeed, the striking similarities 
are endless — the same burden of thought being reflected with 
equal clearness and fidelity by whatever mirror of metre St. 
Thomas might choose. 

' Sophocl, CEdip. Col. , v. 880 et seq. 

* Euripid., Iphigen. in Aulid., v., 317 et seq. 



Dr. Neale has given us a very good critique on the trans- 
lations of the fourth stanza, which he calls *' the great crux 
of the translator." Thinking that his analysis of the original, 
which develops its beauty and its theology with enough of sub- 
tlety and acuteness to interest even the scholastic mind, might 
be welcome to the reader, we give, in a footnote, the entire 
passage. ' 

• The great crux of the translator is the fourth verse. I give all the translations. 
I. "God the Word by one word maketh Very Bread His Flesh to be, And whoso 
that cup partakelh, Tastes the Fount of Calvary : While the carnal mind forsaketh, 
Faith receives the mystery." Here the incarnation of the Word, so necessary to 
the antithesis, is omitted: and so exact a writer as St. Thomas would never have 
used the expression by ONE word. 2. " At the Incarnate Word's high bidding, Very 
Bread to Flesh doth turn : Wine becometh Christ's Blood-shedding : And, if sense 
cannot discern. Guileless spirits, never dreading. May from Faith sufficient learn." 
Here the antithesis is utterly lost, by the substitution of Incarnate for made flesh 
and bidding for word, to say nothing of Blood-skeddiner for Blood. 3. " Word made 
Flesh ! The Bread of nature. Thou by word to Flesh dost turn : Wine, to Blood 
of our Creator : If no sense the work discern, Yet the true heart proves no traitor : 
Faith unaided all shall learn." Here the antithesis is preserved, though at the ex- 
pense of the vocative case. And surely S. Thomas, in an exact, dogmatical poem, 
would not have spoken of the blood of our Creator. Mr. Caswall, following up the 
hint given by the last version, and substituting the apposite pronoun for the vocative, 
has given, as from his freedom of rhyme might be expected, the best version: 
" Word made Flesh, the Bread of Nature By a Word, to Flesh He turns : Wine 
into His Blood He changes : What though sense no change discerns, Only be the 
heart in earnest, Faith her lesson quickly learns." In both these last translations, 
however, the panem verum of .S. Thomas is not given ; and Mr. Caswall brings in 
the more than unnecessary article — By a word. 

Since the first edition of my book, Hymns Ancient and Modem have produced a 
translation put together from former ones, but nearer my own version than to any 
other. Their fourth verse is their weakest : — 

Word made Flesh, True Bread He maketh 
By His word His Flesh to be: 

Wine His blood ; which whoso taketh 
Must from carnal thoughts be free'. 

Faith alone, though sight forsaketh. 
Shows true hearts the Mystery. 
It is needless to observe that the Italicized line and a half is not in the originaL 
Forsaketh, too, is scarcely English. — Mediaeval Hymns, 3d Edition, p. 180 seq. 


In contrast to the fulness of Dr. Neale on the subject, we 
give the Italian version of Giuseppe Belli, ' which condenses 
into a stanza of four lines the main thoughts of the original 
and omits the antitheses pointed out in the footnote. 

Pane e vin per Lui diventano 
Vera came e vero sangue : 
Se al prodigio il senso langue, 
Basta in noi la sola fe.* 

In " Parafrasi Poetiche " " V. Capponi gives sagro pane for 
verum panem^ Iddio benigno for Verhum Caro, and con accenti 
efficaci for verbo. The antitheses are better preserved by 
Joh. Schlosser,* but at the cost of rhyming Worte with Worte. 

Wort und Fleisch,* schaflFt mit dem Worte 
, Wahres Bred in Fleisch er um : 

Wein wird Blut kraft seiner Worte: 

Another German translator * rhymes successfully, but 
omits the verum. Before passing to the fifth stanza, we 
might note, that just as the exclusion of the Pange Lingua 
from the Sacred Latin Poetry of Dean Trench is a guarantee of 
its orthodoxy, the retention of it by Dr. SchafiF is a guarantee 
of its beauty. Dr. Schaff admits two translations of it into his 
•' Christ in Song " (p. 584 seq.), with the apology for the fourth 
verse: "Although it strongly savors {sic) of transubstantiation 
{yer, 4), it could not be omitted in this collection." He has 
" taken some liberty " with the fourth verse, " and inserted 
' by faith,* which is not in the original." In the second ver- 
sion, or " transfusion rather," by Rev. Dr. Ray Palmer, " the 
doctrinal difficulty is happily overcome " — a testimony, sure- 
ly, to the beauty of a hymn whose intensely Catholic spirit 

' Inni Ecclesiastic!, Roma, p. 205. 

* Bread and wine by Him become true flesh and trne blood : if at the miracle the 
sense languish, faith alone suffices. 

' Parafrasi Poetiche degl' Inni del Breviario, Firenze, 1818. 

* Die Kirche in ihren Liedern, Freiburg im Breisgau, 1863, Vol. I., p. 192. 

" Word and Flesh — He makes with the word true bread into Flesh ; Wine be- 
comes blood by force of his words, etc 

« Die Kirchlichen Hymnen des Breviers, Mnenster, 1855, p 104. 


and doctrine have not made it lose its attractiveness for Prot- 


Of this stanza Dr. Neale says : " The two concluding lines, 
Prcestet fides supplcmentum Sensuum defectui, are avoided by all. 
The versions are : ' Faith the senses dark refining Mysteries 
to comprehend : ' * Faith, thine earnest adoration. Passing 
eye and touch, present.' Mr. Caswall's translation, unshack- 
led by rhyme, is nearest : * Faith for all defects supplying, 
where the feeble senses fail.' " His own version is : " Faith, 
our outward sense amending, maketh good defects before." 
— Dociimentuvi: " documenta exampla docendi causa dicuntur** 
(Varro, De Lvigiia Latino) : " showing, shadow, the Passover " 
(Prof. March, Latin Hymns). 


Dr. Neale's version, which is, with slight occasional inver- 
sion, that of the Manual of Prayers, is 

Honor loud, and praise addressing 

To the Father and the Son, 
Might ascribe we, virtue, blessing. 

And eternal benison : 
Holy Ghost, from Both progressing, 

Equal laud to Thee be done 1 Amen. 

With the exception of the " rhymes " Son and benison, it is 
a good translation of the original — a stanza not the easiest 
of the six. 

In the next number of the Review we shall complete this 
chapter with some account of the Dies Ires. 

Hugh T. Henry. 




IN collatione quadam ecclesiastica nuper habita, propo- 
situs fuit sequens casus, quern cum unus ex presbyteris 
sorte electus resolvisset et ad argumenta opposita respon- 
disset, solutio moderatori quidem probata fuit ; quibusdam 
tamen, ut postea intellectum est, non videtur omni ex parte 
satisfecisse ; proinde nonnullis rogantibus obtemperare visum 
est, ut solutionem et rationes quibus innititur, paulo amplius 
expositas cum ipso casu in lucem edamus. Casus autem 
erat iste : — 

Michael, initio quadragesimae, unice quia aliquantulum 
debilis est, dispensationem petit a suo confessario pro toto 
tempore quadragesimali. Hasret imprimis confessarius num 
possit talem dispensationem concedere, tum quia ipse non 
est paroclius proprie dictus, tum quia existimat rationem 
quae adducitur a Michaele non esse valde gravem ; attamen, 
melius sibi efFormata conscientia, illam concedit. Duabis 
vix elapsis hebdomadis, Michael inusitatam recuperat va- 
letudinem et robustissimus evadit, ac proinde dubitat num 
ulterius possit uti dispensatione jam habita. Magis autem 
dubitat cum recordatur dispensationem quam anno prasce- 
denti obtinuerat ducendi in matrimonium aliquam puellam 
protestantem declaratam fuisse nullam a suo confessario, 
propterea quod, cum concessa fuisset unice ad evitandam 
infamiam quae ex praegnantia timebatur, inventum est puel- 
lam certe non esse gravidam in ipsa die qua matrimonium 
fuit contractum. 


I. Utrum nostri quasi-parochi dispensare possint in je- 
juni© et abstinentia etiam independenter a concessione ipsis 
facta ab Ordinario ? 


2. Utrum et qualis ratio requiratur ad valide dispensan- 
dum ? 

3. Utrum et in quibus casibus cesset valor dispensationis, 
cessante totaliter ejus causa motiva? 

4. Quid ad singulas circumstantias casus sit respondendum? 
Antequam ad quaesita respondeatur, nonnulla praenotanda 

videntur. Dispensatio apud recentiores plerosque strictiori 
usurpatur sensu et definiri potest cum Kenrick, cui conso- 
nant fere Konings et alii, " relaxatio legis legitima auctoritate 
ad tempus facta in aliquo casu in quo lex alioquin obligaret." 
S. Thomas autem et veteres praesertim scriptores vocem 
latiori adhibent sensu, qui cum Gury definiri potest simplici- 
ter " relaxatio legis in casu particulari." Haec latior ac- 
ceptio origini vocis et nativae significationi magis convenit ; 
proprie enim dispensatio idem valet ac oeconomia seu oeco- 
nomica distributio (operum nempe et ciborum), vel, ut ait S. 
Thomas, quem non tam pro definitione quam pro clara 
dispensandi rationum et philosophias, ut ita dicam, exposi- 
tione adducere licet, " Dispensatio proprie importat commen- 
surationem alicujus communis ad singula. Unde etiam 
gubernator familiae dicitur dispensator, in quantum unicuique 
de familia cum pondere et mensura distribuit et operationes 
et necessaria vitas. Sic igitur et in quacumque multitudine 
ex eo dicitur aliquis dispensare, quia ordinat qualiter aliquod 
commune praeceptum sit a singulis adimplendum. Contingit 
autem quandoque quod aliquod praeceptum quod est ad 
commodum multitudinis ut in pluribus, non sit conveniens 
huic personae vel in hoc casu ; quia vel per hoc impediretur 
aliquid melius, vel etiam induceretur aliquod malum ; sicut 
ex supradictis patet. Periculosum autem esset ut hoc ju- 
dicio cujuslibet committeretur, nisi forte propter evidens et 
subitum periculum, ut supra dictum est. Et ideo ille qui 
habet regere multitudinem, habet potestatem dispensandi in 
lege humana, quae suae auctoritati innititur, ut scilicet in 
personis vel in casibus in quibus lex deficit, licentiam tribuat 
ut praeceptum legis non servetur. Si autem absque hac 


ratione pro sola voluntate licentiam tribuat, non erit fidelis 
in dispensatione, aut erit imprudens ; infidelis quidem, si 
non habet intentionem ad bonum commune ; imprudens 

autem, si rationem dispensandi ignoret Unde sicut in 

lege humana publica non potest dispensare nisi ille a quo lex 
auctoritatem habet, vel is cui ipse commiserit, ita in prae- 
ceptis juris divini, quae sunt a Deo, nullus potest dispensare 
nisi Deus, vel is cui ipse specialiter committeret." i. 2. q. 
97. 4 c. et ad 3. 

Latior vero vocabuli usus patet praesertim ex quaestione 
praecedenti, art. 6. ubi dicit : ** Si vero sit subitum periculum, 
non patiens tantam moram ut ad superiorem recurri possit, 
ipsa necessitas dispensationem habet annexam, quia necessi- 
tas non subditur legi ; " et ex 2. 2. q. 88. 10. c : *' Lex ponitur 
respiciendo ad id quod est ut in pluribus bonum. Sed quia 
contingit hujusmodi in aliquo casu non esse bonum, oportuit 
per aliquem determinari, in illo particulari casu legem non 
esse servandam. Et hoc proprie est dispensare in lege, etc." 
Secundum hunc usum, ut quisque videre potest, ad dispen- 
sationem pertinent et epieikeia et potestas declarandi adesse 
causas ad excusandum a lege servanda sufficientes, etsi, stri- 
ate loqendo, dispensatio ab utraque distinguitur. Ex hoc 
duplici loquendi modo facile evenit ut sententiae, quae revera 
ad idem recidant vel saltem baud multum discrepent, aliquan- 
do videantur inter se valde contrariae. 

Nunc tandem ut ad primum quaesitum respondeam, revera 
adesse videtur ratio dubitandi. Nam a theologis generatim 
dicitur parochis quidem ex consuetudine competere hanc 
potestatem, confessarios autem posse tantum declarare suf- 
ficientiam causarum excusantium, si quae forte adsint. Quae- 
stio igitur est utrum nostri quasi-parochi hac in re ad paro- 
chos proprie dictos an ad confessarios potius accensendi sint. 
NuUos invenio qui hancquaestionem tractarint, nisi Sabettium 
et Rohling, qui putant rectores nostros missionarios parochis 
hac in re omnino esse aequiparandos ; Rohling insuper ad- 
dit hanc potestatem baud comp)etere assistentibus qui dicun- 


lur, a quo tamen propter rationes mox dandas valde dissentio. 
Nam et parochi non habent banc potestalem vi officii sed ex 
sola consuetudinc, et in iis tantum locis ubi viget consuetudo ; 
at in hac rcgionc quamcumque dispensandi potestatem con- 
suetudo tribuit rectoribus, eamdem concedit et assistentibus 
et confessariis. Non tamen dici potest banc potestatem ha- 
beri sive a rectoribus sive ab aliis independenter a concessione 
Ordinarii. Omnes cnim suas facultates habent ex concessione 
Ordinarii, et ipsa consuetudo non dat jurisdictionem, sed pro- 
bat tantum earn esse a superiore datam ; ipse enim vel ab 
initio eam expresse concessit vel saltern consuetudinem sibi 
optime notam, cum non reclamet licet facile possit, approbare 
et ratam babere jure censctur. Praeterea apud nos, sicut in ^ 
plurimis Hispaniae locis, solus parochus in singulis dicecesi- 
bus est ipse episcopus, cujus ceteri sacerdotes facultatibus 
gaudentes babendi sunt tanquam vicarii sive perpetui sive 
temporarii. Ad casum autem nostrum nibil refert rectores 
missionarios nostros jure ordinario seu vi officii in lege jeju- 
ni! dispensare non posse, si ad id faciendum, quandocumque 
opus sit, et ipsi et ceteri sacerdotes sint ab episcopo genera- 
liter delegati. At anne re ipsa sunt ita delegati ? Sic quidem 
statuendum videtur. Inter amplas enim facultates quas vi 
indulti Apostolici ipsis communicat episcopus expresse ha- 
betur ista : — " dispensandi quando expedire videbitur, super 
esu carnium, ovorum et lacticiniorum, tempore jejuniorum 
et quadragesimae." Qui vero potestatem concedit dispensandi 
in lege abstinentiae seu qualitatis ciborum merito censetur 
dare id q uod com muniter mi nus reputatu r, facultatem nempe ^ 
dispensandi aequas ob causas in lege quantitatis seu jejunii ; 
et quidem valde incommodum et nimis esset molestum tum 
iis qui aequas ob causas dispensari vellent tum episcopo ipsi, 
si in bujusmodi casibus recursus ad ipsum necessarius esset; 
et demum pro hac sententia affertur consuetudo. Haud 
tamen omnino constat. Auctores enim graves, uti Marc et 
alii delegationem requirunt expressam, et Marc insuper notat 
dispensationem per Indultmn Pontificutm dari non solere super 


lege unicae comestionis, et rationem addendo dicit : " sufficit 
enim in hoc excusatio a jure ;" et in hac praesertim regione 
tarn multae dantur causae per se excusantes, ut Kenrick non 
dubitet dicere " paucos ad banc legem haberi obligates." 
Ad consuetudinem quod attinet difficile esset probare sacer- 
dotes nostros dispensationes dare solere, nisi in casibus in 
quibus adsint causae quae per se, si non certe, saltern pro- 
babiliter ad excusandum sufficiant. Ceterum, si quis perpen- 
derit quod ex una parte nee sacerdos delegatus nee episcopus 
ipse possit valide dispensare absque justa causa et ex altera 
quod confessarius possit, imo debeat, declarare aliquem esse 
exemptum non solum quando causae certo excusare sufficiant, 
sed et in dubio an ita valeant, juxta axioma " non est impo- 
nenda obligatio, nisi de ea certo constet," minima sane illi 
videbitur differentia quae inter delegatam dispensandi facul- 
tatem hac in re et potestatem declarandi aliquem esse a jure 
dispensatum intercedit. 

Fatendum tamen est minorem aliquatenus causam sufficere 
ad dispensandum stricto sensu quam ad declarandum quem- 
quam esse dispensatum a jure. S. Alphonsus de dispensatio- 
nibus generatim disserens ad quaestionem, Quid in dubio an 
casus indigeat dispensatione, ita respondet : — " Sive dubium sit 
positivum, sive negativum, potest subditus uti sua libertate. 
Consultius tamen est tunc adire praslatum, qui declaret, vel 
dispenset ; cum in tali dubio bene possit etiam praelatus in- 
ferior dispensare sine concessione legislatoris Idem in 

dubio an adsit causa sufficiens ad dispensandum (dicunt 
Salm. etc.) . . . quia potestas dispensandi late interpretanda 
est, intellige, si data sit, non per modum commissionis, 
sed gratiae ; et tunc dispensans non obligatur ad examen 
super plena sufficientia causae." (L. I. 192.) Hie addere 
juvat Lehmkuhl, qui de dispensatione in lege jejunii dicit : 
" Si igitur causa quaedam adest ejusdem ordinis cum ea, 
quae excuset, sed per se ad excusandum non sufficiens, 
Episcopus, parochus, similisve Superior dispensare potest : 
quod valet, etsi dubium maneat, num causa sufficiat ad dis- 


pensandum ; sine omni causa autem valide solus S. Pontifex 
dispensare potest." (Vol. I. p. 779.) Omnibus denique per- 
pensis, licet sarcerdotes nostri nullam habeant expressam 
delegationem et in longe majori dispensationum numero de- 
clarativam tantum exerceant potestatem, attamen cum in lege 
abstinenliae expressam accipiant potestatem, et Episcopi 
baud velint ut Catholicis difficilius esset hisce in regionibus 
dispensationem hujusmodi impetrare quam in aliis in quibus 
parochi dispeqsant, quod fieret si ad obtinendam dispensa- 
tionem stricto sensu necesse esset ad ipsos recurrere (imo 
moneant ut in hac materia sacerdotes benigniores se exhi- 
beant, uti Kenrick, v. g., qui, plurimis causis dispensandi seu 
excusandi recensitis, dicit : *' Ideo missionariis cavendum 
est, ne occasionem peccandi aliquibus ex errore praebeant, 
veteri disciplinae arctius Inhaerendo ; " adjicit vero eos opor- 
tere ^di^XxhMS cominendare " poenitentiaestudium, et accuratam 
legis jejunii observantiam, quatenus pro sua valetudine et 
labonbus poterunt "), cumque prasterea sacerdotes nostri 
sint parochi, episcopi nempe| vicarii^et "actus exerceant ^ 
parochiales jurisdictionem exigentes," et tales vicarii, juxta 
S. Alphonsum (L. iii. 1032. 3), id facere possint hac in re quod 
ipsi parochi, nisi hi expresse repugnent, plane censemus 
sacerdotes apud nos generatim ab episcopisad dispensandum 
in jejunio delegatam habere potestatem. 

Ad cetera quaesita brevius respondcri potest. Ad 2°" di- 
cendumquod in delegato sive a jure sive abhomine ad valide 
dispensandum semper requiritur justa ratio seu causa, vel 
quae probabiliter talis judicatur ; in ipso vero legislatore, si 
in sua lege dispense!, aut in alio parem habente potestatem, 
nulla ratio requiritur ad validitatem, sed ad liceitatem justa 
debet adesse ratio. Causas istas justae generatim sunt necessi- 
tas^ pietas aut utilitas communis aut privata ; et diversae qui- 
dem sunt pro diversilate materiae. 

Ad 3 "°, utrum et in quibus casibus cesset valor dispensa- 
tionis, cessante totaliter ejus causa motiva, respondetur quod 
si certum sit causam motivam totaliter cessasse, cessat dis- 


pensatio, quae data fuit sub condilione expressa aut tacita, si 
causa perduret ; secus, si concessa fuerit absolute. Absolute 
autem datur, quando effectum habet indivisibileniy uti dispen- 
satio pro inhabilitate, impedimento aut voto tollcndo con- 
cessa ; sub conditione autem saltern tacita, si causa perduret, 
dari censetur, si effectum habeat divisibilem et successivum, 
seu tractum, ut dicitur, successivum, id est, effectuum seriem 
sibi succedentium, ut in lege jejunii quadragesimalis aut 
Officii divini recitationis. Ratio est quia talis dispensatio est 
virtute multiplex, et nisi ista conditio intelligatur, dispensator 
delegatus et peccaret et invalidam saepe daret dispensa- 
tionem, utpote propter causam certo insufficientem. Ita 
optime distinguunt Ballerinius, Lehmkuhl et alii post Suarez. 
Consultius tamen esset conditionem exprimere, vel aliquod 
opus pium injungere (quod quidem est in usu), ut eleemosy- 
nas, preces, et cetera, commutationis vice, quas ut causa 
sufficiens haberi posset. 

Ad casum ipsum denique ut respondeam, dico dispensa- 
tionem Michaeli datam valere pro tempore quo aliquatenus 
debilis manserit, non vero ex tempore quo robustissimus 
evaserit. Ratio ex modo dictis patet. Alia videtur fuisse 
sententia quorumdam apud Busembaum, sed quid praecise 
voluerint non constat, et ceteroquin, quis, quasso, diceretdis- 
pensatum, v. g., ab Officio recitando, propter infirmitatem 
aliquam oculorum, nulla conditione expressa, postquam con- 
valuerit, manere toto reliquo vitae tempore ab obligatione 
Officii immunem? Nemo prudens certe judicaret dispen- 
santem ita voluisse, aut, si voluisset, potuisse (S. Pontifice 
excepto) propter evidentem nempe causae insufficientiam. 
Merito igitur dubitavit Michael num ulterius dispensatione 
uti potuerit, imo certus esse debet se istis in circumstantiis 
dispensatum esse minime voluisse confessarium vel intendisse. 

Ad declarationem vero confessarii circa matrimonialis dis- 
pensationis nullitatem, dicendum confessarium nimis omnino 
properanter ita pronuntiasse ; quatenus enim ex narratis in 
casu judicare licet, dispensatio prorsus erat valida et nullo 


roodo cessavit. Nihil enim dicitur in casu, aut innuitur, ex 
quo inferre liceat preces fuisse ullo modo fraudulentas vel 
mendaces ; in petitione omnia sincere narrata fuisse existi- 
mare debemus. Nihil ergo fuit obrcptionis aut subreptionis, 
non dico essentialis, sed cujuscumque. Hae enim voces vi 
sua denoiant vel positivum mendacium vel callidam suppres- 
sionem veri. ** Dispensatio," dicit Kenrick, " nulla est si 
fuerit obreptitia vel surreptitia, scilicet si falsum aliquid mali- 
tiose exponatur, vel verum taceatur, quod exponi stylus 
Curiae reique natura postulat," et brevius explicantur a S. 
Alphonso, " Subreptitia dicitur (dispensatio) quando Veritas 
reticetur ; obreptitia, quando mendacium apponitur." (Vide 
Kenrick, Theol. Mor. Tract, iv. n. 55, et S. Alphonsum. L. I. 
185.) Haec ideo affero, quia canonistae quidam et alii latius 
accipi istas voces velle videntur. Hisce positis, de defectu 
solum aut cessatione causae motivae quaestio fieri potest. Ad 
cessationerh vero quod spectat, cessare quidem debuit timor 
infamiae ex praegnantia, quando hanc vel omnino non evenisse 
vel per abortum forte desiise certo compertum est. Utrum 
ante an post matrimonium contractum hoc constaret casus 
non dicit, nee quidem refert (licet, si matrimonium jam 
fuerit contractum et femina fuisset baptizata, de dispensatione 
inutiliter quaereretur). Consentiunt enim fere omnes sufficere 
causam extitisse tempore dispensationis datae. Haec enim 
effectum habet indivisibilem et datur absolute. (Vide S. 
Alphonsum. L. VI. 1132, et auctores passim.) At enim con- 
stare putat confessarius et causam unicam fuisse et non ex- 
titisse tempore quo daretur dispensatio. Pace ejus, dixerim 
hoc minirae constare. Forte enim abortavit. Deinde timor 
certe infamiae ex praegnantia quae putabatur, revera extitit ; 
et demum licet de praegnantia solum mentio facta fuerit in 
petitione, altera saltem causa, copula nempe illicita, satis in- 
nuebatur. Quoniam igitur extiterunt causae sufficientes et 
dispensanti notae, non est rationi consentaneum autumari 
episcopum vel alium quemvis dispensantem solum prae- 
gnantiae factum respexisse et matrimonium ipsum, si cultus 


disparitatis casus esset, nullitatis periculo exponere voluisse, 
cum ceteroquin de ejusmodi facto ageretur quod, ut scire 
debuit, tunc omnimode certum vix esse posset, utpote de quo 
et ipsas feminae et medici peritissimi nonnunquam fallantur. 
At nisi eum ita voluisse statuamus, pro valore dispensationis 
pronuntiare debemus; in dubio enim standum est pro valore 
actus. Ceterum constat valere dispensationem, licet plures 
causae falsae, etiam motivae, cum causis veris et sufficientibus 
expositag sint ; quia, ut explicat Konings, " ubi causa aliqua 
motiva vera adest, sufficiens suppetit dispensationis funda- 


On account of Lent no octaves can be celebrated this month. More- 
over, the Titular feasts which might fall on Palm Sunday until Low Sunday 
must be transferred to the first free day after the week of Easter, when 
they will likewise lose their right to an Octave, a full one at least, 
on account of their translation. Those that occur on Passion Sunday, 
and also those that fall on the feast of St. Joseph, unless they should be 
of a higher dignity, can only be celebrated on the first free day after, that 
is, on the 24 of March. 


(Ten churches reported in 1888). 

Mart. 3, Vesp. de seq. Com. Fer. tant. 

Pro Clero Romano, Vesp. de seq. Com. Fer. tant. Fest. S. 
Lucii perpetuo mutatur in diem. seq. 

4, Fer. 3. Alb. S. Casimir C. Dupl. i. cl. sine Oct. off. C. non 
P. et pr. loc. Lectt. i . Noct. Justus si tnorte 9. Lect. de hom. et 
com. Fer. tant. in. Laud, et Miss. {OsJustiC. Or. pr.) cum Gl. 
Cr. et Evgl. Fer. in fine. In 2. Vesp. com. Fer. 

Fro Clero Roma?w, ut supra. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. et Fer. 

5, Fer. 4. ut in Calend. 

Pro Clero Romano, Rub. S. Lucii Pap. M. Dupl. (Fix. ex 
heri) off", ut in Calend. pro Fer. 3. mutatis mutandis. In 2. 
Vesp. com. Fer. Tant. 


( ThvrUen churches reported in 1888; there may be others which, per- 
haps, art simply reported as St. Thomas*.) 

Mart. 6, Vesp. de seq. Cora. Fer. tant Nihil fit neque eras de SS. 
Felic. et Perpet. Transfert. fest. S. Lanceae ad 1 1 hujus. 
Pro Clcro Romano, ut supra. Transf. fest. SS. Sindonis. 

7, Fer. 6. Alb. S. Thomae Aquin. C. D. Dupl. 1. cl. off. C. non 
P. LectL I. Noct. Sapientiam. 2. Noct novis.s. reformatae in- 
cip. PrcEclarum. 9, Lect. de horn, et com. Fer. in Laud, et 
Miss. pr. cum Gl. Cr. et Evgl. Fer. in fin. In 2. Vesp. com. 
seq. et Fer. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 

10, Fer. 2. Vesp. de seq. in pr. loc. Com. praec. et Fer. ad 
Com pi. et eras doxol. pr. 

Pro Clcro Romano, Vesp. de seq. Com. Praec. et Fer. 

11, Fer. 3. Rub. SS. Lanceae et Clavor. D. N. J. C. Dupl. maj. 
(fuit 7. hujus). Ut in Calend. ad 7 hujus cum com. Fer. tant. 
In 2. Vesp. com. seq. et Fer. 

Pro Clero Romano, Rub. SS. Sindon. D. N. J. C. Dupl. maj. 
(fuit 7. hujus). Omnia ut in Calend. ad 7. mensis cum com. 
Fer. tant. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. et Fer. 


* {^Two churches in 1888). 

j Mart 7, Vesp. de seq. Com. Fer. tant. 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 

8, Sabb. Alb. S. Joannis de Deo C. Dupl. i. cl. off. C. non P. 
Lectt. I. Noct. Beatus vir 2. et 3. Noct pr. 9. Lect. de hom. et 
com. Fer. in Laud, et Miss. pr. cum 01. Cr. et Evgl. Fer. in 
fine. In 2. Vesp. com. Dom. et S. Franc. Rom. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 


{One Church reported in 1888). 

Mart. 8, Vesp. de seq. Com. Dom. tant. 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 


9, Dom. 3. in Quadrag. 2. cl. Alb. S. Franciscae Romanae Vid. 
Dupl. I. cl. off. nee V. nee M. et pr. loc. Lectt r. NocL 
Mulierem fortem 9. Lect. de hom. et com. Dom. in Laud, et 
Miss. (Cogncrvi or. pr.) cum Gl. Cr. Praef. Quadr. et Evgl. Fer. 
in fine. In 2. Vesp. com. Dom. et seq. 

Pro Clero Romatto, omnia ut supra. 


{One church reported in 1888). 

Mart. 9, Vesp. de seq. Com. Dom. tant. 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 

10, Fer. 2. Rub. Ss. Quadraginta Mart. Dupl. i. cl. off. plur 
Mart, et pr. loc. Lectt. i. Noct. Fratres Debitores 9. Lect de 
hom. et com. Fer. in Laud, et Miss. pr. cum Gl. Cr. et ^vgl. 
Fer. in fine. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. et Fer. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 


(Eight churches reported in 1888). 

Mart. 1 1, Vesp. de seq. Com. Fer. tant. 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 

12, Fer. 4. Alb. S. Gregorii i. Pap. C. D. Dupl. i cl. Off. C. 
P. et pr. loc. Lectt. i. Noct. Sapientiam 9. Lect. de hom. et 
com. Fer. in Laud, et Miss. pr. cum Gl. Cr. et Evgl. Fer. in fin. 
In 2. Vesp. com. (seq. pro iis qui off. vot. utunt. et) Fer. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 


{One Church Reported in \ZZZ.) 

Pro utroque Clero omnia ut in Calend. ad 14. Martii, cum 
elevatione festi ad Dupl. i. cl. 


{Four hundred and sixty Churches in 1888; among them the cathedrals 
of New York, Newark, .and Rochester, and the pro-cathedrals 0/ Erie 
and Harrisburg. ) 

Mart 16, Vesp. de seq. Com. Dom. 

17, Fer. 2. Alb. S. Patritii Ep. C. Dupl. i. cl. OO. C. P. et pr. 
loc. Lectt. I Noct. Fidelis sermo 9. Lect. de hom. et com. Fer. 
in Laud, et Miss. {Statuit or. pr.) cum Gl. Cr. et Evgl. Fer. in 
fin. In. 2. Vesp. com. seq. et Fer. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 


{Seventeen Churches in 1888.) 

Mart. 17, Vesp. de seq. Com. Fer. tant 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 

18, Fer. 3. Alb. S. Gabriel. Archangeli Dupl. i. cl. Off. pr. 9. 
Lict. de hom. et com. Fer. in Laud, et Miss. pr. cum. Gl. Cr. 
et Evgl. Fer. in fin. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. et Fer. 

Pro. Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 


{Six hundred and hoenty six churches in 1888; among them the 
cathedrals 0/ Buffalo, Columbus, Hartford, St. Joseph, Lacrosse^ Man- 
chester, and Wheeling.) 

Mart. 18, Vesp. de seq. Com. Fer. tant 
Pro Clero Romano, Idem. 

19, Fer. 4. Alb. S. Joseph, Sponsi B. M. V. Conf. Dupl. i. cl. 
Pro utroque Clero omnia ut in Calend. 


{Twenty-five Churches in 1888.) 

Mart 20, Vesp. de seq. m. t v. Com. Fer. tant. De Pretiosiss. Sanguine 
fit 22 hujus. 

Pro Qero Romano, ut supra. De Pretiosiss. Sanguine fit 24 
21, Fer. 6. Alb. S. Benedict Abb, Dupl. i. cl. Off".. C. non 


P. et pr. loc. Lectt i Noct. Laudemus vivos 9. Lect. de hom. et 
com. Fer. in Laud, et Miss. {Os justi, A/d.) cum Gl. Cr. et 
Evgl. Fer. in fin. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. et Fer. 
Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 
a 2, Sabb, Pretiosiss. Sanguin. D. N. J. C. ut in Calend. ad 21 

Pro Clero Romano, S. Catharin. Flisc. Adurn. ut in Calend. 

23, Pro Clero Romano, Vesp. de seq. Com. Dom. 

24, Pro Clero Romano, Pretiosiss. Sanguin. D. N. J. C. ut in 
Calend ad 21. hujus. 


{^Thirty-eight Churches in 1888.) 

Mart 24, Vesp. de seq. Com. Fer. Jesu tibi sit gloria . 

Pro Clero Romano, Vesp. de seq. Com. Fer. tant. Jesu tibi, etc. 

25, Fer. 3. Alb. Annuntiatio B. M. V. Dupl. I. cl. Omnia ut in 

Pro Clero Romano, idem. 


{Two Churches in 1888.) 

Mart. 26, Vesp. de seq. Com. Fer. 
Pro Clero Romano, Idem. 
27, Fer. 5. Alb. S. Ruperti Ep. C. Dupl. i. cl. Off. C. P. Lectt. 
I. Noct. Fidelis sermo. 2. Noct. Ad sancti. 3. Noct. in Evgl. 
Homo peregre 9. Lect. de hom et com. Fer. in Laud. (or. Da^ 
guasumus) et Miss. Siatuit, cum. Gl. Cr. et Evgl. Fer. in fin. 
In 2 Vesp. com. seq. et Fer. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. Com. Fer. tant. 
The feast of the Seven Dolors, which occurs in Lent, March 28, may 
by privilege be celebrated at this date as a Titular, but its proper seat is 
the other celebration of the Seven Dolors on the Third Sunday of Sep- 

H. Gabriels. 



The Votive Offices on Thursday and Saturday. 

In the February number of the Review (p. 136) we said : The 
Votive Offices of Thursday and Saturday bind the priests in 
the United States, because they had been obtained from the 
Holy See at the special request of our Bishops, previous to 
1883, and were always binding by reason of being adopted 
into the national calendar. Hence we are not at liberty to sub- 
stitute the ferial or simple Office for that of the Bl. Sacrament or 
for that of the Immaculate Conception. 

The last statement admits of some exceptions, viz., on the 
feriae called majores, i. e., Advent, Lent, Quatertenses, and 
Monday of Rogation-days, when according to the Decree of 
1883 the Votive Offices are allowed, we are free to recite 
these or the ferial offices, but not during the rest of the year. 

The reason of the distinction is that, when the Bishops 
asked the privilege of substituting the offices of the Bl. Sac- 
rament and the Immaculate Conception on Thursdays and 
Saturdays respectively for the ferial offices, the concession 
did not include the ferials of Advent, Lent, Quatertenses and 
Monday of Rogation-days. But the concession made by 
Leo XIII in 1883 extended to the latter also, excepting only 
Ashwednesday, Passiontide, and the ferials of Advent occur- 
ring between the 17th and the 24th of December. 

For the Diocese of Baltimore and some others, a particular 
privilege had been granted previous to 1840, according to 
which priests obliged to travel on Thursday or Saturday 
throughout the year in the performance of their missionary 
duties, might substitute the above-mentioned offices for the 
ferials even during Advent and Lent and Quatertenses, but 
this privilege, it was declared, could not be understood as ap- 
plying to the whole United States in 1840. We append the 
Decrees referring to the matter in order to remove all doubt. 



An Clerici, qui obligantur ad Horas canonicas, teneantur 
recitare officia votiva v. g. SS. Sacramenti, quod ex conces- 
sione S, ra. dementis Papae XL, fieri potest Feria V., non im- 
pedita etc., et Officium Conceptionis B. Marias Virginis 
Sabbato non impedito etc., si jussu Ordinarii apponantur in 
Kalendario his diebus non impeditis? S. C. resp. : Si con- 
stet de Indulto speciali Apostolico, affirmative. ' 

Inter Officia nuper concessa omnibus Foederatae Americae 
Septentrionalibus Dioecesibus sunt Officia turn SSi. Sacra- 
menti in Feriis V., tum Conceptionis B. M. V. in Sabbatis 
per annum. Porro haec eadem officia jamdudum a S. m. Pio 
Papa VI. concessa fuerunt Baltimorensi et quibusdam aliis 
Dioecesibus cum eo privilegio, ut iis presbyteris, qui in prae- 
dictis Feriis iter aliquod suscipere deberent pro visitandis 
Catholicis, quorum spiritualis cura ipsis incumbit, liceret ea 
recitare et Missara respectivam celebrare etiam in Feriis 
Adventus, Quatuor Temporum, et Quadragesimae, quaeritur : 
an recenti concessione supra memoratum privilegium revoca- 
tum sublatumque fuerit vel adhuc perseveret, et posito quod 
perseveret, utrum ad omnes Foederatae Americas Septentrio- 
nalis Dioecesis extendatur et pertineat? 

Emus itaque et Rmus D. Card. Carolus Maria Pedicini, Ep. 
Portuens. rescribi mandavit : Praecedens Indultum manet 
in suo robore nee extendi potest sine nova concessione. ' 

Ex decreto ipsius S. Congregationis diei 23 Maji 1835 in 
una Namurcen. ad X., recitatio libera alicujus officii ad libitum 
fit obligatoria (\uum jussu Ordinarii illud affixum fuerit diei 
non impedito in Kalendario Dioecesano. Idipsum confir- 
mari videtur Decreto Urbis et Orbis nuperrirae die 5 Julii 
vertentisanni, quoad choralcm recitationem etc. Hinc quas- 
ritur : 

Utrum libera electio quoad privatam recitationem conces- 
sa coarctetur solummodo ad officia ad libitum in Decreto 5 

* Deer. auth. n. 4746 ad X. 

* Deer. auth. n. 4928 ad VII., sine Dato. — Esse videtur dies 22 Maji 1841. 


Julii citato contcnta, ideoque officiis antecedentibus ad libi- 
tum servandum sit Decreturn diei 23 Maji 1835. 

Resp. S. R. C. Affirmative. * 

Die 4 Sept. 1883. 



The following encyclical, dated December 30th, but pub- 
lished at the beginning of this year, will be of special interest 
to loyal American Catholics. The Holy Father in the open- 
ing of his address reminds his hearers of the prosperous con- 
dition of the Catholic Church in America, where liberty and a 
sense of equity rule among the people. He contrasts this spirit 
out of which has grown the intellectual activity witnessed by 
the University at Washington, with the narrow policy of the 
Italian statesmen, who in their blind hatred of all religion 
endeavor to wrest from the Church even her first preroga- 
tive, that of the exercise of charity among the poor and 
suffering, by confiscating the funds bequeathed to her by her 
faithful children for the use of pious works of mercy. He 
shows how the war against his temporal independence really 
means war upon the existence of the Catholic Church. This 
we have shown to be actually the case in a paper on the 
*• Roman Question," published some time ago, ' to which we 
would again refer the reader in this connection for the better 
understanding of the actual position of the Venerable Head 
of the Church. 



Venerabiles Fratres, 
Tempestivum quoddam solatium ex remotis Americae oris, 

* Deer. auth. n. 5893. 

* Amu. Eccles. Rev., vol I., p. 440. 


pariterque ex Helvetiis nuper accepimus. Quod enim ma- 
gnopere catholici expetebant, ut propria aliquot sibi esse 
Gymnasia magna in eruditionem juventutis liceret, id sua 
ipsorum contentione novissimo tempore assecuti sunt, consti- 
tutis Washingtoni, Ottavae, itemque Friburgi majorum 
disciplinarum domiciliis : in quibus hoc quidem sanctissimae 
legis instar habebitur, conjungere incolumitatem fidei cum 
elegantia doctrinae, neque minus ad religionem, quam ad 
artes optimas informare adolescentes. Qua de re probe 
intelligimus quantam haberi gratiam imprimis Episcoporum 
providentiae et constantias, tum coUatae privatorum operae 
oporteat. Utrisque sua tribuenda laus quod, conjunctis 
consiliis studiisque, memorabile bcneficium pepererint, quo 
non Ecclesia solum, sed civitas magna cum salute sua per- 
fruatur. Nam ejusmodi cceptorum cernimus animo, Venera- 
biles Fratres, fructus futuros : intereaque Nos ea cogitatio 
non parum recreat, in civitatibus, quae memoratas sunt, libere 
properare ad incrementa posse catholicum nomen, tutela 
legum et hominum aequitate defensum. 

Ista quidem satis jucunda foris acerbiorem sensum earum 
rerum efficiunt, quae geruntur domi. Hie enim impugnare 
Ecclesiam adversarii non desistunt ; quin etiam profitentur 
hostiles animos quotidie audacius, gloriamque facinoris ultro 
petere non verentur. Satis eloquuntur homines non privati 
nuper dicta, cum in concione frequenti, eaque consulto voca- 
ta, quid rectores rerum italicarum de Ecclesia romanoque 
Pontificatu cogitent, quid velint aperte indicavit. — Neque 
absimiles in Urbe, mense Junio, auditas voces, quibus diebus 
per inusitatis easque clamosas significationes non tam trans- 
fugae honos, quam Ecclesiae ignominia quaerebatur. Ita 
facile apparet, eodem inclinare utrobique sententias, et hoc 
esse prorsus commune propositum, exercere cum avita 
religione inimicitias, pravarumque sectarum auspiciis et ductu 
totum italorum genus, si fieri posset, ab Ecclesiae comple- 
xu divellere. Compertas illas habetis, Venerabiles Fratres 
plenas importunitate atque audacia sententias. Romanorum 



Pontificum in Urbem Romam oppugnare jura placuil, eadem- 
que usque adeo opinionc minuere, ut non plus habere mo- 
menti dicta sint, quam quod regiarum domorum raliones 
habere universe soleiit. Quod, autem est Nobis ereptum, id 
esse novis possessoribus firmo perpetuoque jure quaesitum, 
quasi nasci jus ex vi injuriaque possit. — Supervacaneum 
profecto est hoc loco meminisse titulos omnino singulares, 
quorum caussa Sedes Apostolica jus sibi suum in Urbe vindi- 
cat, vindicabit. Pariter nihil est opus naturam commemo- 
rare civilis romanorum Pontificum principatus, qui, cum 
illuc pertineat ut apostolici ministerii libertatem dignitatem- 
que debitam efficaci custodia tueatur, caussam habet sibi 
unice propriam, idemque a communi ratione principatuum 
non parum differt. At vero silere omnino neque possumus, 
neque debemus, cum in Apostolicam sedem istos velut reno- 
vatos impetus vis inimica convertat. Eo vel maxmie, quod in 
propugnatione juris Nostri non tutelam rei alicujus mortalis 
Nobis proponimus ipsi tamquam finem, sed majora quaedam 
atque altiora spectamus. Videlicet fidem christianam con- 
servari integram, ut oportet, volumus: ejus enim vocatur in 
discrimen incolumitas, quando qui populo praesunt has partes 
assignant reipublicae, vindicare humanae rationi sine modo, 
sine lege, principatum : quod, missis ambagibus, nihil est 
aliud, quam respuere funditus quaecumque a Deo tradita 
sunt, planeque ab Ecclesia desciscere. Itaque non id agitur 
tantum ut religionem civitas nullam habeat potiorem, 
aequabilitatemque juris largiatur nullo discrimine singulis, in 
quo iniqua et summe perniciosa ipsa aequabilitas est; sed 
lacessere placet catholicum nomen publica denunciatione 
belli, et cum pessimis Jesu Christi inimicis consilia viresque 
conjungere. Vix credibile videatur, hue denique esse per- 
ventum, idque in Italorum gente, quae christianae veritatis 
lumen maturrime, Dei munere, aspexit bonitatisque divinae 
maxima ac plane smgularia beneficia undeviginti saeculorum 
spatio et sensit et religiose custodivit. Sed res est ante 
oculos posita. Nee sane minacius dicunt, quam faciant : 


quin omni ratione conantur destinata perficere, proptereaque 
non desinunt institutorum et legum in Ecclesiae perniciem 
torquere cursum. 

Proximae calendae Januarias initium novi juris poenalis sunt, 
ut nostis, allaturae. De quo* cum deliberationes anno su- 
periore in legumlatorum coetu haberentur, Nos quidem hoc 
ipso loco haud praetermisimus capita ilia, ut oportebat, re- 
darguere, quae per speciem castigandas licentiae illuc revera 
pertinent ut justam Cleri libertatem minuant, operamque 
praepediant. In quo detractum iri plurimum Ecclesiae dixi- 
mus, quippe quae in societatis perfectae formam divinitus 
constiluta sui juris est, nee debet in muneribus officiorum 
suorum ulli hominum imperio subesse. Simul conquereba- 
mur, injuriam fieri universo ordini Clericorum quod in eos, 
nulla caussa probabili, sacri juris auctoritate contempta, 
singulares leges singulari severitate constituerentur. Quae 
tamen perlevi sententiarum mutatione probat^e latasque sunt. 
Nos itaque apostolici officii Nostri memores quas tunc ex- 
postulationes, coepta injuria, fecimus, easdem nunc, patrata, 

Sed aliud ex alio vulnus impendere Ecclesiae videtis : ro- 
gatum legem intelligimus de Operibus Piis, quam nupcrrime 
festinatis suffragiis probavere : quamque ipsam fatentur esse 
tamquam gradum ad cetera jactum ; scilicet ad omnia reli- 
gionis delenda vestigia ex institutis civitatum. Congruit 
sane cum ejusmodi proposito. ratio legis : cujus ea vis est 
imprimis, quaecumque pietatis caussa instituta esse consti- 
terit, ea partim extinguere, partim in aliam formam naturam- 
que convertere, ita plane ut in tanta mutatione eversio rerum 
institutarum verissime consecutura videatur. — Sed illud prae 
ceteris nee pietati consentaneum nee justitiae, omnia fere, quae 
instituta sint aut testamento relicta, divini cultus caussa, aut 
defunctis expiandis, dotandisve puellis ad collegia Monialium 
aspirantibus, hoc ipso haberi caduca et vacua, aliosque in 
usus converti oporter^. In quo perspicuum est, auctorum 
violari voluntatem, propterea quod suam illi pecuniam utique 



in eus caussas, quae memoratae sunt, nee ullo pacto in alias, 
addixere : quae caussae cum ad religionem. ad piorum manium 
solatia, ad perfectionem virtutis pertineant, tam sunt natura 
immutabiles ac perpetuas, quam jura et officia, quae hominem 
jungunt Deo. — At vero ne illud quidem praeterire taciti 
possumus, in Dccurias praepositorum rei subsidiaria^ admini- 
strandae plerosque omnes cooptari, ne feminis quidem exceplis, 
licere, Parochos non licere. Quod quidem ita placuisse 
memoravere ob cognitam illorum in Episcopos suos roma- 
numque Pontificem voluntatem: ita ut dubitari non possit, 
qua mente, cujus rei gratia, banc, de qua loquimur, legem 
invenerint. — Utique laicam inquiunt esse beneficentiam opor- 
tere, ut queat esse gratior : nam accipere verecundius, ani- 
mumque despondere calamitosos consuevisse, ubi caritatem 
christianam sibi sentiant adesse. Sed miserum est in christi- 
anis reperiri, qui tam vehementer errent in ejus aestimatione 
virtutis, quae princeps est et regina ceterarum, Quando 
quidem sincera voluntas hominum juvandorum non potest 
nisi ex intima benevolentia nasci : banc vero aut unice aut 
maxime insidere in eorum animo necesse est, qui singulos 
homines pa2ne se alteros putent, fratrumque diligant loco : 
qui ceteros asque ac se ex Deo tamquam patre genitos, 
pariterque Jesu Christi sanguine redemptos, et ad eamdem 
in caelis felicitatem vocatos sciant. Quin inopes atque aerum- 
nosos tam amanter Jesus Christus complectitur, ut colla- 
tam in cos beneficentiam plane coUocatam apud se, seque 
ipse obligatum beneficio deputet. His sensibus comitata 
caritas tantum abest ut animos frangat miserorum, ut potius 
extoUat ad tantam personae dignitatem, quantam domo sine 
caelestis doctrinae lumine ne fin<jere quidem cogitatione 
posset. Nunc vero hujusce indolis caritas frustra requiratur 
extra Ecclesiam Dei, quam videlicet unam Jesus Christus 
sapientiae, disciplinag, charismatum suorum reliquit heredem : 
quaeque divini auctoris sui quam bene et obtemperare con- 
siliis et exempla imitari consueverit, dedit omni tempore 
documenta maxima. Ullumne aerumnarum est genus, cui 


non Ecclesia succurrere nedum pietate materna, sed ex- 
cellenti prudentia vigilantiaque studuerit? Ita ejus potissi- 
mum opera atque auctoritate, aut saltern consilio, gratia, 
tutela, opportuna variis calamitatibus solatia ubique gentium 
inventa sunt, sed iis in locis plura, in quibus florentior Ec- 
clesia, virtutumque christianarum studia majora. Insignis 
hac laude Italia, quae fidem catholicam, per prospera, per 
adversa, intemeratam retinendo, fuit omni aetate beneficiorum 
hujus generis uberrime ferax. Eo magis inhumanum atque 
italica gente indignum, praeripere Ecclesias voluisse benefi- 
centiae-publicae facultatem. — Obtenderant quidem interversos 
reditus maleve locatos : sed liix veritatis, unde minime volu- 
issent, erupit. Instituta de ministratione quaestio crimina- 
tionem falso confictam splendide refutavit. 

Inter quae velut ad cumulandas injurias aliud accessit com- 
missum audax, quo, qui rerum civilium potiuntur, in ipsam 
rei sacrae administrationem invasere. Facilej Venerabiles 
Fratres, intelligitis quo spectet oratio; ad ea nimirum, qua& 
contra venerabilem fratrem Aloysium Episcopum titularem 
Troadensem, Ordinarium Aquaevivae et Altamurae, his ipsis 
postremis mensibus aggressi sunt statuere. Actas res uni- 
versi cognoscitis: primum Episcopo Troadensi interdictum 
utriusque Ecclesiae bonis : turn ipsum gradu motum : asdibus 
ejectum : simulque earum Ecclesiarum delatum alteri regi- 
men, perinde ac res agatur mere civilis, omnino in ditione 
arbitrioque posita politicae potestatis. Quo facto non per- 
ruptae solum Ecclesiae leges sunt, sed ipsa pontificii Nostri 
primatus nativa jura violata. Itaque non sine magno angore 
animi conquerimur talem injuriam : simul, quas hac super re 
per vim decreta gestave sunt, improbamus atque Apostolica 
auctoritate rejicimus. Ad clerum populumque earum Ec- 
clesiarum quod attinet, utrosque in Domino monemus, quid 
a se postulet officium serio perpendere. Sicut aequum est, 
politicae potestatis dicto audientes esse in rerum genere 
civilium, ita in iis quae regimen animarum attingunt non alii 
possunt auctoritati, quam Nostrae legitimoque jure praeposi- 



torum subesse, nisi velint, quod Deus prohibeat, se ipsi ab 
hoc centro se jungere catholicae unitatis. 

Nunc vero, prius quam Episcopi designentur vacuis Ec- 
clesiarum sedibus praeftciendi, ad majorem Dei gloriam et 
Ecclesiae utilitatem duos praestantes viros S. R. E. Cardi- 
nales creamus, quos tamen justis de caussis in pectore reser- 
vamus, arbitrio Nostro quandocumque publicandos. Cum 
dispensationibus, derogationibus et clausulis necessariis et 
opportunis. In nomine Patris ifi et Filii 41 et Spiritus ifi 
Sancti. Amen. 


contains an account of the devotion of our Bl. Lady of Providence in 
the Diocese of Fossano as presented to the S. Congregation of Rites. 
The second paper is an exhaustive treatise on " Le petit nombre des 

The question, of what force custom is against canon law, which had 
been previously discussed in the "Analecta," is again taken up and 
answered finally according to the principles laid down by Cardinal De 
Luca, who is styled the first of rrodern canonists. These principles are 
interesting, as they draw a strong line between the authority derived from 
the people and that which is of divine right We give the summary of 
De Luca's conclusions. " Consuetudo habet vim legis atque apta est 
legem scriptam toUere, vel quia principis potestas, qui legem tulit, derivat 
a populo ; vel quia inter legis requisita illud est praecipuum, ut populi 
moribus recepta sit, ideoque ex contrario non usu vel numquam legis 
vim habet vel toUi potest. Haec autem applicari non possunt sacris 
canonibus vel alteri legi Pontificiae, quia Papa non metitur ejus potestatem 
a populo, sed immediate a Deo ; ideoque non pendet a populi usu 
vel non usu ejus legum observantia, sed eatenus in legibus Pontificiis 
admittitur alligatio ex non usu, quatenus usus contrarius ipsi Papae 
cognitus esset, ac toleratus, ut ita admittitur caeteris relatis per Rotam, 
decis. 194, part. 4 recent. Fortius vero ubi ageretur de canone vel 


apostolica constitutione continente decretum irritativum, quod ita inficit 
quamcumque contrariam consuetudinem, imo impedit ne ilia 

Ubi agitur de consuetudine contra jus in concernentibus decisoria, et 
rei substantiam non statur decisionibus doctorum, quibus deferri solum 
solet in concernentibus ordinatoria, vel in iis, qua; concernunt observan- 
tiam juris dubii. Non defertur attestationibus doctorum de consuetudi- 
nibus, et statutis, ac aliis quae facti sunt. — In materia consueiudinis 
argui non potest ab una dioecisi ad alteram, cum dicta extensio neque 
detur in eadem dioecesi, quinimo neque in eodem capitulo de uno actu 
ad alterum . Constitutiones Apostolicse non indigent populi acceptatione, 
neque adversus eas datur de non usu. Ligant etiam ignorantes eo ipso 
quod promulgaicB fuerint in Urbe. Consuetude stricta est neque exten- 
denda de casu ad casum, de loco ad locum, de persona ad personam. — 
Consuetudo quamvis mala excusat a poena. — Requirit essentialiter ut 
numquam quidquam actum sit in contrarium. — 

The number also contains the fifth part of M. Alibrandi's Memoir on 
the title of St. Alphonsus as Doctor of the Church. Another paper, 
which is promised in the next number of the Analecta, will conclude 
this masterly defense of the learned advocate against the animadversiones 
of the Promotor fidei. The treatise thus complete does not however 
include the author's Summarium additionale, to which the reader is fre- 
quently referred in the discussion upon controverted points in Moral 
Theology. But as the whole matter has been reproduced in the Vin- 
dicicB AlphonsiancB published by the Redemptorist Fathers shortly after 
St. Alphonsus had been proclaimed Doctor Ecclesice, this omission will 
not be regarded as a defect. 

The remaining documents of importance given here have already ap- 
peared in our pages. 

It is quite apparent that new life has been breathed into the Canoniste. 
The former venerable and learned editor still writes for it and exercises a 
general censorship over its contents, but he has cast the main responsi- 
bility upon the Abb6 Boudinhon, whose energies seem to have grown 
with the honorable task of leadership imposed upon him. The two best 
articles in this number are, however, those of Dr. Grandclaude. Trafic 
et Abus des Indulgences et des Graces Spirituelles is thoroughly practical 
and throws the proper light upon those perpetual appeals for charitable 


aid which bring spiritual things into contempt and are forbidden by a 
sense of honor and true zeal no less than by the ordinances of the 
Church. — Un dernier mot iouchant f Hypnolisme, from the same pen, 
shows the constant activity of the veteran philosopher, who takes account 
of the latest phases of his subject. — The paper on Con/r'eries is the 
be?inning of what promises to be a series of learned articles on a difficult 

NUNTIUS ROMANUS. Roma. fasc. xii. 
Though the Nuntius generally brings what is to be found at the same 
time in the Analecta and Acta Romana, the clause : "Quod de sumpti- 
bus, qui ad earn componendam opus sunt, supere.«;t, pro causa pia de- 
stinatur," give it a claim to the support of the clergy, who would have 
the most important decrees, briefs, and similar matter in convenient 

ETUDES RELIGIEUSES. Paris, Dec. 1889. 

These two excellent Reviews in the field of philosophical, historical, 
and literary studies will henceforth appear together. The most remark- 
able article in, the Etudes is for several reasons that of Pere Joseph de 
Bonniot on Possession ei Hypnoiisme. The author died whilst the 
article was in press. A thorough scientist, he was dreaded by the 
modern atheist philosophers of France because of his singular power of 
penetrating and exposing their fallacies. He devoted himself, especially 
during later years, to the study of the anatomy of the brain and the 
physiology of the nervous system. Besides several works published on 
the subject of physiology in its relations to faith, he was one of the 
main collaborers since 1870 in the work of the Etudes, which magazine 
has certainly maintained an exceptionally high plane in the field of 
Christian science. P. Brucker has a trenchant paper on Les Miracles de 
PHistoire Sainte devant la Critique. 

NATUR UND OFFENBARUNG. Munster, vol. xxxv., 12. 

The subject of Psychometry, a science developed of late years from 
the studies principally of Fechner and Wundt, is popularly explained in 
the leading article of this number. Experiments have proved the 
possibility of measuring the duration and action of those faculties of the 
mind which have been commonly supposed to lie outside of the physical 


domain, but which in reality belong to the psycho-physical category. 
Thus in the action of the memory the power of retention is measured 
separately from that of association of ideas, which generally accompanies 
and aids the process of memorizing. The matter, to be understood in 
its detail, demands exact application and a certain familiarity with the 
terminology and exact methods of that school of experimental psycholo- 
gists whom Dr. Gutberlet represents better perhaps among Catholic 
scientists than any of his contemporaries. 

Vol. IX. Fasc. II. 

The first article in this scholarly organ of Catholic Philosophy and 
Theology is an illustration of how scientific truth may be clothed in a 
dress that conceals not but ennobles the fair proportions of the subject it 
covers. The writer gathers from numerous parts of St. Thomas the 
passages establishing the unmistakable teaching of the Angelic Doctor 
that the supreme ^jjifw/Za/ happiness of man consists in an act of inUlleci 
as such (visione beatifica), and refuting the view (most ably maintained 
by Scotus), that the ultimate term of human perfection will be found 
essentially in an act of the will (amore amicitiae). Though the question 
is an old one, and, having been so thoroughly sifted, leaves little room 
for new argument, still, its intrinsic nature makes it one of unceasing 
interest to serious minds, whilst it has intimate bearing on the psychol- 
ogy, Theology, Ethics, and Ascetic Science of the Church. Dante 
beautifully and accurately expresses the min(i of St. Thomas on the 

And all 

Are blessed, even as their sight descends 

Deeper into the Truth, wherein rest is 

For every mind. Thus happiness hath root 

In seeing, not in loving, which oi sight 

Is aftergTiXwth. And of the seeing such 

The meed, as unto each, in due degree, 

Grace and good-will the measure hath assigned. 

Parad. Canto 28. 

The second paper, by Fr. Cornoldi, develops a theme kindred to the 
preceding. It is a commentar}' on II, q. 3. a 8. of the Summa, and 
aims at establishing three points. 

I . Besides the finis naturalis, S. Thomas admits an end surpassing 



all the powers of human nature, and consisting in the vision of God 
per essentiam. 

2. Towards this suparna/ura/ end man has no natural inclination. 
To tend thereto he requires divine grace, and to reach it his nature 
must be elevated and strengthened. 

3. This end is supernatural in respect to every creature possible, and 
is connatural to God alone. 

The third and last essay gives thesec4)nd part ofan elaborate statement 
and critique of Darwinism. It covers about 60 pp. of the preceding 
fasciculus, and about 70 of the present. The writer, Canon Prisco, 
traces the origin of Darwinism. The theory is not new, but to Darwin 
may be applied what Jacoby said of Helvetius : "This man has said 
what a multitude of his contemporaries have thought, and he has said it 
boldly." He is an able exponent of the opposition in modern Biology 10 
final causes. Full credit is given to his chief merit, his marshalling of 
fiicts in favor of his views. His theory, however, gives no account of the 
origin of motion, of life, and of the primary essential specifications of the 
latter. Can. Prisco indulges in no vague, unfounded statements. His 
paper everywhere bristles with proof based on exhaustive study of the 
literature of his subject. 

CECILIA. St. Francis, Milwaukee. Jan. 1890. 
This well conducted Monthly " fiir Katholische Kirchenmusik " con- 
tains in its literary columns the opening article on the " Devotion of the 
Forty Hours, " which subject is to be continued and proposes to give 
to the directors and members of choirs an intelligent interpretation of 
the rubrics and ecclesiastical ordinances regarding this beautiful devo- 
tion. The true sentiment and that which makes, so to say, the soul of 
the chmt can only be brought out properly by those who understand 
what they sing, which is to say, not merely the literal meaning of the 
words, but their spiritual sense as well. To make the instructions prac- 
tical, suitible music for the Forty Hours* Devotion is printed in separate 
sheets accompanying the same. There are four " Tantum ergo" 
('* Pange Lingua ") for different voices, also two secular pieces addition- 
al : " Schneeglockchen " and "The Harp on Tara's Hill." 


Want of Space obliges us to tranfer our Book-notices for this month 
to the next issue. 



The mention of books under this head does not preclude further notice of 
them in subsequent numbers. 

EPITOME EX VESPERALI ROMANO concinnata ex editionibus 
typicis Antiphonarii et Breviarii Rotnani cura et auctoritate Sacro- 
rum Rituum Congregationis Publicatis. Editio stereotypica. Ratis> 
bonae, Neo Eboraci et Cincinnatii. Sumpt. Fr. Pustet, S. Sedis 
Apost. et S Rit. Congr. Typogr. 1890,— Pr. $1.00. 

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Vol. IL — April, 1890.— No. 4. 


FRESH branches of evergreen are blessed on Palm-Sunday. 
They are carried in procession in solemn remembrance 
of Christ's- entrance to Jerusalem, and the faithful Catholic 
takes with him a sprig and reverently fastens it over his bed 
or near an honored image of the Saviour or the Virgin- 
Mother or some Patron Saint. It is a blessed object, and the 
prayer of the Church, in virtue of Christ's passion, has 
imparted to it a grace which like a charm dispels the dark- 
ness and malice of the demon, even as the clear light of the 
sun checks the evil pursuits of the prowling sinner. * But 
that small branchlet of green has its language. It speaks of 
the cross and the crown. It utters a wail of sorrow, but one 
so unmistakably like the soft, low prelude to a song of 
triumph, that the tears it causes only intensify our hope. 
Let us briefly study the meaning of that sprig. It may add 
to our Easter-joy. To understand the Church is always a 
help towards heaven. Where is the child whom we should 

' The character of these graces is set forth in the rite of blessing in these words: 
Ut quicumque ex ea (oliva) receperint, accipiant s\h\ prolectionem anima e( corporis. 
And further on: " Ut in quemcumque locum (rami palmse et olivx) introducti 
fuerint, tuam benedictionem habitatores loci illias conseqaantar, et omni adversitate 
effugata, dextera taa protegat, etc. 


give up as lost whilst a mother's voice can still reach it, even 
though it be far away and across a wide chasm. And to the 
priest the palm-branch on the wall in the homes of his 
people is a consoling gospel, which he may interpret without 
straining as he meets them in sorrow and hardship, in sick- 
ness and death. It is an image and a pledge to them of his 
own sacred ministry, a token of the blessings of sacrifice, 
of peace and of victory. 

The pra3'ers of the Missal which are used in the blessing 
of this day make mention only of palm and olive branches. 
But the Rubric which precedes the form of blessing states 
that boughs of other trees may likewiise be blessed. ' There 
is a reason for this. St. John, describing the triumphal entry 
of Our Lord into Jerusalem, tells us that the Jews " took 
branches of palm trees and went to meet him. " * St. Mat- 
thew and St. Mark say that others " cut down boughs from 
the trees and strewed them in the way," * not mentioning 
any particular kind of tree. However, we know that olive 
trees abounded in the neighborhood of Jerusalem, and that 
Our Lord entered the city from the side where Bethany lies, 
that is to say, passed by Mount Olivet. It is natural to sup- 
pose that the branches strewn in the way were taken from 
these trees. The Rubric of the blessing of palms does not, as 
we said, exclude other trees, and in former times it was quite 
a common practice to bless even flowers, whence the day is 
sometimes called by older writers Pascha floridutn. The 
symbolic meaning which the Church attaches to the branches 
which are blessed is restricted to the palm and olive, and the 
different shrubs actuall)' used are merely substitutes for 
these. That she intends a symbolic meaning in the blessing 
of these branches is quite plain from the words in the Missal 
where she prays that the minds of the faithful may be opened 

' Sacerdos indutus pluviali violaceo, vel sine casula .... procedit ad benedicen- 
dum ramos palmarum et olivarum sive aliarum arbonim. — Ruhr. Miss. Dom. in 

' John xii. 13. * Matt, xxi., 8; Mark xi. 8. 


to the full understanding of the mystic significance of the 
objects, i. e., the palm and olive, which are blessed and 
presented to the people on this day. ' The palm branch 
stood from very ancient times as an emblem of victory. In 
the Eastern iconography we meet it constantly as the symbol 
of divine blessings. In the Old Testament it is used as the 
t.H'^XQS^xon oi justice and virtue: The just man shall flourish 
like a palm tree. * Sometimes also it signifies immortality^ as 
when Job speaks of his days after death being multiplied 
like the palm tree. ' In Christian symbolism its most com- 
mon meaning is martyrdom, but it also stands simply for 
death in Christ, whilst the Greek word "phoenix" (signifying 
palm) has connected it with the fabulous bird of the same 
name, whence both images are indiscriminately used in the 
early Christian art of the Catacombs to designate the resur- 

The reason of this manifold symbolism in the use of the 
palm-branch arises out of the characteristic qualities of the 
tree itself. It is said to possess a wonderful strength, so 
that it will yield to no obstruction, but in process of its up- 
ward growth overturn the heaviest weight placed upon the 
sprig or branch. The old writers, following Aristotle, main- 
tain that this was the reason why it was placed in the hand 
of the triumphant conquerors among the ancient nations. 
It was symbolic of their strength, against which no enemy 
could prevail. But the beauty of its tall and graceful form, 
often solitary on the sunny plain, though never far from the 
water ; the symmetry of its long and slender leaves gather- 
ing into a perfect head ; the peculiar verdure of its foliage 
standing out against a fair oriental sky ; the sweetness 
and healthy quality of its fruit ; these and kindred character- 

' Da, quaesamus, at devota taorum corda fidelium salubriter intellijjant quid 
tnystice designet in facto, quod hodie ccelesti lumine afflata, Kedempt'>ri obviam 
procedens, palmarum atqae olivarom ramos vestigiis ejus turba substravit. — Ex ora- 
done : Dem qui miro, etc. 

* Ps. xci. 13. * Job. xxix. 18. 


istics make it a blessing and a joy to the eastern people. 
The olive claims an almost equal share of admiration, though 
for different reasons. It is not an emblem of victory, but of 
peace and industry. The fruit of the olive tree gives forth a 
rich liquid used in the consecration of priest and king. It 
heals the wounds of the sick. It nourishes light and serves in 
various ways 2iS food. Thus it has likewise become a symbol 
of divine blessings, and the most classic of all Roman far- 
mers, Columella, gave to it the name of " first among the 
trees," for, whilst it supplies the numerous needs of man, its 
vitality hardly yields to that of the palm. 

All this must give us a clue to the meaning of the palm and 
olive branches which are blessed this day, and of which we 
carry with us the remembrance in the small spray placed in 
our hands on Palm-Sunday. No doubt the fact that the 
children of Jerusalem received the Son of David with 
branches of palm and olive in their hands, contained a 
prophetic allusion to the character of the Messiah as king 
and priest, as conqueror of sin and death and dispenser of 
heavenly blessings. It seems even as if that blessed multitude 
rejoicing in the triumphal entry of Our Lord into the city of 
Sion had been conscious of this symbolism. * We know that 
Our Saviour had explained to His disciples what would take 
place within the following week, and the authentic revelations 
which have in later days thrown light upon this part of our 
divine Lord's life indicate that the details of this entrance 
had been prepared by Himself with a view- of teaching His 
followers in a kind of acted parable the true character of 
His mission and its present accomplishment. But even as- 
suming that only the few, nearest to the Divine Heart, Mary, 
St. John, and the weeping Magdalen, had entered into the full 
meaning of these figures, the following days threw a sure 

* In one of the prayers used for the blessing of palms, occurs the following pas- 
sage: Intellexit enim jam tunc ilia hominum beata multitndo prafigurari quia Re- 
demptor noster, humanis condolens miseriis, pro totius mundi vita cum mortis 
principe esset pugnaturus ac moriendo triumphaturus. 


light upon the action. The signs of Palm-Sunday were but 
the forecast of its glorious octave, with the sad vigil of Good 
Friday intervening. The palm of victory was to be gained 
in the sacrifice and martyrdom of the cross. The tree so fair 
and beautiful was to have a new name. It would bear the 
weight of a whole world's iniquities, but it would not bend 
under it, because it was drenched and stained with the regal 
purple of the Precious Blood : 

Arbor decora et falgida, 
Ornata Regis purpura — 
Beata cujus brachiis — 
Pretium pependit saecali. 

Yes, the noble tree had borne a fruit of surpassing sweet- 
ness, which would give new life and joyous strength to the 
weary nations. The cross or the palm would stand hence- 
forth as the badge of victory, identical in meaning one with 
the other. Hence, when we see the graceful branch in the 
martyr's hand, we know that he gained the victory of the 
cross against the oppression of the world : 

Pressa sub ingenti ceu pondere palma virescit, 
Sub cruce sic florent dedita corda Deo. 

And the olive branch entwined with the palm suggests hovr 
the victory of the cross has become fruitful on earth of peace 
and mercy and a multitude of good works with their endless 
flow of graces. For the King of Sion, whom the multitude 
hailed with palm and olive branches, Who came into the world 
with a cradle song announcing peace to men of good will, 
not only opened by His victory the gates of heaven unto 
fallen man, but also facilitated its attainment in a wonderful 
way. He came with the branch of the olive, that He might 
heal the bruised, that He might enlighten those who sit in 
the shadow of death, and nourish the famishing Gentiles with 
the food of sacramental graces. That the double purpose of 
Our Saviour's mission 'as Conqueror of Satan and as the Dis- 
penser of the graces which followed the Redemption is ex- 


pressed in the palm and olive branches, becomes clear from 
the words which are used in the blessing of them, ** Palma- 
rum igitur rami de mortis principe triumphos expectant : 
surculi vero olivarum spiritualem unctionem advenisse 
quodammodo clamant." Victory and mercy, triumph and 
peace are the fruits of Christ's passion, and if we carry 
the emblem of these happy results in our hands on Palm- 
Sunday, it is to signify our readiness joyfully to follow Him 
to the final victory. How? Through works of justice; for 
these also are signified by the branches of the palm and olive. 
Justice is never attained without self-denial. It entails the 
victory over self, and this is the meaning of the palm. But 
whilst good works on the one hand beget grace, they stand 
also in need of divine aid for their accomplishment, and this 
is the meaning of the olive. Both strewn on the way lead us 
in the path of Christ towards the heavenly Jerusalem. ' 
Cornelius k Lapide takes notice of Pliny's saying that the 
palm is a lover of the sun and bears fruit only in hot soil 
thirsting continually for moisture. Upon this he remarks 
that the works which are the fruits of justice proceed from a 
fervent soil, the loving heart, which, planted at the water's 
side, feeding at the fountain of grace, strives continually to- 
wards the eternal sun of justice. The same author calls at- 
tention to the fact that every kind of manure, except salt, 
injstead of feeding, retards and weakens the growth of this 
tree, and he sees in this an image of the fruitful results of true 
wisdom, which is signified by the salt. * In the growth of the 
olive a similar quality may be remarked. It needs no culti- 
vation, and if it is injured, moderate care will easily restore it 
to fertility. Such is in brief the significance of the branches 
blessed on the first day of the week which ushers in the 
martyrdom of the "Man of Sorrows" and ends with the 
glorious resurrection of the Divine Conqueror of sin and death, 

' Oremus ut illi fidei viani prseparemus, de qua .... frondeant apud te 

opera nostra juslitise rainis, ut ejus vestigia sequi mereamur. — Miss. Ben. Palm. 
* Ecclas. xxiv. 18. 


Who has filled the earth with the manifold blessings of the 
Redemption. To hold the branch in our hands, to look upon 
it thoughtfully through the year, until we take it from the 
wall to burn it and to mark with the newly blessed ashes our 
brow in the remembrance of death, — is it not virtually to 
repeat the beautiful words of the prayer : Benedicantur hi 
palmites palmarum seu olivarum, et nos portantes palmas et 
ramos olivarum bonis actibus occurramus obviam Christo, et 
per ipsum in gaudium introeamus aeternum. * Yes, may we, 
bearing these branches of palm and olive, meet our King, and 
with Him enter into eternal joys, the victory of mercy ! 

{Second Article.) 

Dies irae, dies ilia, dies tribulation is et angnstise, dies 

calamitatis et miserix, dies tenebraram et caliginis, dies 

nebulae et turbinis, dies tubae et clangoris super civitates 

munitas, et super angulos excelsos. 

Soph. i. 15, 16. 

Such is the theme of that masterpiece of song cujus, "quot 
sunt verba tot tonitrua," as a great hymnologist has well said. 
In the last number of the Review we discussed a poem — the 
Pange Lingua of St. Thomas — eminently suggestive of the 
great ascetical principle of Love: we now turn our attention 
to a theme filled with all that is awful in thought and specu- 
lation, all that is soul-subduing in present contemplation 
or fearful forecast. Perhaps we should apologize for such a 
sudden transition — such a sudden inversion of the old " from 
grave to gay " into a spiritual " from gay to grave : " and yet 
we but emphasize, not so much two different paths that lead 
to the same goal, as two emulous steeds which, yoked and 
harnessed to the same chariot, strain aHpr a common goal. 

' Miss. Bened. Palm. 


Again, in the Dies Irce alone we find vivid expression of both 
principles of Fear and Love ; not as distinct conceptions, but 
as warp and woof of the one texture of thought, supplement- 
ing and completing each other in the unity of the poet's 
meditation. For this hymn is not a didactic exposition of 
the General Judgment, not a piece of cold word-painting, 
but an intensely subjective medilation, in which one soul re- 
cords its tremblings, its faintings, its appeals to the sweet 
pity of Christ, its trust in His love and merits. So, while the 
soul acknowledges its guilt — 

Culpa rubet vultus meus, 

and the magnitude of its wrong-doing — 

Quid sum miser tunc dicturus ? 
Quem patronum rogaturus ? 

it still hopes for mercy and pardon — 

Supplicanti parce, Deus ! 

and does so with all the confidence of a client specially be- 
loved — 

Recordare, Jesu pie, 
Quod sum causa tuae viae : 
Ne me perdas ilia die. 


By a singularly unanimous sentiment, the critics of hymnol- 
ogy have awarded to this hymn the first place. The testi- 
mony of Rev. Dr. Neale we have before recorded. Dr. 
.Coles, after quoting Daniel — sacrce poeseos summum. decus et 
EcclesicB Latin(E Keimelion est pretiosisstmum — adds : " A mong 
gems it is the diamond. It is solitary in its excellence. Of 
Latin Hyms it is the best known and the acknowledged mas- 
terpiece." The editor of Seven Great Hymns calls it "the 
greatest of hymns." Mr. Orby Shipley in the Dublin Review 
for Jan. 1883, after enumerating some hymns of masterly 
composition " which are only not inspired, or which, more 
truly, are in their degree inspired," says: " But beyond them 
all, and before them all, and above them all may, perhaps, be 



placed Dies Ira, by Thomas of Celano." The Lutheran Dr. 
Schaff in Christ in Song says: *' This marvellous hymn is 
the acknowledged masterpiece of Latin poetry, and the most 
sublime of all uninspired hymns." We have similar Pres- 
byterian testimony in Duffield's Za//« Hymns: " Hymnolo- 
gists have their favorites among the sacred singers of the 
middle ages, but all concede the first place to the poet who 
gave to the world the Dies Iree ." " ^^ 

We have chosen but a part of the testimonvdjf our own Vv* 

language: nevertheless, there is ample tributej^flere, surely, to 
the power and the beauty of the hymn ; and the c rit i oisnt , l/\'\jLtJiZ 
'^Tmu^over, is as varied in source as it is wide in extent. 
Protestant as well as Catholic, layman as well as ecclesiastic, 
can give a cheerful voice to the chorus of its praises. While 
a close analysis of tl^t beauty and that power must, there- 
fore, prove interesting, we have neither space nor mclination / 
to attempt it. Perhaps wx should find, too, that, while they 
attract us irresistibly, they know how to elude and baffle us : 
poetic power cannot be weighed like sugar ; nor poetic beauty 
be dissected like a flower. Especially is this true of a poem 
whose attractiveness has so many elements in it which belong 
as much to ourselves as to the poem. We cannot account 
wholly for that attractiveness by referring it to the noble sim- 
plicity of the language, the favorite trochaic measure, the 
sternness of the constantly reiterated dissyllabic rhyme, the 
sublime imagery, the thorough subjectiveness of the poet 
which has made his tragedy a lyric. We ourselves must fur- 
nish the key to a part of the secret. If man is a social ani- 
mal, he is surely as much a religious animal. And since he 
is a social animal we can explain the perennial popularity of 
such a song as Home, Sweet Home, for instance, which, want- 
ing in all poetic merit, may yet, like the traveller from New 
Zealand, view the ruins of a greal Cathedral of Song. In the 
kjiyy same way ettrt- Religion clothe her simplest theme with a 
beauty and a power which must draw to themselves the hom- 
age of a religious nature. And so, with no desire tcuninimize 



the excellence of such a masterpiece as the Dies Ira, we may be 
permitted to question whether the extraordinary popularity 
of the hymn rests wholly on its merits as a poetic composi- 
tion. We are inclined to think that a first element in its pop- 
ularity is its great freedom from such doctrinal statements 
or allusions as are now matter of controversy amongst Chris- 
tians. " It deals with the poetical and devotional, not the 
doctrinal elements in religion," says a Protestant writer. ' 
And so every shade and degree of Christianity feels a kindred 
proprietorship in the subject-matter of the poem. Again, 
the theme is simple, solemn, grand, of perennial interest, be- 
cause possessing very intimate relationship with our eternal 
destiny. It is one of " the old familiar faces," lost perhaps 
in seasons of forgetful gayety and dissipation, but a constant 
even if saddening presence in our soberer moments. It is 
the funeral sermon whose commonplaces put on an ever new 
meaning ; not, indeed, to the preacher, but to the bereaved 
hearts that drink them in. Its sublimity has become a com- 
monplace in our lives without losing thereby any of its aus- 
tere attractiveness. Apart from the poem itself, there is a 
strange awe and fascination in the theme alone. So, in the 
presence of a poem embodying such a theme, we feel emo- 
tions somewhat similar to those of Napoleon when the pyra- 
mids of Egypt loomed up before him. Not alone the six 
centuries which have made the hymn venerable ; not alone 
the thirty centuries which have heard the testimony of David 
— teste David ; but the sixty centuries that have beert expiat- 
ing the primal curse — thou shalt die the death — look down 
on us from this venerable monument, which, like the pyra- 
mids, is an enduring memorial of our mortality. 

Possessing, then, so much merit, and enjoying such wide 
popularity, it can scarcely be V matter of surprise that this 
hymn, whose authorship is involved in some obscurity, 
should have been attributed to different authors and differ- 
ent ages. Modern critics generally refer it to Thomas of 

* Duffie'd's Latin Hymns, p. 245. 

'.J\'°i JiA 

rtyo AtEDi^yAL hymns. 251 

Celano (to whom Luke Wadding, the historian of the Fran- 
ciscans, attributes it), a Franciscan, and the friend and biog- 
rapher of St. Francis. Others refer it variously to his 
contemporaries St. Bonaventure, Cardinal Latino Frangipani- 
Malabranca, Cardinal Matthew d'Aquasparta, and Humbert, 
the fifth general of the Dominicans ; to St. Bernard in the 
preceding, and to St. Gregory in the sixth century ; and, 
finally, to Augustinus Bugellensis, and Felix Hammerlein 
(Malleolus) in the fifteenth century. The hymn, however, 
antedates these last two ; while St. Gregory and St. Bernard 
most probably antedate the hymn. 

The weight of evidence indicates that the hymn belongs to 
the thirteenth century, and that it was, most likely, the 
work of Thomas of Celano. He was the author of two 
other proses, Fregit victor virtualis and Sanctitatis nova signa. 
We may note, in passing, that it can hardly be urged against 
his authorship of the Dies Irce that these two proses are of 
lesser merit. Without entering into the question of their 
merit, which Trench thinks by no means poor, ' it is enough 
to reflect that a similar charge might be made against the 
ascription of the Imitation to Thomas k Kempis, whose other 
opuscula are scarcely read now. Besides, as the poet 
Lowell says : 

Who hath not been a poet ? 

Much more so, then, may a poet of abiding poetic impulse 
rise at times above the mediocrity of his daily verse, and in 
the treatment of a theme which has some special attractive- 
ness for him, or rather, which for the nonce absorbs him into 
intimate fellowship with its own native majesty and power, 
sound depths of harmony unheard before, and make his 
humdrum lyre for once 

"Transfigured seem." 

Again, it is urged that the Dies Ira may have had no single 
authorship, but may have been a condensation of the poems 

' Sacred Latin Poetry, 3d ed., p. 300. 


of different men and different ages. There is certainly not 
only a general resemblance between it and other judgment 
hymns which antedate it, but even an occasional identity of 
expression extending at times to whole lines. Something 
similar has been said with regard to the Imitation. There is, 
nevertheless, a unity in the Dies Irce, just as there is a unity 
in the Imitation, which is something more than an orderly 
arrangement of thought or diction taken from different 
authors. Besides, the themes of a hymn and a meditation 
such as are developed by these two classics interest the 
large heart of the Christian world, and may, therefore, freely 
appropriate to themselves those heart songs of the ages 
which become, by their very nature, the common property 
of all.' 

Leaving thus the question of its authorship, we are met 
with another interesting question of the motive of its com- 
position. As the Dies IrcB is now a definite part of the Missa 
de Requiey and must on certain occasions be recited integrally 
by the celebrant, we should naturally suppose that it was 
originally intended for use in some part, at least, of the Offi- 
cium Defunctorum. A French liturgist thinks that, as its 
whole theme is the Last Judgment, it may have been com- 

' The eleventh century prodaced a hymn at once similar to the general thought 
and metre oi Dies Irce, and faithful to the text of Sophonias, in these lines: 

Cum ab igne rota mundi 
Tota coeperit ardere, 
Sseva flamma concremare, 
Coelum ut liber plicare, 
Sidera tota cadere, 
Finis ssec'uli venire. 

Dies irae, dies ilia, 
Dies nebulae et caliginis, 
Dies tubae et clangoris, 
Dies luctus et tremoris, 
Quando pondus tenebrarnm 
Cadet super peccatores, 
Qualis pavor tunc aderit 
Quando rex iratus venerit. . . 

Of another hymn — Apparebit repentina dies magna Domini — Neale says : " This 
rugged but grand judgment hymn is at least as early as the 7th century, because 
quoted by V. Bede. It manifestly contains the germ of the Dies Ira. . . . . " 
Trench gives the Latin ; Neale, a translation. Daniel compares it with Dies Ira. 
" quo majestate et terroribus, non sancta simplicitate et fide, superatnr. " 



posed as a sequence for the First Sunday of Advent. ' Never- 
theless, its lyric character would seem to indicate that it 
was the spontaneous cry of a Christian poet's heart. The 
origin of Sequences would indicate that it must have been 
written without reference to the Missa de Rcquie^ and after- 
wards introduced therein, together with the melody, either 
written especially for it or adapted to it.* 

Two texts — the Mantuan (on a marble slab in the church 
of St. Francis, at Mantua), and the Hasmmerlein (Felix 
Haemmerlein, ob. circa 1457, left amongst his poems a copy 
of the hymn) — differ from that of the Roman Missal, chiefly 
in the addition of stanzas which rather mar than enhance its 
beauty. The Mantuan text has been considered by some 
critics authentic. But the frequent elisions and hiatuses are 
strangers to the Missal text. ' The Haemmerlein has dis- 
figurements of versification and prosody.* The text of the 
Missal, stripped of the verbiage and tautology of these stan- 
zas, is more unique and graceful, more lyrical in character, 
more correct in versification. 

From the time of its first public use in the Church, the 
hymn grew in popularity until now it holds the most envi- 
able place of all uninspired hymns. The greatest minds 

' " Le Dies Ira semble avoir kii compos6 plat6t ponr le premier dimanche 

de I'Avent. En effet.cette Prose roule en entier sur le jagement dernier, excepts 
I'invocation Pie Jesu, qui y a ^t^ manifestement ajuat6e, lorsqu'on I'adapta pour les 
morts." Enc, TWol. Liturgie, col. 1054., Migne. 

' The last syllable of the last Alleluia, by being broken up into several notes, is 
held out in a long, protracted chant. . . .This prolongation of the Alleluia was called 

Sequence Later on, however, words appropriate to the Festival were supplied to 

this protracted chant, to which the name Sequence was restricted. . . .By degrees 
every Sunday and Festival had its proper Sequence, until the correction of the 
Missal, when onlyyiwr were retained in use. — Amberger, Pasloraltheologie, Vol. II., 
/, 97, quoted in Haberl's Magister Choralis, ed. Donnelly. He does not include 
in the " four " the Dies Ira. As the Missa de Requie has no Alleluia^ the Dies Ira 
cannot strictly be called Sequence. 

' E. g., Cogita, anima fidelis — Ob boni omissionem — Gratiae apprehensione — Yitie 

* Esto semper adjutor mens — Sed dsemonum effigies. 



have acknowledged its power. Sir Walter Scott's beau- 
tiful paraphrase or imitation rather of it in " The Lay 
of the Last Minstrel," is well known. Its majestic musical 
treatment in Mozart's Requiem has been an element in its 
popularity. Berlioz' musical setting of it is massive in the 
extreme. Gounod, in Mors et Vita, has set the whole of the 
text to music. Cherubini and Jomelli have exercised their 
genius upon it. All the ingenuity and all the resources of 
modern musical science have been laid under contribution to 
give a worthy musical setting to this rare g>em of song. 
But it is extremely questionable if the weird and overpower- 
ing Gregorian Chant melody has a real competitor in the per- 
fect adaptation of melody to words and sentiment, or in the 
solemn emotions produced in the souls of the hearers. * When 
we consider the power of music alone to affect the soul, and 
the emotions a simple reading of the Dies Ira is able to 
awaken, we cannot but think that the most interesting part 
of the history of the great hymn, — a hymn not written on a 
dead page, but living in the vigorous and tender chant of the 
Church, and uttered in the most solemn of her functions, and 
in the most solemn moments of the lives of her children — is 
that which must forever escape us until the great day, the 
Dies ilia, when 

Liber scriptus proferetur, 
In quo totam continetur. 

That history would doubtless contain a wonderful record 
of "God's opportunities ;" of moments of grace; of sudden 
lights in which the soul can read its sinfulness with such 
awful distinctness as Goethe hints at in the church scene 
in Faust. 

' A writer in the London Times of Feb. 24th, 1865, gives willing testimony to the 
power of this sublime chant. He is describing the Requiem music at the funeral of 
Cardinal Wiseman. " The magnificent chorale of this great song of fear and entreaty," 
he says oi Dies Ira, " was given in such a way .... that there was a positive mur- 
mur among the congregation as its long, sad, wailing chorus closed at last in inter- 
vals of melancholy sounds." 



It is not strange that such a thing of beauty should be a joy 
forever to translators. . And if, conversely, the number of 
translations of a hymn be a fair test of its beauty as it is of its 
"joy," the constantly increasing number of translations of the 
Dies Ir<s, running up already into the hundreds, will place 
this hymn on the very pinnacle of merit. In German, there 
are, Dr. Philip Schafi'says, more than a hundred. In English 
there are over one hundred and fifty enumerated, and 
doubtless many that have escaped the eye of the census-taker 
scattered through the volumes of various periodicals. The 
present writer ventures to add another to the long list. He 
might plead in excuse the bad example set him. Neverthe" 
less, the company is goodly in two senses, as a list of the 
translators would easily demonstrate. Again, he might urge 
the favor with which the public received a volume of thirteen 
versions by one man, Dr. Coles, a physician of Newark, of 
whom Mr. Orby Shipley uttered the little pleasantry — "one 
enthusiast having not only written (which was venial), but 
published (an unpardonable offence) no fewer than thirteen 
different versions." The doctor, nevertheless, added sin to 
sin, and his versions reached to some sixteen or seventeen in 
number. However, the writer ventures to take higher 

Though old the thoaght and oft exprest, 

'T'is his at last who says it best, — 

111 try my fortune with the rest. — Lowell. 

The truth is, that, although the majestic simplicity of 
thought and diction, the easy and graceful numbers, and the 
energetic cadences of the Dies Irce have ever invited the skill 
of versifiers, its essential charm seems to have successfully 
eluded their grasp. Beauty is proverbially coy. To transfer 
all the peculiar excellence of such a masterpiece into a tongue 
possessing an idiom, a structure, a vocabulary differing widely 
even from mediaeval Latin, is not an easy task. The translations, 
so countless in number, and so varied in authorship, seem but 
to have established that the task cannot be sucessfully accom- 


plished. A recent writer confesses that he thinks his own- 
sixth version has not carried him one inch beyond his first.' 
He thinks Dr. Coles no better off than when he began. The 
number of translations is rather a laughable commentary on 
the unanimity with which the translators avow the impossi- 
bility of the task they undertake. Yet, until rather lately, it 
seems to us that there was hardly a conscientious effort at a 
vigorous, correct, and elegant translation. Many of the 
translations are rather paraphrases than faithful versions. 
Some writers have merely imitated the hymn. Of those ver- 
sions which can in strictness be styled translations, many 
employ, instead^ of the sounding trochaic measure of the 
original, the easier and less effective iambic. Others, again, 
omit the charming dissyllabic rhyme. Others preserve the 
exact metre at the expense of smoothness. Some writers, 
desiring to be faithful, have become servile, and have pre- 
served the thought only to present it in an unattractive, if 
not positively repelling garb. 

The ideal translation is destined, we suppose, never to be 
realized. Still, whoso strives and fails may hope that, as the 
pathos of the great hymn must have won moments of grace 
and pardon for man)^, so an endeavor to give a fair vernacular 
expression of that pathos may not lack some fruit of personal 
gain : 

Hoc opus : hoc etftnim forsan me subtrahet igni 
Tunc quum flammivoma descendet nube coruscans 
. Judex, altithroni Genitoris gloria, Christus. — Juvencns. 


Dies Iras, dies ilia, O that day of wrath andying, 

Solvet ' sseclum in favilla; When the earth, in ashes lying. 

Teste David * cum Sibylla.' Shall prove all the prophesying ! 

Quantus tremor est futures O the tremor and the terror, 

Qnando Judex est venturns When the Judge shall scan the mirror 

Concta stricte discussums ! Blurred with faintest breath of error i 

» Duffield, p. 252. 



Tnba miram spargens sonnm 
Per sepulchra regionum * 
Coget omnes ante thronatn. 

Mors slupebit et natura, 
Cum resurgel creatura 
Jodicanli responsara. 

Liber ' scriptns proferetar 
In qao totum coniinetur 
Unde mandus jadicetar. 

Judex ergo cum sedebit, 
Quidquid latet, appaiebit; 
Nil inultum remanebit. 

Quid sum, miser, tunc dictums ? 
Quern patronnm rogaturus. 
Cum vix Justus sit securns ? 

Rex tremendx majestatis. 
Qui salvandos salvas gratis, 
Salva me, fons pietatis. 

Recordare, Jesu pie, 
Quod sum causa tux vije : 
Ne me perdas ilia die. 

Qnserens me sedisti lassns : 
Redemisti crucem passus: 
Tantus labor non sit cassas. 

Juste judex ultionis, 
Donum fac remissionis 
Ante diem rationis.* 

Ingemisco tamquam reus: 
Culpa rubet vultus mens: 
Sapplicanti parce, Dens. 

Qui Mariam ' ahsolvisti 
Et latronem exaudisti, 
Mihi quoque spem dedisti. 

Preces mese non sunt dignse, 
Sed tn bonus fac benigne 
Ne perenne cremer igne. 

Inter oves locum prsesta 
Et ab hoedis me sequestra 
Stamens in parte dextra. 

Hark, the trump with voice of thunder 
Rends the sepulchres asunder ; 
Brings the dead the judgment under. 

Death and nature, awed, unduly 
See the creature rising newly 
To his Judge to answer truly. 

Then is brought the written treasure 
Of our deeds of pain and pleasure. 
Whence the Judge shall judgment mea- 
Lo ! He sits ; the book unsealeth; 
Every hidden thing revealelh ; 
Unto each a judgment dealeth. 

Ah ! what then my tears and pleading. 

What my Patron's interceding, 

When the hearts of saints are bleeding t 

Thou, O King of awful splendor. 
Dost salvation freely render: 
Save me. Fount of mercy tender ! 

From the past a picture borrow : 
Lo ! for me Thy way of sorrow — 
Spurn me not upon that morrow ! 

Sitting weary, sought'st Thou ever 
Him whose chains Thy death must seYCr : 
Be not vain Thy fond endeavor ! 

God of vengeance, justice-dealing, 
Grant me pardon, grant aneling. 
Ere the day all sins revealing ! 

Like a culprit weep I solely : 
Shame and sorrow fill me wholly; 
Spare, O God, a suppliant lowly ! 

Who a Magdalen hast shriven. 
To a thief hast promised heaven — 
Then to roe a hope hast given I 

Worthless, yea, my tearful yearning ; 
Nathless Thou, to pity turning, 
Save my soul from endless burning. 

Grant that I my place be holding, 
Not midst heirs of wrath and scolding. 
Bat where Thou Thy sheep art folding ! 



Confutatis maledictis, 
Flaramis acribus addictis; 
Voca me cum benedictis, 

Oro supplex et acclinis, 
Cor contritum quasi cinis, 
Gere curam mei finis. 

Lacrymosa ^ dies ilia 
Qua resurget ex fa villa 
Judicandus homo reus. 
Huic'ergo parce, Deus: 
Pie Jesu Domine 
Dona eis requiem. '" Amen. 

While the damned with cries distressing 
To eternal flames are pressing, 
Call me to Thee with a blessing. 

My poor heart in suppliance bending, 
Dry as ash, with sorrow rending. 
Prays Thee, guard its final ending ! 

O that dawn its sorrow flashes 

When from out the smouldering ashes 

Man shall rise, for life's behavior 

To be judged: O spare him Saviour I 

Loving Jesus, in Thy breast 

Fold them unto endless rest. Amen. 


As the scriptural allusions with which the hymn abounds 
will be obvious to the reader, we omit, for the most part, 
citations and references. 

1. With the Catholic Crashaw, Sir Walter Scott, Dean 
Stanley, General Dix (whose translation is considered by 
Seven Great Hymns " a translation the most literal and just 
that has been made,") and others, we have rendered solvet 
intransitively. To consult for smoothness, Teste David cum 
Sibylla has not received a direct translation. The testimony 
of David' is far from being 2, locus classicus ; while Sibylla 
enjoys the most questionable genuineness. R. D. Williams' 
rich version says very well : 

David's and Sibyl's lyre 
Dimly foretold it. 

2. David has been substituted for the Petro of the Mantuan 
text, possibly to make the testimony to the dies illa of 
widest extent — Hebrew and Heathen prophesying of an 
event of which Christianity has spoken such clear things. 

3. The retention of this line in the Roman Missal implies 
no sanction of the Sibylline oracles. Other Missals have 
changed the stanza to the exclusion of the line. The question 

' Ps. xcv. 13; xcvi. 3; X. 6. 


is now rather aesthetic than theologic. We may not enter 
into any discussion of the authenticity or genuineness of the 
Sibylline books. Says Billuart : Quidam et libros etoracula 
iis contenta rejiciunt ut figmenta christianorum. Quidam e 
contra et libros et oracula admittunt. Forte verius ac 
tutius erit inter duo extrema tenere medium. Unde dico: 
Sibyllarum oracula non sunt christianorum figmenta ; neque 
tamen omnia carmina quae his octo libris continentur, sunt 
genuina et incorrupta. We simply record his opinion. For 
proofs, objections, etc., vide Tract, de incarn., Diss. II., Digress. 
II., Histor. Fora somewhat extended pro and con discussion, 
vide Encyc. Thdol. Prophdties, art. Sibylles, Migne, where the 
author ends thus: Le lecteur .... fera bien de ne conserver 
les vers sibyllins que comme un objet de pure curiosity, nous 
ne disons pas de litt6rature, et sans y attacher une plus 
grande importance. See also artt. in Enc. Britt., Chamb- 
ers', etc. 

We give two variations of the stanza — the first of the 
Paris Missal (1736), and the second of Troyes : 

Dies Irx, dies ilia Dies Irae, dies ilia 

Crucis expandens vexilla Qua nigrescent sol et lana 

Solvet sseclam in favilla. Et ab alto ruent astra. 

The stanza has not suffered in strength or beauty in the 
Paris version : but the Roman Missal, which has been a cas- 
ket to so many of the gems of early song, has wisely retained 
the line unaltered. Says the Lutheran Schaff : " Yet there is a 
truth underlying this use made of the Sibylline oracles and 
the fourth Eclogue of Virgil, inasmuch as heathenism, in its 
nobler spirits, was groping in the dark after the " unknown 
God," and bore negative and indirect testimony to Christ, as 
the Old Testament positively and directly predicted and fore- 
shadowed His coming." Trench has an interesting note on 
this line. ' The line serves, besides, another purpose ; for to 
the biblical student and to the student of theology it opens up 

' Sacred Latin Poetry, 3d ed., p. 303. 



wide vistas of thought — the teste David cum Sibylla only hint- 
ing at the magnificent array of prophecy and Providential 
dispensation culminating in the Advent of the Pater futuri 
sceculi, before Whom, as well at His second as at His first 
advent, ** who shall stand to see Him ?" 

The version of Dr. Irons, (a favorite one in English Prot- 
estant collections,) is made from the Paris Missal. Strangely 
enough the Baltimore Council Manual of Prayers has chosen 
this version, with an alteration in the first stanza made to pre- 
serve fidelity to the Roman missal. 

Day of wrath ! O day of mourning ! Day of wrath, O Day of mourning, 

See, once more the Cross returning. Lo, the world in ashes burning — 

Heaven and earth in ashes burning ! Seer and Sibyl gave the warning. 

Irons. Prayer Book. 

The change has not been made very felicitously. Mr. Ed. 
Caswall, the able translator of the hymns of the Roman 
Breviary, omitted the third line : 

Nigher still, and still more nigh. 
Draws the day of Prophecy, 
Doomed to melt the earth and sky. 

As an alternative rendering of the first stanza, which shall 
preserve the third line, we might offer : 

On that day of wrath undying, 
Earth shall prove, in ashes lying. 
Seer's and Sibyl's prophesying. 

4. March calls attention to the *' terrible compulsive energy 
{deinotes) " of the line. *' Compare with the simpler per re- 
giones sepulcrorum." 

5. The stanza follows closely Apoc. xx. 12. One transla- 
tor has mistaken the liber scriptus for the written Bible ! 

JK^ St. Luke (ch. vii.) does not give the name of the peccatrix 
who anointed the feet of Our Saviour. The line has been 
changed into peccatricem absolvisti. We have taken the wo- 
man to be Mary Magdalen. See Corn, k Lap., Maldonatus, 



McEvilly, etc. The translations of the verse by Dr. Coles and 
General Dix are very similar : 

Thou who Mary gav'st remission, Thoa to Mary gav'st remission, 

Heard'st the dying thiePs petition, Heard'st the dying thief's petition, 

Cheer'st with hope my lost condition. Bad'st me hope in my contrition. 

^. The six lines beginning with Lacrymosa were not in the 
original hymn. Taken from an older service, they adapt the 
hymn to its new purpose. 
A Ji. Some (e. g. Crashaw, Canon Husenbeth, Duffield) make 
/ huic — mihi. Probably the greater number refer it to the pre- 
ceding A<7w<7, i. e., omniscaro. Coles has both translations. The 
Haemmerlein text, 

Hnic ergo parce Deus, 
Esto semper adjutor meus, 

would, perhaps, be a testimony to the current traditional 
interpretation of his time. March refers it to ^* guilty man ; 
the race," and calls attention to an older line : 

Jadicandas homo reas, 
Ta peccatis parce. Dens. 

hy jif, "Requie, oftener requiem^ but the rhyme and the com- 
mon construction of dona favor requie." — March ; who uses 
dona eis requie — a common and classical construction of dona. 

Hugh T. Henry. 



An important feature, yet one easily overlooked in the 
building of churches and oratories for the celebration of Mass, 
is the proper arrangement of the Sacrarium. The Roman 
Ritual and the acts of Councils referring to the construc- 
tion of church edifices teach that there is to be a place set 
apart in or near the sanctuary for the reception of the water 
used in the liturgical ablutions, for the ashes, and other rem- 
nants of blessed and consecrated objects which are no longer 
employed in the sacred service. Such are the cotton and 
bread which have come in contact with sacred oils in the 
administration of the sacraments, and which are to be burnt ; 
the salt used in solemn baptism, when it has become soiled ; 
remnants of the sacred species, which have become corrupted 
and cannot be disposed of otherwise according to pre- 
scribed modes of the Ritual ; the baptismal water after 
use, or when it has become impure; the water used in 
the cleansing of the sacred vessels ; the ablutions of Mass 
when for some reason or other they cannot be consumed ; 
in short, all such objects in regard to which reverence 
forbids us to expose them to profanity even after they have 
served and lost their proper and licit use in the sacred func- 

The Sacrarium is ordinarily constructed in the sacristy, 
which in the old liturgical books is frequently called by that 
name. But it may also be behind the altar or in a side 
chapel, or even, as is the case in some of the basilicas built 
in the middle ages, on the Epistleside of the altar, where, 
forming an ornamental niche, it serves at the same time as a 
receptacle for the ablutions at Mass. ' St. Charles, in his 

* It is to be regretted that in some churches, especially in the rural districts, no 
regular provision is made for the Sacrarium, but the ashes and the water of the 
liturgical ablutions are simply put into a hole near the church. It is part of the 
doty of the Visitatores Episcopales and Rural Deans to look after this. 


instructions on ecclesiastical building, ordains the construc- 
tion of two separate sacraria,* one for the reception of the 
baptismal water and connected with the baptistery ; the 
other for the remaining uses of the church.' Concerning the 
latter he prescribes that it be in every cathedral, parochial 
church, and Oratory wherein Mass is at any time celebrated.* 
He prefers that it be in or near the sacristy and out of pub- 
lic sight. In every case it is to be locked and exclusively 
kept for sacred uses. 

There are various forms according to which the sacrarium 
may be constructed. The above mentioned instructions for 
church-building contain two, to which we add a simpler one 
for temporary and poor churches. The first form given by 
St. Charles is a vase of solid stone measuring about 2 feet 9 
inches fn^m the floor, with a cover in form of a pyramid and 
in appearance very much like a baptismal font. In the 
centre of the hollow of this vase is an issue-hole, about 3^ 
inches wide in diameter, whence a small tube or conduit 
leads through or along the pedestal of the vase, allowing 
water, ashes and other things of the kind to flow freely 
downward. Beneath the tube or conduit a cistern is dug 
some feet wide according to the needs of the church, walled 
on the sides and covered with wood or a stone slab. The 
second arrangement is in form of a niche in the wall of the 
sacristy or church (behind the altar), about i foot or more 
in depth, i foot 5 inches wide, and over 2 feet in heighth. 
The sill of this niche is of solid stone, with a hollow issue- 
hole and conduit, terminating, as above, in a cistern. For 
this niche St. Charles prescribes a wooden door. Sometimes 
a grate or perforated metal door with ornamental designs 
is to be found for this arrangement. There is to be a lock 
by which these sacraria can be securely closed, so as to pre- 

' The Roman Ritaal also makes mention of two: In Ecclesise vel potins Bapti- 
sterii sacrariam effundatar. — Rit. Rom. de Sacram. Bapt. 
* St. Carol. Bor. Instruct, fabr. Lib. I., cap. 20, §1. 
» Ibid. 


vent any lay person to get access to them. ' A third ar- 
rangement, and which recommends itself for its economy, 
consists of a cistern, the sides of which are lined with brick 
or stone. On the top is laid a slab of some thickness, so as to 
^permit a cavity being made with a hole in the centre. The 
cavity is covered by a wooden lid, fastened to the slab so as 
to allow it to be locked. The sacraria are to be " decentia, 
munda, ablutionibus cursum lilperum exhibentia, nee sine 
coopertorio relinquantur." * 

Cum accessuri estis ad tremendam ac divinam illam men- 
sam et sacra mysteria, cum timore ac tremore hoc facite, cum 
pura conscientia, cum jejunio et precatione, non tumultuantes, 
non proximum propellentes; extremae enim hoc est superbiae, 
et contemptionis minime vulgaris, etiam talia perpetrantibus 
punitionem multam conciliat : tecum reputa, homo, qualera 
hostiam es contrectaturus, qualem mensam aditurus. Tecum 
reputa, quod cum terra sis et ««w,corpus et sanguinem Christi 
sumis. Etsi vos Rex quidem ad convivium vocet, cum timore 
accumbitis, cibosque appositos cum reverentia ac silentio su- 
mitis. Deo autem te ad summam coenam vocante, filiumque 
suum ibi apponente, ubi Angelicas potestates assistunt cum ti- 
more ac tremore ; ubi Cherubim velant facies suas, atque 
Seraphim cum clamore clamant : Sanctus^ Sanctus, Sanctus, 
Dominus; tu audes vociferando actumultuando ad spirituale 
illud convivium accedere. 

St. Joannes Chrysostomus (Serm. 31. de die nat. Christi). 

' Loa cit § 3. 

* S)m. dioec. Herbip. a. 1298, cit. ex Jacobs "D. Kanst im Dienste d. K.," 
pag. 223. 


In HDemorlant 

We deem it a duty to record in these pages a grateful 
tribute in memory of the Reverend Innocent Wapelhorst, 
O. S. F. He contributed to the Review almost from its 
beginning. " During my whole priestly life," he wrote 
in generously tendering us his services, "now thirty-two and 
a half years, the thought has strongly impressed me : the 
good, however small, which you do for priests or candi- 
dates of the priesthood, is done to a certain degree for all 
the congregations where those priests will ever work." 
His position for years as Rector of St. Francis' Seminary, 
Milwaukee, and a considerable time previously spent in the 
pastoral ministry, had given him that practical wisdom which 
judges rightly of the needs of the priestly mission in 
America, and readily selects the proper methods to supply 
them. This made him a valuable counsellor. His excellent 
work Compendium Sacrce Liturgice, of which he was preparing 
a third edition during the last year of his life, bears testi- 
mony alike to his well-directed zeal in the cause of clerical 
education and to the accuracy of his learning. He was an 
humble man, and in the light which the virtue of humility 
gives to the eye of the soul he recognized to the full the re- 
sponsibilities and dangers in the life of the secular priest. 
Hence, in the mature strength of his experienced manhood, 
he left the world to enter the cloister. If he sought retire- 
ment, he did not find it, for he was destined to labor in the 
fields wherein he had gained his knowledge. But he labored 
with the added strength which comes from renunciation of 
one's own will, and for the rest he trusted wholly to his Mas- 
ter. May the zeal for the Church in America which animat- 
ed the humble son of St. Francis to the last bear its fruit in 
eternal joys, and may its continuance in heaven procure for 
us a like grace in the work of our holy ministry ! 

n V p. 



Robertus se accusal 

1. Quod semel, in Methodistarum coetu versans, eos serio 
imitatus fuerit qui, genibus flexis oculisque in cceium sub- 
latis, metitabundi conversionem expectarent aut Spiritum 
jamjam essent accepturi ; 

2. Quod hac ipsa occasione interrogatus ab aliquo Methcv 
dista num non pertineret ad Ecclesiam Hibernicam — "don't 
you belong to the Irish Church ? " — respondisset se pertinere 
ad veram Christi Ecclesiam — " I belong to the true Church 
of God — " : 

3. Quod funus alicujus amici protestantis praesentia sua 
cohonestaverit usque ad ecclesiam et coemeterium sectae, at- 
que ita ut, cum alii omnes, dum praeco verba faceret, starent, 
et ipse staret, sed cum alii caput profunde inclinarent ad 
orationem praeconis ipse, erectus permaneret. 


I. Utrum et qualis adsit obligatio profitendi veram fidem 
externe ? 

II. Utrum et quomodo peccaverit Robertus in singulis de 
quibus se accusal ? — 

Resp. I. Indubium est apud theologos omnes adesseobliga- 
tionem manifeslandi veram fidem, eamque oriri turn ex prae- 
cepto negative non negandi fidem, tum ex praeceplo affirma- 
tivo illam positive confitendi. Prasceptum negalivum facile 
eruilur ex illis verbis Christi apud Malt. xx. 33, " Qui ne- 
gaverit me coram hominibus negabo eum coram Palre meo." 
Cum autem theologi assignare volunt intrinsecam malitiam 
negationis veras fidei, plurimi illam reponunt in eo quod hu- 
jusmodi externa negalio necessario importat negationem 
veracitatis Dei. Haec ratio non videtur satis firma Cardinali 
de Lugo, qui consequenter ad suum systema, vi cujus ve- 
racitas divina non ingreditur objeclum formale fidei, tenet 


posse fieri ut ille qui negat veram fidem " simul ncget esse a 
Deo revelatam ct per consequens adhuc concedit Deum esse 
summe veracem." Quapropter ipse aliam rationem assignat 
et recurrit ad obligalionem "qua servus Christi tenetur non 
erubescere fateri Dominum suum, est enim dedecus Domini 
quod servus dedignetur eum pro Domino fateri." 

Verum difficilius est assignare existentiam et determina- 
tionem praecepli affirmativi, quod quidem praecise quia affir- 
mativum est non obligat semper et pro semper sed solum in 
certis casibus, et statis temporibus. Atque imprimis non 
debet illud reduci ad eas circumstantias in quibus fidem ex- 
lerne non profiteri aequivaleret ejus negation! ; tunc enim 
obligatio proprie non proveniret ex praeccpto affirmativo 
profitendi veram fidem, sed potius ex praecepto negativo 
de quo nuper diximus. Praeterea non quaeritur hie de prae- 
cepto affirmativo humano, quod scimus adesse et Episcopos, 
canonicos, professores Universitatum, aliasque publicas per- 
sonas in diversis adjunctis afficere, sed solum de praecepto 
affirmativo juris di vini. Porro hujusmodi praeceptum theologi 
omnes dicunt dari, et dare cernitur ex verbis Pauli (Rom. x. 
9)—" Si confitearis in ore tuo Dominum Jesum, et in corde 
tuo credideris, salvus eris : corde enim creditur ad justitiam, 
ore autem confessio fit ad salutem." — De hoc textu disse- 
rens Card, de Lugo, animadvertit confessionem fidei non poni 
hie ut aliquid necessarium ad justificationem sicut fides in- 
terna, quia revera non est medium necessarium justificationis, 
sed poni tantum ut aliquid necessarium ad salutem, prouti est 
observantia mandatorum. Existit igitur in praesenti ordine, 
scilicet supposita vita sociali et politica cum aliis, praeceptum 
divinum affirmativum quod vi ipsius fidei nos obligat ad hanc 
earadem fidem externe manifestandam. Si autem quaeras 
quandonam vel in quibusnam adjunctis perse urgeat hoe prae- 
ceptum, non una est theologorum sententia; et forte dici 
potest illud ad unum easum restringi, scilicet ad petitionem 
vel suseeptionem baptismi, si sermo sit de adulto, vel, si 
agatur de eo qui baptismum reeepit in infantia, ad tempus 


quo vitam socialem ingreditur ut appareat ipsum esse Chri- 
stianum. Cujus rei a Card, de Lugo (de Fide, Disp. XIV., 
Sect, iv., n. 52) duplex assignatur ratio. " Prima est, ait, quia 
Deus non voluit de facto Ecclesiam solum invisibilem et men- 
talem, sed visibilem per unionem et conjunctionem visibilem, 
ut fieret unum corpus mysticum visibile animatum uno et 
eodem spiritu invisibili interno. Haec autem conjunctio vi- 
sibilis fieri non potest, nisi membra ad invicem sensibiliter 
conjungantur inter se, quod fit, dum singula sese manifestant 
sensibiliter esse membra hujus corporis mystici profitendo 
eamdem fidem et religionem communem aliis membris. Se- 
cunda ratio esse potest, quia hoc ipsum exigitur a suprema 
Dei auctoritate et majestate. Cederet quippe in dedecus 
principis, si nobilis in ejus famulatum adscriptus, et famuli 
stipendia atque emolumenta accipiens, ita curaret ea occulte 
et per interpositam personam accipere, ut nulli de suo famu- 
latu quidquam constaret, nee ullum prorsus famuli vel obse- 
quii signum erga Dominum exhiberet. Videretur enim de- 
dignari Dominum et erubescere professionem suae servitutis, 
quam etiam conservis suis, et toti familiae, absque justa 
causa occultam esse vellet." 

//. Devenientes nunc ad practicam solutionem casus per 
applicationem praedictorum principiorum, dico Robertum 
graviter peccasse cum inter Methodistas versatus est tanquam 
si esset unus ex illis ; sed in duobus aliis adjunctis non esse 
inquietandum. Hoc autem declarandum est fusius et sin- 

Igitur 1° Robertus graviter peccavit contra fidem, quia 
etsi non verbis, nutibus tamen et gestibus dixit se esse Me- 
thodistam, quod idem est ac negare veram fidem. At forte 
negabis Robertum vere et proprie dixisse se esse Metho- 
distam, quia nutus non videntur omnino assimilari posse voci- 
bus, quae cum a natura datae sint unice ad internos conceptus 
manifestandos non possunt ab eo fine et significatione sepa- 
rari : nutus vero non videntur ita determinati, nam quando 
aliquis, v. gr., annuit capitis inclinatione, inclinatio ilia de se 

• C4SUS MORA LIS. 269 

indifTerens est vel ad signiBcandum assensum, vel ad evitan- 
dam defatigationem forte ortam ex continua capitis erectione, 
vel ad convertendos oculos ad terram ut ibi aliquid quasras, 
vel ad quid simile. Nutus igitur videntur potius comparari 
debere vestibus, quae cum non habeant naturalem ac proinde 
necessariam significationem, indifferentes sunt, et facile pos- 
sunt separari a significatione quam homines illis alligant. 
Exinde videtur sequi quod, sicut licet viro catholico uti pileo 
Quakerorum, ita ipsi licere debet nutus et gestus Methodi- 
starum imitari. Sed contrarium omnino tenendum est, nam 
quamvis verum sit aliquos nutus in se esse indifferentes, non 
tamen remanent tales cum fiunt in detcrminatis quibusdam 
adjunctis. Quamobrem si Robertus solus, vel non serio inter 
amicos catholicos meditabundus oculos attulisset et Metho- 
distas fuisset imitatus, sane non esset inquietandus, sed cum 
ita sese gessisset prouti describitur in casu, determinatio 
tanta est, iit nemo dicere non possit aut debeat ipsum vere 
manifestasse assensum sectae Methodisticae. Et base solutio 
confirmari potest paritate quam Card, de Lugo apposite 
urget. Etenim sicut actio adolendi thus ex se fieri posset 
propter alios fines, scilicet recreandi odoratum, purgandi 
aerem, occidendi animalcula, et alia hujusmodi, cum tamen 
coram idolo, externo gestu venerationis, tyranno imperante 
praestatur, indubitatum apud omnes est ipsam esse negatio- 
nem fidei, ac proinde ceu apostatae semper habiti sunt qui 
ita egerunt. 

At dices: Nonne Robertus potuisset excusari, si ita sese 
gessisset ad vitandum gravissimum aliquod incommodum, 
puta amissionem vitae vel famas ? Sed responsio aperta est, 
et omnino dicendum Robertum etiam turn fuisse damnandum, 
quia nunquam facienda sunt mala ut eveniant bona, seu aliis 
verbis, finis utcumque bonus nunquam justificare potest 
media de se illicita. Verum estne tale medium de se et na- 
tura sua illicitum? Estne illud intrinsece ac proinde sem- 
per malum etiam quando deest animus vere exhibendi fidem 
haereticam ? Nonne legimus in IV. lib. Regum., cap. v.. 


quod cum Naaman ad fidem veri Dei conversus petiisset ab 
Eliseo licentiam ut, si quando necesse esset regem suum ad 
templum idolorum comitari, posset genuflectere et adoratio- 
nis gestum ficte exhibere, Eliseus respondit, " Vade in pace," 
quasi simulationem illam approbans? Huic difficultati du- 
plex a summis theologis traditur solutio. Aliqui enim, ex- 
istimantes actionem Naaman esse intrinsece malam, dicunt 
responsionem datam ab Eliseo non fuisse approbationem, sed 
meram permissionem ad malum gravius evitandum. Alii 
autem, ut Suarez, Sanchez, Castropalao, et ipse Card, de Lugo, 
docent quidem verba Elisei continere veram et expressam 
approbationem, et Naaman licite egisse genuflectendo, sed id 
faciunt non propter grave incommodum quod aliunde in- 
currisset, sed quia in iis circumstantiis genuflexio non repu- 
tabatur cultus idoli, sed solum cultus aut obsequium regis. 
En ipsa verba Lugonis : " Naaman licite (potuit) genuflectere 
cum rege genuflectente, eo quod genuflexio ilia non esset 
signum adorationis, sed cultus regi exhibitus, cujus manum 
sustinere de more non poterat, si rege genuflectente, Naaman 
rectus staret, sed debebat se inclinare, ut manum regiam 
sustineret, qui erat cultus solum civilis erga regem, non re- 
ligiosus erga idolum." 

2° Ratio dubitandi num recta fuerit responsio data a 
Roberto Methodistas inquirenti in eo est quod sive in mente 
interrogantis, sive a parte rei per Ecclesiam Hibernicam, in 
prasdicto casu, significabatur Ecclesia catholica ; ac proinde 
negantem vel tergiversantem responsionem dare idem esset 
ac negare vel tergiversare cum quis interrogatur num sit 
Catholicus. Attamen Robertus, prout in initio dictum est, 
videtur esse omnino excusandus. Etenim proposita quasstio 
duo continet, desiderium, scilicet, cognoscendi veritatem 
facti, et quamdam injuriam contra Hibernos et Catholicos. 
Porro ex ipso tenore verborum evideifter colligitur Robertum 
nihil aliud voluisse, nisi totam quaestionem extra ordinem 
rejicere, et injuriam propulsare. Hoc autem quis unquam 
dicet esse illicitum et contra fidem? Huic solutioni certe 



favet Kenrick, Tract, de Fide, n. 30, ubi cum affirmasset fidem 
negare ilium qui intcrrogatus utrum esset " Romanista " vel 
** Pa/>is/a," responderet se talem non esse, excipit tamen 
casum quo "ex circumstantiis colligi posset eum negare ob 
voces illas invidiae et contumeliae plenas." 

3* In tertio etiam casu Robertus excusari potest et debet. 
Ratio est quia ipsius ratio agendi nullam aliam signiftca- 
tionem hodie habet apud nos, seu inspectis moribus nostris, 
nisi obsequii civilis erga amicum defunctum, et socialis ur- 
banitatis erga praeconcm et circumstantes haereticos. Et 
hoc quidem indubitatum videtur si sermo sit de simplici 
praesentia materiali, sed forte dubitari posset de ea circum- 
stantia qua Robertus assurgens cum aliis, cum illis steterit 
dum prasco verba faceret. Nonne ita agendo quasi formaliter 
praestatur auditus viro hasretico ? Nonne agnoscitur ipsius 
auctoritas, et favor ipsi conciliatur ? Hac in re ita loquitur 
Kenrick (loc. cit. n. 34) : " Funus deducere per vicos ad cae- 
meterium, cum nuUo ritu religioso apud eos fiat, censetur 
civile obsequium : nee tamen decet templum sectae ingredi, 
et praeconi praestare auditum, quamvis ita ferat mos in hac 
regione." In haec verba duo hie sunt animadvertenda : 
Primum est illud " non dtcet " aperte nobis ostendere mentem 
eximii theologi esse ut in hujusmodi actione non adsit pecca- 
tum ullum contra fidem ; alterum est ipsius testimonium de 
more regionis. Porro, stante isto more, ratio ilia agendi nul- 
lum importat favorem ergo prasconem haereticum qua talem, 
nuUamque complicitatem cum ipsius cultu, et tota reducitur 
ad urbanitatem et obsequium civile. Et re quidem vera, ipse 
Kenrick (loc. cit., n, 35), agens de iis catholicisquiin navibus 
gubernii, m schola militari et carceribus nonnullis coguntur 
adstare precibus et concioni habitis a ministro protestantico, 
eos excusat, quia " ordinis potius causa quam sectae favore id 
exigitur." Excusemus igitur etiam Robertum et dicamus 
ipsum stetisse cum caeteris ordinis causa, quia hunc ordinem 
exigebat urbanitas. 

Cf. Suarez, de Fide, Disp. XIV, sect. IV. — Sanchez, in 


Decalog. Lib. II, Cap. IV, n. 14. — Lugo, de Fide, Disp. XIV, 
sect. II, IV, et V. § IV.— Kenrick, de Fide, Cap. III.— 
Viva, in prop. XVIII damnat. ab Innocent. XI. — Leiimkuhl, 
Vol. I, n. 291 et seqq. — Konings, n. 251 et seqq. — Sabetti, n. 

A. Sabetti, S, J. 




{Two Churches reported in 1888.) 

The feast occurs on the 2d of April during the holy Week and must 
therefore be transferred to the first free day after Low Sunday, which is 
April 15th. The transferred feasts of St. Isidore and St. Leo are in 
consequence removed still further. On account of his translation St. 
Francis has no Octave. 

Apr. 14, Vesp. de seq. m. t. v. Nulla com. 

Pro Clero Romano, idem. 

15, Fer. 3. Alb. S. Francisci de Paula C. Dupl. i. cl. OflF. C 
non P. ritu Pasch. et pr. loc. Lectt. i. Noct. Beatus vir. Miss, 
pr. cum Gl. Cr. In 2. Vesp com. seq. 

Pro Clero Remand, omnia ut supra. 

16, Fer. 4. S. Isidori ut in Calend. ad 15. cum com. S. Anicetiin 
2. Vesp. 

Pro Clero Romano, S. Benedict. Jos. Labre C. Dupl. ut in 

17, Fer. 5. Alb. S. Leon. I. ot in Calend. ad 16. cum 9. LecL 
etc. com. S. Anicet in Laud, et Miss. 

Pro clero Romano, de S. Isidoro fit 18. ut in Calend. ad 

15. hujus et de S. Leone I. 9. Junii. 


{Nineteen Churches and Chapels in 1888.) 

Apr. 14, Vesp. de seq. ra. t. v. Nulla com. 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 

15, Fer. 3. Alb. S. Isidori Ep. C. D. Dupl. i. cl. (fuit 4- hujua) 
Off. et. Miss, ut in Calend. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. 
Pro Clero Romano, ut supra. 


{Two Churches in 1888.) 

Apr. 14, Vesp. de seq. m. t. v. Nulla com. 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 

15, Fer. 3. Alb. S. Vincent. Ferrer. C. Dupl. i. cl. (fuit 5. hujus). 
Off. C. non P. ritu Pasch. et pr. loc. Lectt. i. Noct. Beatusvir. 
Miss. Osjusti. C. non P. or. pr. cum Gl. Cr. In 2. Vesp. com. 
seq. ■ 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 

16, Fer. 4. S. Isidori ut in Calend. ad 15. cum com. S. Anicet. ii> 
2. Vesp. 

Pro Clero Romano, S. Bened. J. Labre C. Dupl. utin Calend. 

17, Fer. 5. S. Leon. I. ut in Calend. ad 16. cum 9. Lect. et com, 
S. AniceL in Laud, et Miss. 

Pro Clero Romano, de S. Isidoro fit 1 8 ut in Calend. ad 1 5. 
hujus et de S. Leone I. 9. Junii. 


{Ttvenly-hvo Churches in 1888.) 

Apr. 14, Vesp. de seq. m. t. v. Nulla, com. 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 

15, Fer. 3. Alb. S. Leonis I. P. C. D. Dupl. i. cl. cum Oct. 
partial, (fuit 11. hujus). Off. C. P. ritu Pasch. Lectt. pr. Miss, 
pr. cum Gl. et Cr. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. Fest. S. Isidori ulterius 
transfert. ad 18. hujus. 


i6, Fer. 4. Alb. S. Isidor. Ep. C Dupl. (fuit 4. hujus) Off. ut in 
Calend. ad 15. hujus cum com. Oct. in Laud, et Miss. In 2. 
Vesp. com. Oct. et S. Anicet. Pap. M. 

Pro Clero Romano, S. Bened. J. Labre ut in Calend. cum 
com, Oct. in Laud, et Miss, in qua GI. Cr. Vesp. a cap. de seq. 
com. Oct. 

17, Fer. 5. Alb. de Oct. 3. die Semid. Lectt. i. Noct. de Script, 
occ. 2. Noct. ut in Octavar. de Doctor. Deus Ua vel in Breviar. 
Qui post Orionas 3. Noct. in Evgl. Vigilate decom. C. P. 2. loc. 
vel ut in festo. 9. Lect. com. S. Mart, in Laud, et Miss, in 
qua GI. Cr. (et Evgl. Vigilate si in hoc dicta sit horn.) Non 
die. Prec. nee. com. de Cruce. Vesp. de Oct. 

Pro Clero Romano, S. Anicet. Pap. M. Dupl. ut in Calend. 
cum com. Oct. in I^ud. et Miss, in quad. Cr. Vesp. a cap. de 
seq. com. Oct. 

18, Fer. 6. Alb. de Oct. 4. die Semid. ut heri Lectt. 2. Noct. ut 
in Octavar. de Doctor. Auctores nostri vel in Breviar. Beati 
Patris. Reliqua ut heri. Vesp. a cap. de seq. — Jesu titi sit 
gloria — Hie claudit. Octava. 

Pro Clero Romano, Alb. S. Isidor. Ep. C. D. Dupl. (fuit 4. 
huj.) ut in Calend. ad 15. huj. cum com. Oct. in Laud, et Miss. 
Vesp. a cap. de seq. com. praec. et Oct. 


{Two Churches reported in 1888.) 

Apr. 20, Vesp. de seq. Nulla com. 

Pro Clero Romano, idem. 

21, Fer. 2. Alb. S. Anselmi Ep. C. D. Dupl. i. cl. cum Oct. Off. 
C. P. ritu Pasch. et pr. loc. Lectt. i. Noct Sapienliam Miss. In 
medio cum GI. Cr. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 

Infra Oct. ab utroque clero dicit. Cr. et fit com. in Vesp. 
Laud, et Miss, except, pro com. festis S. Marci et Patroc. S. 
Joseph, neque dicunt. Prec. aut com. de Cruce. 


27, In 2. Vesp. com. seq. (ut in i. Vesp. festi) S. Turib. Dom. et 
S. Vitalis M., — Fest. S. Pauli a Cruce permanentcr mutand. est 
in 1 1 . Maji. Pro CUro Romano, nisi antehac fuerit fizum, in 

9. Junii. 

28, Fer. 2. Alb. Oct. S. Anselm. Dupl. Lectt. i. NocL Incip. 
Apoc. S. Joan, 2. Noct. ex Octavar. Sollicilissinu vel ut in die 
festi 3. Noct. ex Octavar. Luceat vel ut in festo. 9. Lect. et 
com. S. M. in Laud, et Miss, ut in fest. cum Gl. Cr. Vesp. a 
cap. de seq. com. praec. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 


{Twmiy-fioe Churches in 1888.) 

Apr. 22, Vesp. de seq. NuNa com. 

Pro Clero Romano, idem. 
23, \'i,-x. 4. Rub. S. Georgii M. Dupl. i. cl. cum Oct. Off. Mart, 
temp. Pasch. et pr. loc. Lectt. i. Noct. A Mileto. 2. Noct. 
Qtfibus ego vos laudibus 3. Noct. Ego sum vitis vera Miss. pr. 
cum (JI. Cr. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 

Diebus infr. Oct. pro utroqne Cler. omn. ut in Calend. cum 
Cr. in Miss, et com. Oct. in Vesp. Laud, et Miss, except, 
festis S. Marc, et Patr. S. Joseph 2. cl. quando haec com. 
omittitur. Die 26. omitt. com. de Cruce. 
39, Vesp. a cap. de seq. (ut in i. Vesp. fest.) Com. praec. Fest. S. 
Catharin. Sen. permanenter mutatur in 11. Maji. 

Pro Clero Romano, Vesp. de seq. Com. Oct. (ut in i . Vesp.) 
et praec. 
30, Fer. 4. Rub. Octav. S. Georg. M. Dupl. Lectt. i. Noct. de 
Script. Occ. 2. Noct. ex Octavar. S. August. Patienter permit- 
hint, vel ut in festo 3. Noct. ex Octavar. £a de causa vel ut in 
festo. Miss, ut in fest. Vesp. de seq. Com. praec. 

Pro Qero Romano, Alb. S. Cathar. Senens. V. Dnpl. 1. cl. 
Off. Virp, tant. ritu Pasch. et pr. loc. Lectt. i. Nort. De Vir- 
ginibus. com. Oct. in Laud, et Miss, cum GI. Cr. Vesp. de seq. 
Com. praec. et Oct. 



(7>« Churches in 1888.) 

Fest. S. Georgii permanenter mutand. in 11. Maji. 
Pro Clero Romano, mutandum in 9. Junii, nisi jam anterior 
die sit fixum, 
Apr. 22, Vesp. de seq. Nulla com. 

Pro Clero Romano, idem. 

23, Fer. 4. Rub. S. Adalberti Ep. M. Dupl. i. cl. cum Oct. Off. 
Mart. Pont. temp. Pasch. Lectt. i. Noct. A. Mileto 2. Noct. 
Dignum 3. Noct. Iste Locus Miss. Protexisti Or. Infirmitatem 
(vel 2. Noct. Quibus ego 3. Noct. Ne quisquam Or. Deus quinos) 
ciim Gl. Cr. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 

Infr. Oct. serventur notata pro Oct. S. Georgii. 
30, Fer. 4. Rub. Oct. S. Adalbert. Dupl. Lectt. i. Noct. de 
Script. Occ. 2. Noct. ex Octavar. Tempus animadvertite vel ex 
Breviar. ut in fest. 3. Noct. ex Octavar. Ea de causa vel ex Bre- 
viar. ut in festo. Miss, ut in fest. Vesp. de seq. com praec. 

Pro Clero Romano, mutatis mutandis ut in Oct. S. Georgii. 


{^Six Churches in 1888.) 

Apr. 23, Vesp. de seq. Nulla com. 
Pro Clero Romano, idem, 

24, Fer. 5. Rub. S. Fidelis a Sigmaring. Mart. Dupl. i. cl. cum 
Oct. Off. M. temp. Pasch. et pr. loc. Lectt. i. Noct. A Mileto 
2. Noct. pr. 3. Noct. Ego sum vitis vera. Miss. Protexisti or. 
pr. Gl. Cr. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 

Infr. Oct. pro. utroq. Cler. omn. ut in Calend. cum exce- 
ptionibus notatis in Oct. S. Georgii. 

Pro Clero Romano, etiam omittend. com. Oct in fest. S. Cathar. 

30, Vesp. de seq. Com. Oct.(ut in i. Vesp. fest.) et praec. 

Pro Clero Romano, Vesp. de seq. Com. praec. et Oct. (ut in 
I. Vesp.) 



Maj. I, Fer. 5. Rub. SS. Philippi et Jacobi. App. Dupl. 2. cl. Omn. 
ut in Calend. cum com. Oct. in Laud, et Miss. In. a. Vesp. 
com. seq. et Oct (ut in 2. Vesp.) 
Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 


{Fifteen Churches in 1888.) 

Apr. 24, Vesp. de seq. Nulla com. 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 

25, Fer. 6. Rub. S. Marci Evgl. Dupl. i. cl. cum. Oct. ut in 
Calend. additur in eccles. paroch. 2. or. Rogat. sub una conclus. 
in Miss, princip. etiam pro Miss, processionis ubi haec fit. In 2. 
Vesp. com. seq. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 

Infr. Oct pro utroq. Clero omn. ut in Calend. cum Cr. in 
Miss* et com. Oct. in Vesp. Laud, et Miss, except. Patroc. S. 
Joseph, ac fest. SS. Philip, et Jacob, necnon pro Clero Romano, 
fest. S. Cathar. Senen. 

Maj. I, In 2. Vesp. com. seq. (ut in 1. Vesp. festi.) 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 

Fest. S. Athanasii permanent, mutand. in 11. Maji, et pro 
Ciero Romano, in 9. Junii, nisi antehac anteriori die fuerit fixum, 

2, Fer. 6. Rub. Oct. S. Marci Dupl. Lectt. 1. Noct. de Script. 
Occ. 2. Noct. ex Octavar. Quatuor ergo vel ut in festo 3. Noct. 
ex Octavar. Ipse Dominus vel ex Breviar. ut in festo. Miss. 
ut in fest. sine com. Vesp. de seq. com. praec. 
Pro Clero Romano^ omnia ut supra. 


{One Church in 1888.) 

Pro Octava hujus festi habentur in Octavar. lectiones speciales con- 
•cessae Societati Jesu et Congregationi SS. Crucis et SS. Redemptoris. 
Apr. 26, Vesp. de seq. Com. Dom. tant. 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 
De S. Turibio hoc anno nihil fit 


27, Dom. 3. post Pasch. Alb. Patroc. S. Joseph. Conf. Dupl. i. cl. 
cum Oct. Off. pr. 9. Lect. de hom. et com. Dom. in Laud, et 
Miss, cum Gl. Cr. Evgl. Dom. in fin. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. et 
Dom. tant. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 
Infr. Oct. pro utroq. Clero ut in Calend. cum Cr. in Miss, et 
exceptis fast. Dupl. 2. cl. com. Oct. in Vesp. Laud, et Miss. 
De S. Monica hoc anno fit ut simpl. 

Maj. 3, In 2. Vesp. pro utroq. Clero com. seq. (ut in i. Vesp. fest.) S. 
Monic. et Dom. 

4, Dom. 4. post. Pasch. Alb. Oct. Patroc. S. Joseph, Dupl. Lectt. 
1. Noct. Incip. Ep. B. Jacob. 2. et 3. Noct. ut in fest. 9. Lect. 
de hom. Dom. et com. S. Monic. et Dom. in Laud, et Miss. 
(ut in fest.) cum Gl. Cr. et Evgl. Dom. in fin. V^esp. a cap. de 
seq. Com. praec. S. Monic. et Dom. 
Fro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 


{Three Churches in 1888.) 

Fest. Patroc. S. Joseph Dupl. 2. cl. hoc anno transferend. in 13. 
Maji; pro Clero Romano, in 9. Junii. 

Apr. 26, Vesp. de seq. com. Dom. 

Pro Clero Romano, idem. 

27, Dom. 3. post. Pasch. Alb. S. Turibii. Ep. C. Dupl. i. cl. cum 
Oct. Off. C. Pont, et pr. loc. Lectt. x. Noct. Fidelis Sermo 9. 
Lect. de hom. et com. Dom. in Laud, et Miss. Statuit Gl. Cr. 
et Evgl. Dom. in fin. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. et Dom. tant. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 
Infr. Oct. pro utroq. Clero ut in Calend. cum Cr. in Miss, et 
except, fest. Dupl. 2. cl. com. Oct. in Vesp. Laud, et Miss. 

Fest. S. Monicae permanent mutand. in 11. Maji. 

Pro Clero Romano, in 9. Jun. nisi antehac prius fuerit fixum. 

Maj. 3, In 2. Vesp. com. seq. (ut in i. Vesp. fest.) et Dom. 

4, Dom. 4. post Pasch. Alb. Oct. S. Turibii Dupl. Lectt. i. 
Noct. Incip. Ep. B. Jac. 2. Noct. ex Octavar. Tantum debet 
vel ex Breviar. ut in festo 3. Noct. ex Octavar. Datur uni- 


cuique vel ut in festo 9. Lect de horn, et com. Dom. in Laud. 
et Miss, {ut infest.) cum Gl. Cr. et Evgl. Dom. in fin. Vesp. a 
cap. de seq. Com. praec. et Dom. 
Pro CUro Romano, omnia ut supra. 


{Six Churches in 1888.) 

Apr. ay. Vesp. de seq. com. praec. tant. De S. Vitali M. nihil fit 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 

28. I'er. 2. Alb. S. Pauli a Cruce C. Dupl. i. cl. cum Oct. Off. C. 
non Pont. riL Pasch. et pr. loc. Lectt. 1. Noct. Beatus vir. 
Miss pr. cum Gl. Cr. In 2 Vesp. com. seq. 

Pro Clcro Romano, omnia ut supra. 

29. Fer. 3. S. Petri. Lectt. i. Noct. Incip. Apoc. S. Joan, ex 
Dom. prajc. Com. Oct. in Laud, et Miss, in qua Cr. et Vesp. 

Pro Clero Romano, idem. 
Fit com. Oct. seq. dieb. except, fest. Dupl. 2. cl. et die. Cr. 

Maj. 4. Vesp. a cap. de seq. Com. praec. et Dom. 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 
Fest. S. Pii V. permanent, mutand. in 11 Maji ^X pro Clero 
Romano in 9 Jun. nisi jam anterius fuerit fixum. 

5, Fer. 2. Alb. Oct S. Paul, a Cruce Dupl. Lectt. i. Noct de 
Script. Occ. 2. Noct. ex Octavar. Gaudete vel ex Breviar. ut 
in festo. 3. Noct. et reliqua ut in festo. Vesp. de seq. com. 
Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 


{Four Churches in i888.) 

Apr. 29, Vesp. de seq. Nulla com. 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 

30. Fer. 4. Alb. S. Cathar. Senens. V. Dupl. i. cl. cum Oct Off. 
V. tant. rit. Pasch. et pr. loc. Lectt. i. Noct. De Virginibus. 
Miss. Dilexisli Ot. pr. cum Gl. Cr. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 


Infr. Oct. pro utroq. Clero omn. ut in Calend. cum Cr. in Miss, 
et com. Oct. in Vesp. Laud, et Miss, except. Dupl. 2. cl. 
Fest. S. Stanislai permanent, muland. in 11. Maii. 

Pro Clero Romano, fest. S. Benedict. II. mutand. in 9. Junii 
nisi antehac superiori aliq. die fuerit fixum. 

Maj. 7, Fer. 4. Alb. Oct. S. Cathar. Senens. Dupl. Lectt. 1. Noct. de 
Script, occ. 2. Noct. ex Octavar. De Virginibus, inquit vel ex 
Breviar. ut in festo. 3. Noct. Octavar. Intendat itaqu vel ut in 
festo. Miss, ut in fest. Vesp. de seq. com. praec. 
Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 

H. Gabriels. 


Cotton Vestments Illicit. 

Qu. Would you let me know why Catholic dealers in sa- 
cred vestments sell or advertise for sale chasubles, etc., made 
of cotton, linen, or wool, since the use of these is forbidden 
by the S. R. C. ? 

Resp. If dealers in sacred vestments advertise for sale 
chasubles, etc., as described, they simply advertise what a 
priest cannot lawfully use in the celebration of the Holy 
Mysteries, irrespective of poverty or any other reason, as 
has been repeatedly declared by the Sacred Congregation. 

Errors on the subject may arise (apart from ignorance or 
mercenary considerations) out of a misunderstanding of the 
language used by some writers on rubrics. Thus Card. 
Bona ' says, that the chasuble, stole, and maniple should be of 
the same material, adding : in nobilioribus quidem ecclesiis 
ex serico. From this some have inferred that in poor church- 
es other material might be lawfully used. Others, as De 

' Rer. litnrg. I., 24, n. 5. — Cf. S. Alphonsi De Caerem. Miss. — Schober, c i., 
13, n. 26. 


Herdt, ' explain that linen or cotton is allowed in the manu- 
facture of sacred vestments, si fila serica super imponuntur, 
which has been interpreted as requiring only a partial texture 
of silk in the vestments sold. 

However, the S. R. C. is very explicit on the subject, as is 
shown by comparatively recent decrees. Xhe following are 
the requirements obliging under pain of sin in the matter of 
vestments used in the celebration of Mass : 

They should be made of silk. 

A special concession has been made for poor churches, ac- 
cording to which, although they must be of silk, a basis and 
lining of linen, or cotton, etc., is permitted. This is the mean- 
ihg of si fila serica superitnpomintur. (Cf. Dub. I.) 

Gold thread is permitted, and by reason of its preciousness 
may be used for both white and red color • in poor churches 
also for green. (Cf. Dub. II. and III.) 

Silver thread is allowed for white. 

The veil covering the chalice and that used by the subdea- 
con at Mass must always be of silk. Hence, if the vestments 
be gold or silver, the veil, corresponding with them, should 
be at least lined with silk, and no other material can licitly 
be substituted. 

Vestments which are painted or wrought in figures are 
licit only when the ground is silk or gold or silver-thread. 
(Cf. Dub. IV.) 


Per varia S. Rituum Congregationis Decreta vetitum est 
quominus sacra ornamenta ex gossypio vel lana contexta 
adhibeantur, immo ex holoserico opere tantum ilia confici 
praescribitur. Quum vero omnes Ecclesiae ob redituum 
defectum ejusmodi paramenia serica sibi comparare haud 
valeant, ab eadem S. Rituum Congregatione declarari petiit 
Emus et Rmus Dnus Cardinalis Miecislaus Ledochowski, 
Archiepiscopus Gnesen. et Posnanien. an attenta Ecclesiarum 

' " Praxis," i., 167, n. I. 


paupertate liceat pro ornamentis sacris praeparandis illud 
adhibere panni genus, quod ex parte externa, et oculis intu- 
entium apparente ex filo serico integre contegitur, habet 
tamen operis textilis fulcimentum in gossypio, lana, vel in 
lino ? 

Et Sacra eadem Congregatio, postquam votum alterius ex 
Apostolicarum Caereraoniarum magistris exquisivit, referente 
infrascripto secretario, sic declarare rata est. Attenta Eccle- 
siarum paupertate, panni genus de quo in casu pro sacris 
ornamentis tolerari posse. Atque ita declaravit, et rescripsit. 

S. R. C. Die 23 Mart. 1882. 

(Deer, auth., n. 5838.). 


Color flavus turn sericus turn ex auro contextus poiestne 
adhiberi pro albo, viridi, rubro ac violaceo, prassertim in 
Ecclesiis pauperioribus paramenta singulorum colorum a 
Rubrica praescriptorum facere non valentibus? 

Resp. Quoad paramenta coloris flavi negative ; quoad 
paramenta ex auro contexla affirmative, excluso tamen colore 

S. R. C. ita rescripsit die 5 Dec. 1868. 

• (Deer. auth. n. 5419 ad V.) 


Rmus D. Augustinus Riboldi hodiernus Episcopus Papien. 
exponens in Capitulo suae Cathedralis Ecclesiae non adesse 
ordinis distinctionem tum quoad prasbendas, turn quoad 
sacra paramenta, sed in functionibus Pontificalibus omnes 
Canonici indistinctim pluviale assumere solere : a S. R. C. 
insequentium Dubiorum solutionem humillime expetivit, 
nimirum : 

In dictis paramentis tela aurea admitti potest pro coloribus 
tum albi, tum rubri, vel distinctus color pro distinctis 
solemnitatibus respective adhibendus est? 



Quatenus negative ad primam partem, et affirmative ad 
secundam, potestne permitti tela argentea pro paramentis 
albi colons ? 

Et sacra eadem Congregatio ad relationem infrascripti 
secretarii exquisite voto alterius ex ApostoHcarum Casremo- 
niarum magistris, re mature perpensa, ita propositis Dubiis 
rescribendum censuit : 

Potest tolerari aurea pro coloribus albo et rubro tantum ratione 

(Ad alterum. resp.) Affirmative. 

Atque ita rescripsit die 20 Nov. 1885. 

(Deer. auth. n. 5943.) 


Rmus Dnus Franciscus Salesius Bauer hodiernus Episco- 
pus Brunen., exponens a Fidelibus sibi commissae Dioeceseos 
occasione primi millenarii ab obitu S. Methodii Episcopi , 
proxime recolendi casulas et pluvialia dono offerri suis 
Ecclesiis exhibentia a tergo imagines SS. Pont. Cyrilli et 
Methodii non acu in tela serica, sed oleo super tela lineo 
vel gossypio pictas alterique ejusmodi telae agglutinatas, a 
S. R. C. humiliter quaesivit, an sacra paramenta cum ejus- 
modi imaginibus legitime adhiberi possint ? 

Et sacra eadem Congregatio, ad relationem infrascripti 
secretarii, re mature perpensa ita in casu rescribendum 

Pictas imagines uti exponitur permitti posse dummodo agatur 
de paramentis sericis vel auro argentoque contextis, ac de 
caetero ad normam legum liturgicarum confectis. 

Atque ita rescripsit ac declaravit die 30 Mart. 1885. 

(Deer. auth. n. 5933.) 

Oleomargarine in Lent. 

Qu. Does the usual dispensation in Lent allow only the use 
of Lard and not other extracts of a similar kind? Can Oleo- 


margarine be knowingly used on days of fast and abstinence ? 

Resp. The Lenten Indult, by whicii tiie use of Lard is per- 
mitted in the preparation of food, is to be understood literally 
" de sagimine suili." On this all agree. Nevertheless, in 
some particular places the term has been applied to other 
substances. Custom as sanctioned by the interpretation of 
the annual Lenten Indult is on the whole a safe guide in 
practical doubts of this kind. -As to the use of Oleomargarine, 
where it is stamped and sold as such, under Government 
supervision, we do not believe that it can be used instead of 
butter except by special dispensation. The reason is, because 
in this case it is understood that the Oleomargarine is prepared 
from \}ciQ, fat of beef . There is a very small quantity of milk 
added, before churning, but it never amounts to a fourth part 
of the whole mass. As Beef-juice or Beef-soup comes plainly 
under the prohibition, no matter in what form it is done up, 
there can hardly be any doubt about Oleomargarine, which in 
the supposed case is nothing but another name for beef-fat. 
The fact that it is actually a substitute for Butter among our 
poor people may be a good reason for asking its use by dis- 
pensation, but without this it would be as unlawful as if beef 
were sold in a cheap form of Fish-sausage or mockturtle. 
Moreover, the condition of the poor is much the same as be- 
fore Oleomargarine was introduced, which is to say, that they 
don't depend on the use of the article, although it may be 
cheaper than butter, ' 

But we have designedly said " where Oleomargarine is 
stamped and sold as such" because we do not believe that the 
question of whether what is sold as Butter be in reality 
Oleomargarine need agitate any person or oblige them to in- 
vestigate. There is here no question concerning the integrity 
of a sacrament which would oblige us to exceptional care in 
the use of an article. It is simply a matter of discipline, 
which we can not knowingly violate, but in regard to the 
observance of which we need employ only the ordinary care 
-of prudent persons. 


The Age Required for First Holy Communion. 
Qu, The Bishop of the Diocese has the right to determine 
the age at which children may be admitted to first Holy Com- 
munion. But is there no exception in cases such as the fol- 
lowing : 

I. A child, talented, of good behavior and well instructed, 
so as to be fully prepared to receive the Holy Communion 
worthily, is presented by the parents for the first reception of 
the Holy Sacrament, in order that they might send it to 
college, secular or ecclesiastical, before it has attained the 
age laid down in the diocesan statutes. 

II. The child of poor parents is sufficiently instructed 
and otherwise disposed to receive the first Holy Communion. 
The parents are about to move to a place at a considerable 
distance from the Church, where the child cannot convenient- 
ly visit the school daily; so they request to have it receive the 
first Holy Communion before the required age. 

III. A family which is visited with a great deal of trouble 
and sickness need one of the children, twelve years old, very 
much, to assist in the household. The child has the necessary 
knowledge, but lacks one year of the age required for admis- 
sion to first Holy Communion, according to the Episcopal 
statutes. — What is a pastor to do in the foregoing cases? 

Resp. It seems to us a very simple matter to deal with 
these or any other cases which require the non-observance 
of a given statute. Consult the ordinary of the Diocese and 
ask exemption from the law in these particular cases. If 
there be no time to do this, act according to your best judg- 
ment and inform the ordinary of the fact and circumstances 
in a manner which is likely to elicit his approval. 

A Substitute for the Paschal Candle. 
Qu. As the ceremonies of Holy Week are not performed in 
our chapel, which is open to the public, we have no regular 
Paschal Candle, blessed on H. Saturday. In this case, would 


it be against the Rubrics or the intention of the Church to 
place another large candle, similar to the Paschal candle in 
form, at the side of the altar, and is it wrong to light this candle 
at the principal Mass on Sundays and festivals during the 
Easter season ? 

Resp. According to a ruling of the *' Academia Liturgica," 
the above practice would be illicit, it being a mere pious pre- 
tension, which in no way supplies the true meaning attached 
to the blessing and lighting of the Paschal Candle 

" Inquiritur tandem, utrum in Oratoriis publicis, in quibus 
non celebrantur officia majoris hebdomadae, accendi posset 
toto paschali tempore, loco cerei benedicti in Sabbato Sancto, 
alius extra cagremoniam hujus diei benedictus, ex. gr. in festo 
Purificationis B. M. V. 

Resp. Post hucusque dicta, cum hujusmodi cereus nonnisi 
pia vel illusio quasdam esse possit, aequa nobis videtur nega- 
tiva responsio.' 

Last Year's Paschal Candle. 

Qu. Last year we made use of a costly and large Paschal 
candle, of which only a comparatively small portion was 
consumed during the Paschal season. Can we use the same 
candle this year, or must it be renewed each time ? 

Resp. The Paschal Candle is to be renewed each year; for, 
according to the best interpreters on the subject' the blessing 
given it on Holy Saturday is constitutiva, i. e.,permanent, and 
cannot be repeated, so that the second blessing would be 
frustrated, the object being already blessed. It is, however, 
lawful to melt the candle over, because by the destruction of 
the old form it loses the blessing. It is also permitted to use 
part of the former candle, the ornamented base for example, 
and to add a new portion, provided the added portion be larg- 
er than the rest. 

Quarti * says : Si cereus anni praeteriti solum reficiatur 

» Cf. Ephemerid. Lit., Nov., 1888, p. 677. 

• Vide De Herdt, Praxis, vol. III., n. 53. * De Benedictionibus, II., 6. 


quoad minorem partem non posse iicite iterum benedici anno 
sequent!, et absque peccato veniali, quia scilicet frustraretur 
suoeflfectu secunda benedictio contra reverentiam ei debitara. 
The Paschal candle should be large, of pure wax (white), 
and the grains placed upon it in form of a cross are to be 
real incense, and not wood or other material. 

Negro Education in Arkansas. 

An article by us in the March number of the " Am. Ec- 
clesiastical Review " has elicited some detailed statistics in 
reference to the diocese of Little Rock, Arkansas. 

The Right Rev. Bishop Fitzgerald informs us of the 
following facts: 

There are five schools with (at present) about 360 pupils 
and an average attendance of 300. During the season of 
planting and picking cotton the children are withdrawn. 
There are also five Religious Communities devoted to teach- 
ing negro children exclusively, viz., two houses of Sisters 
of St. Joseph ; one house of Sisters of Mercy ; one house of 
Sisters of Charity, and one house of Sisters of St. Benedict. 

The Pine Bluff Industrial School for the Colored, which 
was opened on Sept. 9, 1889, had but 60 scholars when Hoff- 
man's report was made out. It had 100, when Sadlier's 
appeared, and at present it has 140 pupils. — This is certainly 
a marked growth, and shows, as the Bishop expresses it, that 
Father Lucey, who is in charge of the school, has struck the 
right note in educating the colored race, namely, through 
Industrial Training. A great deal more could be done if the 
financial means were at hand. We see from a Prospectus of 
the Pine Bluff school, that many eminent Protestants of 
Arkansas show their approbation of the work of Catholics 
among the negroes, not only by supporting it as members of 
the Administrative Board of the school, but also by generous 
private donations. However, the field to be cultivated re- 
mains large, as in the Bishops estimate the negro population 


of the State exceeds the number given in our statistics at 

There is no priest in the diocese exclusively devoted to the 

Rev. J. R. Slattery. 


The following is a translation of a letter, lately written 
by the Sovereign Pontiff to Cardinal Parocchi, Vicar of 
Rome. Although the Holy Father speaks principally to the 
clergy of Rome, the sentiments of the August Head of the 
Catholic priesthood throughout the world have universal 
application and will be read with satisfaction by every priest 

Letter of The Holy Father to his Eminence the Cardinal Vicar 

of Rome. 


Among the manifold cares which by 
reason of the duties of Our Apostolic ministry we have al- 
ways consecrated to the maintenance and growth of the 
Catholic religion in Italy, the most important is that regard- 
ing the Clergy, on whom in the main depend the interests of 
the faith and the good of souls. On every occasion, there- 
fore, we have warmly inculcated that they be carefully 
trained, not only in solid and true science, but also more es- 
pecially in the sacerdotal virtues and in that purely ecclesias- 
tical spirit of the great eternal High Priest, Jesus Christ. 

But in the City of Rome the necessity of such a disciplined 
Clergy is much stronger and more keenly felt. Here in the 
Capital of the Catholic World, in the very centre of our most 
holy religion, where Catholics from every quarter of the 
globe gather to strengthen their faith, here in a greater de- 


grce than elsewhere it is necessary that the lives, the habits, 
and the works of those called the '^ light of the world and the 
salt of the earth " shine with greater brilliancy, in order that all 
may be edified and encouraged in good works. 

In consequence, as we have recently communicated with 
all the bishops of Italy on this subject, so now, Lord Cardinal, 
we feel even greater need of calling your undivided attention 
to this all-important matter. The conditions peculiar to 
Rome, the immense number of ecclesiastics who flock here 
from every country, demand more assiduous care and in- 
dustry, lest clerical discipline suffer thereby or lose its efficacy. 

It is right to give due credit here to the vast body of 
ecclesiastics who with exemplary zeal devote their lives 
wholly to their ministerial duties and to the works of Christian 
charity, and who feel that the surest guaranty of good con- 
duct, the source of Heaven's choicest blessings, and the suc- 
cess of their efforts, are identified with their loyalty and at- 
tachment to the Holy See and the Vicar of Jesus Christ, 
with obedience and respect for superiors, and with the spirit 
of union and harmony. Such as these perpetuate the glorious 
traditions of that Roman Clergy who have left so many shin- 
ing examples for the imitation of posterity, some of whom 
even have been adjudged worthy of the honors of the saints. 
But it is well known that our enemies, in the war which under 
diverse forms they incessantly wage against the Church, aim 
more directly at Rome, and here concentrate all their energies. 
Accordingly they have commenced a work of darkness, even 
against the Clergy, with the perfidious intent of disparaging 
them, of creating disunion among them, and, by alienating 
them from their lawful superiors, of making them rebellious 
to their authority. For the attainment of this purpose no 
means are too low. But the most deplorable as well as the 
most painful are, that even among ecclesiastics themselves 
may be found some who, unmindful of the obligations and 
holiness of their sacred character, go so far as to take activt" 
part in promoting designs so iniquitous. 



Wherefore the danger must be confronted without delay 
and with all possible energy. It is of supreme importance 
that the most diligent and judicious attention be given to 
the education of the junior clergy; that the shrewdest dis- 
cernment and closest circumspection be exercised in the 
admission of clergy from other dioceses ; that neither be 
left too much to their own guidance ; but whether in regard 
to their conduct or the exercise of their various functions 
and duties, let them understand that they are always under 
the vigilant eye of their superiors, and let them feel the 
healthy restraints of firm and prudent discipline. But all 
should be animated by that spirit of sanctity, of abnegation, 
of sacrifice, and of zeal, which belongs to their sacred charac- 
ter, and which renders them true ministers of Christ. To 
the attainment of this end nothing can be more conducive 
than to call them from time to time into retreat. For the 
spiritual exercises are marvellously efficacious for the refor- 
mation of life, for perseverance in good, and for the invigora- 
tion of the spiritual forces in the midst of the dangers and 
sources of dissipation which the world offers. 

We are aware that there exists here the holy custom of 
giving spiritual retreats to ecclesiastics. But now we wish 
something more definite, namely, that all the clergy of Rome 
without exception during the coming year consecrate some 
days to retirement and prayer. 

To you, My Lord Cardinal, we entrust the care of this our 
will, and we feel sure that all ecclesiastics will respond to 
the call, and entering into our designs, will derive from the 
singular grace which God has in store for them that precious 
and lasting fruit which we so ardently desire. 

To this end we invoke the most copious blessings of 
Heaven upon them, and to yoii, My Lord Cardinal, and all the 
clergy and people of Rome, we give from our heart the Apos- 
tolic benediction. 

From the Vatican, Dec. iSiA, 1889. 





PAPyG xin 





LEO pp. XIII. 


Sapientiae christianae revocari praecepta, eisque vitam, mores, institu- 
ta populorum penitus conforraari, quotidie magisapparet oportere. Illis 
enim posthabitis, tanta vis est malorum consecuta, ut nemo sapiens 
nee ferre sine ancipiti cura praesentia queat, nee in posterum sine metu 
prospieere. Facta quidem non medioeris est ad ea bona, quae sunt cor- 
poris et externa, progressio ; sed omnis natura, quae hominis percellit 
sensas, opumque et virium et copiarum possessio, si commoditates gigne- 
re suavitatesque augere vivendi potest, natum ad majora ac magnifieen- 
tiora animum explere non potest. Deum sf>eetare, atque ad ipsum con- 
tendere, suprema lex est vitae hominum : qui ad imaginem conditi simi- 
litudinemque divinam, natura ipsa ad auetorem suum potiundum vehe- 
menter incitantur. Atqui non motu aliquo eursuque corporis tenditur 
ad Deum, sed iis quae sunt animi, cognitione atque affeetu. Est enim 
Deus prima ac suprema Veritas, nee nisi mens veritate alitur : est idem 
perfecta sanetitas summumque bonorum, quo sola voluntas aspirare et 
accedere, duce virtute, potest. 

Quod autem de singulis hominibus, idem de societate turn domestica 
turn etiam civili intelligendum. Non enim ob banc caussam genuit na- 
tura societatem ut ipsam homo sequeretur tamquam finem, sed ut in ea 
per earn adjumenta ad perfectionem sui anti reperiret. Si qua igitur ci- 


vitas nihil praeter commoditates externas vitaeque cultum cum elegantia 
et copia persequatur, si Deum in administranda republica negligere, nee 
leges curare morales consueverit, deterrimc aberrat ab institute suo et 
praescriptione naturae, neque tam est ea societas hominum et commu- 
nitas putanda, quam fallax imitatio simulatioque societatis. Jamvero 
ea, quae diximus, animi bona, quae in verae religionis cultu constanti- 
que praeceptorum christianorum custodia maxime reperiuntur, quotidie 
obscurari hominum oblivione aut fastidio cernimus, ita fere ut, quanto 
sunt earum rerum incrementa majora, quae corpus attingunt, tanto ea- 
rum, quae animum, major videatur occasus. Imminutae plurimumque 
debilitatae fidei christianae magna significatio est in iis ipsis injuriis, 
quae catholico nomini in luce atque in oculis hominum nimis saepe in- 
feruntur ; quas quidem cultrix religionis aetas nullo pacto tulisset. His 
de caussis incredibile dictu est, quanta hominum multitudo in aeternae 
salutis discrimine versetur : sed civitates ipsae atque imperia diu incolu- 
mia esse non possunt, quia labentibus institutis moribusque christianis^ 
maxima societatis humanae fundamenta mere necesse est. Tranquilli- 
tati publicae atque ordini tuendo sola vis relinquitur ; vis autem valde 
est infirma, praesidio religionis detracto : eademque servituti pariendae 
quam obedientiae aptior, gerit in se ipsa magnarum perturbationum in- 
clusa semina. Graves memoratu casus saeculum tulit : nee satis liquet 
num non sint pertimescendi pares. Itaque tempus ipsum monet reme- 
dia, unde oportet, quaerere : videlicet christianam sentiendi agendique 
rationem in vita privata, in omnibus reipublicae partibus, restituere : quod 
est unum ad pellenda mala, quae premunt, ad prohibenda pericula, quae 
impendent, aptissimum. In id nos, Venerabiles Fratres, incumbere opus 
est, id maxima qua possumus contentione industriaque conari : ejus- 
que rei caussa, quamquam aliis locis, ut sese dedit opportunitas, simi- 
lia tradidimus, utile tamen arbitramur esse in his Litteris magis enucle- 
ate officia describere calholicorum : quae officia, si accurate serventur, 
mirabiliter ad rerum communium salutem valent. Incidimus in vehe- 
mentem eamque prope quotidianam de rebus maximis dimicationem: 
in qua difficillimum est non decipi aliquando, non errare, non animo 
multos succumbere. Nostrum est, Venerabiles Fratres, admonere quem- 
que, docere, adhortari convenienter tempori, ut viam veritatis nemo de. 

Esse in usu vitae plura ac majora calholicorum oflScia.quam eorum 
qui sint fidei catholicae aut perperam compotes, aut omnino expertes. 



dubitari non potest. Cum, parta jam hominum generi salute, Jesus 
Christus praedicare Evangeliam Apostolos jussit omni creaturae, hoc 
pariier officium hominibus universis imposuit, ut perdiscerent et crederent, 
quae docerentur: cui quidem officio sempiterna; salutis omnino est ade- 
ptio conjuncta. Qui crediderit el baptizatus fuerit^ salvus erit: qui vero non 
crediderity condemnahitur. ' Sed christianam fidem homo, ut debet, 
complexus, hoc ipso Ecclesiae ut ex ea natus subjicitur, ejusque fit socie- 
tatis maximae sanctissimaeque particeps, quam summa cum potestate 
res[ere, sub invisibili capite Christo Jesu, romani Pontificis proprium est 
munus. — Nunc vero si civitatem, in qua editi susceptique in banc lucem 
sumus, praecipue diligere tuerique jubemur lege naturae usque eo, ut 
civis bonus vel mortem pro patria oppetere non dubitet, officium est 
christianorum longe majus simili modo esse in Ecclesiam semper affectos. 
Est enim Ecclesia civitas sancta Dei viventis, Deo ipso nata, eodemque 
auctore constituta: quae peregrinatur quidem in terris, sed vocans homi- 
nes et erudiens atque deducens ad sempiternam in coelis felicitatem. 
Adamanda igitur patria est, unde vitae mortaiis usuram accepimus : sed 
necesse est caritate Ecclesiam praestare, cui vitam animal debemus per- 
petuo mansuram: quia bona animi corporis bonis rectum est anteponere, 
multoque, quam erga homines, sunt erga Deum officia sanctiora. — 
Ceterum, vere si judicare volumus, supernaturalis amor Ecclesiae patriae- 
que caritas naturalis, geminae sunt ab eodem sempiterno principio 
profectae caritates, cum ipse sit utriusque auctor et caussa Deus : ex quo 
consequitur, non posse alterum officium pugnare cum altero. Ulique 
utrumque possumus et debemus, diligere nosmetipsosj benevolentes esse 
cum proximis, amare rempublicam potestatemquequae reipublicaepraesit. 
eodemque tempore Ecclesiam colere uti parentem, et maxima, qua fieri 
potest, caritate complecti Deum. — Nihilominus horum officiorum ordo, 
vel calamitate temporum vel iniquiore hominum voluntate, aliquandO 
pervertitur. Nimirum incidunt caussae, cum aliud videtur a civibus 
respublica, aliud a christianis, religio postulare : idque non alia sane de 
caussa, quam quod rectores reipublicae sacram Ecclesiae potestatem aut 
nihil pensi habent, aut sibi volunt esse subjectam. Hinc et certamen 
existit, et periclitandae virtuti in certamine locus. Urget enim potestas 
duplex : quibus ccntraria jubentibus obtemperari simul utrisque non 
potest : Ntmo potest duobus dominis servirc, * ita ut omnino, si mos 
geritur alteri, alterum posthaberi necesse sit. Uter vero sit anteponendus, 
' Marc. xvi. 16. « Matt. vi. 14. 


dubitare nemo debet — Videlicet scelus est ab obsequio Dei, satisfaciendi 
hominibus caussa, discedere: nefas Jesu Christi leges, ut pareatur ma- 
gistratibus, perrumpere, aut, per speciem civilis conservandi juris, jura 
Ecclesiae migrare. Obedire oportet Deo magis quatn hominibus.^ Quod- 
que olim magistratibus non honesta imperantibus Petrus ceterique 
Apostoli respondere consueverunt, idem semper est in caussa simili sine 
haesitatione respondendum. Nemo civis pace bellove melior, quam 
christianus sui memor officii : sed perpeti omnia potius, et ipsam malle 
mortem debet, quam Dei Ecclesiaeve caussam deserere. — Quaprcpter non 
habent vim naturamque legum probe perspectam, qui istam in delectu 
officii constantiam reprehendunt, et ad seditionem ajunt pertinere. Vulgo 
cognita et a Nobis ipsis aliquoties explicata loquimur. Non est lex, nisi 
jussio rectae rationis a potestate legitima in bonum commune perlata. 
Sed veraac legitima potestas nulla est, nisi a Deo, summo principe domi- 
noque omnium, proficiscatur, qui mandare homini in homines imperium 
solus ipse potest : neque est recta ratio putanda, quae cum veritate 
dissentiat et ratione divina : neque verum bonum, quod summo atque 
incommutabili bono repugnet, vel a caritate Dei torqueat hominum 
atque abducat voluntates. — Sanctum igitur christianis est publicae pote- 
statis nomen, in qua divinae majestatis speciem et imaginem quamdam 
turn etiam agnoscunt, cum geritur ab indigno: justa et debita legum 
verecundia, non propter vim et minas, sed propter conscientiam officii : 
non enim dedit nobis Deus spiritum timoris. * Verum si reipublicae leges 
aperte discrepent cum jure divino, si quam Ecclesiae imponant injuriam, 
aut iis, quae sunt de religione, officiis contradicant, vel auctoritatem Jesu 
Christi in pontifice maximo violent, tum vero resistere officium est, 
parere scelus : idque cum ipsius reipublicae injuria conjunctum, quia 
peccatur in rempublicam quidquid in religione delinquitur. — Rursus 
autem apparet quam sit ilia seditionis injusta criminatio : non enim 
abjicitur principi legumque latoribus obedientia debita: sed ab eorum 
voluntate in iis dumtaxat praeceptis disceditur, quorum ferendorum nulla 
potestas est, quia cum Dei injuria feruntur, ideoque vacant justitia, et 
quidvis potius sunt quam leges. — Nostis, Venerabiles Fratres, banc esse 
ipsissimam beati Pauli Apostoli doctrinam: qui cum scripsisset ad Titum, 
monendos christianos principibus et potestalibus subdilos esse, dido obedire, 
illud statim adjungit, ad omne opus bonum paratos esse : * quo palam fieret, 

1 Act V. 29. » II.. i. 7- ' Tit Hi. i. 



si leges hominum contra sempiternam legem Dei quicquam staiuant, 
rectum esse non parere. Similique raiione princeps Apostolorum lis, 
qui libcrtatem praedicandi Evangelii sibi vellent eripere, forti atque 
excelso animo respondebat, si Justum est in conspectu Dn\ vos potius 
audirCf quam Dtum, ji*dicate : non enim possumus qua vidimus et audrvi- 
mtts non loqui. ' 

Ambas itaque patriasunumquemque diligere, alteram naturae, alterant 
civitatiscaslestis, ita tamen ut hujus, quam illius habeatur caritasantiquior, 
nee unquam Dei juribus jura humanaanteponantur, maximum est christi- 
anorum officium, itemque velut fons quidam, unde alia officia nascuntur. 
Sane liberator generis humani de se ipse Ego, inruit, in hoc natus sum et 
ad hoc wni in mundum, ut testimonium perhibeam veritati. * Similiter, ignem 
veni mittere in terram, et quid volo nisi ut acccndatur /> * In huius cogni- 
tione veritatis, quae mentis est summa perfectio, in caritate divina, quae 
perficit pari modo voluntatero, omnis christianorum est vita ac libertas 
posita. Quarum rerum, veriiatis scilicet et caritatis, nobilissimum patri- 
monium, sibi ajesu Christo commendatum, perpetuo studio vigilantiaque 
conservat ac tuetur Ecclesia. 

Sed quam acre adversus Ecclesiam bellum deflagraverit quamque 
multiplex, vix attinet hoc loco dicere. Quod enim rationi contigit 
complures res occultas et a natura involutas scientiae pervestigatione 
reperire, easque in vitae usus apte convertere, tantos sibi spiritussumpsere 
homines, ut jam se putent numen posse imperiumque divinum a com- 
muni vita depellere. — Quo errore decepti, iransferunt in naturam huma- 
nam ereptum Deo principatum : a natura petendum omnis veri principi- 
nm et normam praedicant : ab ea manare, ad eamque esse cuncta religio- 
nis officia referenda. Quocirca nihil esse divinitus traditum : non disci- 
plinae morum christianae, non Ecclesiae parendum : nullam huic esse 
legum ferendarum potestatem, nulla jura; imo nee ullum Ecclesiae dari in 
reipublicae institutis locum oportere. Expetunt vero atque omni ope 
contendunt capessere res publicas et ad gubernacula sedere civitatum, quo 
sibi facilius liceat ad has doctrinas dirigere leges moresque fingere po- 
pulorum. Ita passim catholicum nomen vel aperte petitur, vel occulte 
oppugnatur : magnaque cuilibet errorum perversilati permissa licentia, 
multis saepe vinculis publica veritatis christianae professio constringitur. 

His igitur tarn iniquis rebus, primum omnium respicere se quisque 

' Act. iv. 19, 20. * Jo. xviii. 37. * Lac. xii. 49. 


debet, vehementerque curare, ut alte comprehensam animo fidem intenta 
custodia tueatur, cavendo pericula, nominatimque contra varias sophis- 
matum fallacias semper armatus. Ad cujus incolumitatem virtutis illud 
etiam perutile. et magnopere consentaneum temporibus indicamus, stu- 
dium diligens, ut est facultas et captus singulorum, in Christiana doctri- 
na ponere, earumque rerum, quae religionem continent, quasque assequi 
ratione licet, majore qua potest notitia mentem imbuere. Cumque fidem 
non modo vigere in animis incorruptam, sed assiduis etiam incrementis 
oporteat augescere, iteranda persaepe ad Deum est supplex atque humilis 
Apostolorum flagitatio, adauge nobis fidem. ' 

Verum in hoc eodem genere, quod fidem christianam attingit, alia 
sunt officia, quae observari accurate religioseque si salutis semper interfuit, 
hac tempestate nostra interest maxime. — Nimirum in hac, quam diximus, 
tanta ac tam late fusa opinionum insania, profecto patrocinium suscipere 
veritatis, erroresque ex animis evellere, Ecclesiae munus est, idque omni 
tempore sancteque servandum, quia honor Dei, ac salus hominum in 
ejus sunt tutela. At vero, cum necessitas cogit, incolumitatem fidei tueri 
non ii solum debent qui praesunt, sed quilibet tenetur fidem suam aliis 
propalare, vel ad instructionem aiiorum fidelium sive confirmationem, vel 
ad reprimendum infidelium insultationem. * Cedere hosti, vel vocem pre- 
mere, cum tantus undique opprimendae veritati tollitur clamor, aut 
inertis hominis est, aut de lis, quae profitetur, utrum vera sint, dubitantis. 
Utrumque turpe, atque injuriosum Deo ; utrumque cum singulorum 
turn communi saluli repugnans : solis fidei inimicis fructuosum, quia 
valde auget remissior proborum opera audaciam improborum. — Eoque 
magis christianorum vituperanda segnities, quia falsa crimina dilui, 
opinionesque pravae confutari levi negotio, ut plurimum, possunt : 
majore aliquo cum labore semper possunt. Ad extremum, nemo unus 
prohibetur eam adhibere ac prae se ferre fortitudinem, quae propria est 
christianorum : qua ipsa non raro animi adversariorum et consilia fran- 
guntur. Sunt praeterea christiani ad dimicationem nati : cujus quo ma- 
jor est vis, eo certior, Deo opitulante, victoria. Confidite: ego met mutt' 
dum. * Neque est quod opponat quisquam, Ecclesiae conser\'atorem ac 
vindicem Jesum Christum nequaquara opera hominum indigere. Non 
enim inopia virium, sed magnitudine bonitatis vult ille ut aliquid a 

' Luc. xviii. 5. 

« S. Thom. II-II., QuaesL iii., art. ii. ad 2. 

» Jo. xvi. 33. 


nobis conferatur operae ad salutis, quam ipse peperit, obtinendos adipi- 
scendosque fructus. 

Hujusce partes officii primae sunt, Catholicam doctrinam profiteri 
aperte et constanter, eamque, quoad quisque potest, propagare. Nam, 
quod saepius est verissimeque dictum, Christiana; quidem sapientiae 
nihil tarn obest, quam non esse cognitam. Valet enim per se ipsa ad 
depellendos errores probe percepta : quam si mens arripuerit simplex 
praejudicatisque non adstricta opinionibus, assentiendum esse ratio pro- 
nuntiat. Nunc vero fidei virtus grande munus est gratiae bonitatisque 
divinae : res tamen ipsae, quibus adhibenda fides, non alio fere mode 
quam audiendo noscuntur. Quomodo credent ei, quern non audieruntt 
Quomodo autem audient sine priedicantei . . . . Ergo fides ex audi/u, atiditus 
nutem per verhum Christi. ' Quoniam igitur fides est ad saluiem neces- 
saria, omnino praedicari verbum Christi consequitur oportere. Profecto 
praedicandi, hoc est docendi, munus jure divino penes magistros est, 
quos Spiritus Sanctus posuit Episcopos regere Ecdesiam Dei, ' maxime- 
que penes Pontificem romanum, Jesu Christi vicarium, Ecclesiae universae 
summa cum potestate praepositum, credendorum, agendorum magistrum. 
Niliilomnius nemo putet, industriam nonnullam eadem in re ponere 
privatos prohiberi, eos nominatim, quibus ingenii facultatem Deus cum 
studio bene merendi dedit : qui, quoties res exigat, commode possunt 
non sane doctoris sibi partes assumere, sed ea, quae ipsi acceperinl, im- 
pertire ceteris, magistrorum voci resonantes tamquam imago. Quin imo 
privatorum opera visa est Patribus Concilii Vaticani usque adeo oppor- 
tuna ac frugifera, ut prorsus deposcendam judicarint. Omnes Christi- 
fideles, maxime vero eos, qui prcB sunt, vel docendi muntre funguntur , per 
viscera Jesu Christi obtestamur, nee non ejusdem Dei et Salvatoris nostri 
4iuctoritate jubemus ut adhos errores a sancta Ecclesia arctndos eteliminan- 
dos, atque purissimce fidei lucent pandindim studium et operam conferatit. * 
— Ceterum serere fidem Catholicam auctoritate exempli, professionisque 
constantia praedicare, quisque se posse ac debere meminerint. — In officiis 
igitur quae nos jungunt Deo atque Ecclesiae, hoc est numerandum maxi- 
me, ut in veritate Christiana propaganda propulsandisque erroribus 
-elaboret singulorum, quoad potest, industria. 

Quibus tamen officiis non ita, ut oportet, cumulate et utiliter satisfac- 
turi sunt, si alii seorsum ab aliis in certamen descenderint. — Futurum 
sane lesus Christus significavit, ut quam ipse offensionem hominum in- 

' Rom. X. 14.. 1 7. * Act. XX. 28. * Const. Dei Filius, sub fin. 


vidiamque prior excepit. in eadem pari modo opus a se institutum 
incurreret ; ita plane ut ad salutem pervenire, ipsius beneficio partam, 
multi reapse prohiberentur. Quare voluit non alumnos dumtaxat insti- 
tuere disciplinae suas, sed hos ipsos societate conjungere, et in unum 
corpus quod est Ecclesia,* cujus esset ipse caput, apte coagmentare. 
Permeat itaque vita Christi Jesu per totum compagem corporis, alit ac 
sustentat singula membra, eaque copulata tenet inter se et ad eumdem 
composita finem, quamvis non eadem sit actio singulorum. * His de 
caussis non modo perfecta societas Ecclesia est, et alia qualibet societate 
longe praestantior, sed hoc ei est inditum ab Auctore suo ut debeat pro 
salute generis humani contendere ut casirorum acies ordinatam. * Ista 
rei Christianae compositioconformatioque mutari nulio modo potest: nee 
magnis vivere arbitratu suo cuiquam licet, aut earn, quae sibi libeat, 
decertandi rationem consectari ; propterea quod dissipat, non colligit, 
qui cum Ecclesia et Jesu Christo non colligit, verissimeque contra Deum 
contendunt, quicumque non cum ipso Ecclesiaque contendunt. * 

Ad banc vero conjunctionem animorum similitudinemque agendi, ini- 
micis catholici nominis non sine caussa formidolosam, primum omnium 
Concordia est necessaria sententiarum : ad quam ipsam videmus Paulum 
Apostolum Corinthios cohortantem vehementi studio et singulari gravi- 
tate verborum : Obsecro autem vos, /ratres, per nomen Domini Jesu 
Christi, ut idipsu?n dicatis omnes, et non sint in vobis schismata; sitis autem 
perfecti in eodem sensu et in eadem sententia!" —Q,\\y^% praecepti facile sapien- 
tia perspicitur. Est enim principium agendi mens : ideoque nee con- 
gruere voluntates, nee similes esse actiones queunt, si mentes diversa 
opinentur. Qui solam rationem sequuntur ducem, vix in eis aut ne vix 
quidem una esse doctrina potest : est enim ars rerum cognoscendarum 
perdifficilis : mens vero et infirma est natura, et varietate distrahitur opi- 
nionum, et impulsione rerum oblata extrinsecus non raro fallitur ; 
accedunt cupiditates, quae veri videndi nimium saepe tollunt aut certe 
minuunt facultatem. Hac de caussa in moderandis civitatibus saepe 

' Coloss. i. 24. 

' Sicut enim in uno carport muita membra habemus, amnia autem membra non 
eumdem actum habent: ita multi unum corpus sumus in Christo, singuli autem altet 
alterius membra. — Rom. xii. 4, 5. 

* Cantic. vi. 9. 

* Qui non est mecum, contra me est: et qui non colligit mecum, dispergit. — Luc. 
xi. 23. 

* I. Cor. i. 10. 



datur opera ut conjunct! teneantur vi, quorum animi discordant. — Longe 
aliter Christiani : quid credere oporteat, ab Ecclesia accipiunt, cujus 
anctoritate ductuque se certo sciunt venim attingere. Propterea sicut 
una est Ecclesia, quia unus Jesus Christus, ita cunctorum toto orbe 
Christianorum una est atque esse debet doctrina. Unus Dominus, 'una 
fides. ' Habentes autem eumdem spiritum fidei, ' salutare principium 
obtinent, unde eadem in omnibus voluntas eademque in agendo ratio 
sponte gignuntur. 

Sed, quod Paulus Apostolus jubet, unanimitatem oportet esse per- 
fectam. — Cum Christiana fides non humanae, sed divinae rationis auc- 
toritate niiitur, quae enim a Deo accepimus, vera esse credimus non 
propter intrinsecam rerum veritatem naturali rationis lumine perspectam, sed 
propter auctoritatem ipsus Dei revelantis, qui nee /alii nee fallere potest, * 
consequens est ut, quascumque res constet esse a Deo tradiias, omnino 
excipere singulas pari similique assensu necesse sit: quarum rerum 
abnuere fidem uni hac ferme recidit repudiare uniyersas. Evertunt 
enim ipsum fundamentum fidei, qui aut elocutum hominibus Deum 
negent, aut de infinita ejus veritate sapientiave dubitent. — Statuere vero 
quae sint doctrinae divinitus tra'ditae, Ecclesia docentis est, cui custodiam 
interpretationemque Deus eloquiorum suorum commisit Summus 
autem est magister in Ecclesia Pontifex romanus. Concordia igitur 
animorum sicut perfectum in una fide consensum requirit, ita voluntates 
postulat Ecclesiae romanoque Pontifici perfecte subjectas atque obtem- 
perantes, ut Deo. — Perfecta autem esse obedientia debet, quia ab ipsa 
fide praecipitur, et habet hoc commune cum fide, ut dividua esse non 
possit : imo vero si absoluta non fuerit et numeros omnes habens, 
obedientia quidem simulacrum relinquitur, natura toUitur. Cujusmodi 
perfectioni tantum Christiana consuetudo tribuit, ut ilia taniquam nota 
internoscendi catholicos et habita semper sit et habeatur. Mire expli- 
catur hie locus a Thoma Aquinate iis verbis : Formate . . objectum fidei 
est Veritas prima secundum quod mani/estatur in Scripturis sacris, et doc- 
trines EcclesicE, qucB procedit ex veritate prima. Unde quicumque non in- 
hceret, sicut infallibili et divincB regulcB, doctrines EcciesicB, qua procedit ex 
veritate prima in Scripturis sacris mani/estata, die non habet habiium fidei : 
sed ea. qucB sunt fidei, alio modo tenet quam per fidem. . . . Manifestum est 
auttm, quod ille qui inhceret doctrinis Ecclesia tamquam in/allibdi regulce, 

' Ephes. iv. 5. « II. Cor. iv. 13. 

* Cone Vat Const Dei Filius, cap. iii. 



omnibus assentii, quce Ecchsia docet : alioquin si de his, qucB vuli, tenet, et 
quce non vult, non tenet, nonjam inhceret EcclesicB doctrines sicut infalllbili 
regulcB, sed proprice voluntati} Una fides debet esse totius Ecclesice, secun- 
dum illud ; Idipsum dicatis omnes et non sint in vobis schismata : quod 
servari non posset nisi qucBstio fidei exorta determinetur per eum, qui toti 
EcclesicB prcBest, ut sic ejus senteniia a tola Ecclesia firmiter teneatur. Et 
idea adsolam auctoritatem Summi Pontificis per tinet nova editio Symboli, sicut 
et omnia alia, qucB pertinent ad totam Ecclesiam} 

In constituendis obedientiae finibus, nemo arbitretur, sacrorum Pa- 
storum maximeque romanis Pontificis auctoritati parendum in eo dum- 
taxat esse, quod ad dogmata pertinet, quorum repudiatio pertinax 
dijungi ab haereseos flagitio non potest. Quin etiam neque satis est 
sincere et firmiter assentiri doctrinis. quae ab Ecclesia, etsi solemni non 
definitae judicio, ordinaria tamen et universali magisterio tamquam 
divinitus revelatae credendae proponuntur : quas fide catholica et divina 
credendas Concilium Vaticanum decrevit. Sed hoc est prseterea in 
officiis christianorum ponendum, ut potestate ductuque Episcoporum 
imprimisque Sedis Apostolicae regi se gubernarique patiantur. Quod 
quidem quam sit consentaneum, perfacile apparet. Nam quae divinis 
oraculis continentur, ea Deum partim attingunt, partim ipsum hominem, 
itemque res ad sempiternam hominis salutem necessarias. Jamvero de 
utroque genere, nimirum et quid credere oporteat et quid agere, ab 
Ecclesia jure divino praecipitur, uti diximus, atque in Ecclesia a Pon- 
tifice maximo. Quamobrem judicare posse Pontifex pro auctoritate 
debet quid eloquia divina contineant, quae cum eis doctrinae concordent, 
quae discrepent : eademque ratione ostendere quae honesta sint, quae 
turpia : quid agere, quid fugere, salutis adipiscendae caussa, necesse 
sit : aliter enim nee eloquiorum Dei certus interpres, nee dux ad 
vivendum tutus ille esse homini posset. 

Altius praeterea intrandum in Ecclesiae naturam: quippe quae non 
est christianorum, ut fcrs tulit, nexa communio sed excellenti tempera- 
tione divinitus constituta societas, quae illuc recta proximeque spectat, 
ut pacem animis ac sanctitatem afFerat: cumque res ad id necessarias 
divino munere sola possideat, certas habet leges, certa officia, atque in 
populis christianis moderandis rationem viamque sequitur naturae suae 
consentaneam. — Sed istiusmodi regiminis difficilis est et cum frequenti 
offensione cursus. Gentes enim Ecclesia regit per cunctos terrarum 

' II — II., qusest. v., art. 3. * Ibid, qnsest. u, art. 10. 


tractus disseminatas genere differentes moribusque, quas, cam in saa 
quaque republica suis legibus vivant, civili simul ac sacrae potestati 
ofiicium est subesse. Quae officia in eisdem personis conjuncta reperi- 
untur, non vero pugnanlia, uti diximus, neque confusa, quia alteram 
genus ad prosperitatem pertinet civitatis, alterum ad commune Ecclesiae 
bonum, utrumque pariendse hominam perfectioni natum. 

Qua posita jurium et ofHciorum terminatione, omnino liquet esse 
liberos ad res suas gerendas rectores civitatum: idque non modo non 
invita, sed plane adjuvante Ecclesia: quae quoniam maxime praecipi, at 
colatur pietas, quae est justitia adversus Deum, hoc ipso ad justitiam 
vocat erga principes. Verum longe nobiliore instituto poteslas sacra eo 
spectat, ut regat hominam animos tuendo rtgnum Dei et justitiam ejusy ' 
atque in hoc tota versatur. Dubitari vero salva fide non potest, istius- 
modi regimen animorum Ecclesiae esse assignatum uni, nihil at in eo 
sit politicae potestati loci: non enim Caesari, sed Pelro claves regni 
coelorum Jesus Christus commendavit. — Cum hac de rebus politicis 
deque religiosis doctrinae quaedam alia conjunguntur non exigui 
moment!, de quibus silere hoc loco nolumus. 

Abomni politico genere imperii distat Christiana respublica plurimum. 
Quod si similitudinem habet conformationemque regni, profecto origi- 
nem, caussam, naturam mortalibus regnis habet longe disparem. — Jus 
est igitur, vivere Ecclesiam tuerique se consentaneis naturae suae institutis 
ac legibus. Eademque cum non modo societas perfecta sit, sed etiam 
humana quavis societate superior, sectari partium studia et mutabilibus 
rerum civilium flexibus servire jure officioque suo valde recusat. Simi- 
lique ratione custos juris sui observantissima alieni, non ad se putat 
Ecclesia pertinere, quae maxime forma civitatis placeat, quibus institutis 
res christianarum gentium civilis geratur: ex variisque reipublicae 
generibus nullum non probat, dum religio morumque disciplina salva 
sit, — Ad hoc exemplum cogitationes actionesque dirigi singulorum 
christianorum oportet. Non dubium est, quin quaedam sit in genere 
politico honesta contentio, cum scilicet incolumi veritate justitiaque 
certatur, ut opiniones re asuque valeant, quae ad commune bonum prae 
ceteris conducibiles videantur. Sed ecclesiam trahere ad partes, aat 
omnino adjutricem velle ad eos quibuscum contenditur, superandos, 
hominum est religione intemperanter abutentium. Ex adverso sancta 
atque inviolata apad omnes debet esse religio: imo in ipsa disciplina 

• Matt. vL 33. 



civitatum, quae a legibus morum officiisque religionis separari non 
potest, hoc est potissimum perpetuoque spectandum, quid maxime 
expediat christian© notnini: quod ipsum sicubi in periculo esse adver- 
sariorum opera videatur, cessandum ab omni dissidio, et concordibus 
animis et consiliis propugnatio ac defensio suscipienda religionis, quod 
est commune bonum maximum, quo sunt omnia referenda. — Idque 
opus esse ducimus aliquanto exponere accuratius. 

Profecto et ecclesia et civitas suum habet utraque principatum: prop- 
tereaque in gerendis rebus suis neutra paret alteri, utique intra terminos 
a proxima cujusque caussa constitutos. Ex quo tamen nulla ratione 
disjunctas esse sequitur, multoque minus pugnantes. — Sane non tantum 
nobis ut essemus naiura dedit, sed ut morati essemus. Quare a tran- 
quillitate ordinis publici, quam proxime habet civilis conjunctio propo- 
sitam, hoc petit homo, ut bene sibi esse liceat, ac multo magis ut satis 
praesidii ad perficiendos mores suppeditet: quae perfectio nusquam nisi 
in cognitione consistit atque exercitatione virtulis. Simul vero vult, id 
quod debet, adjumenta in Ecclesia reperire, quorum ope pietatis 
perfectae perfecto fungatur munere; quod in cognitione usuque positum 
est verae religionis, quae princeps est virtutum, propterea quod, revocan- 
doad Deum, expletet cumulatuniversas. — In institutis igitur legibusque 
sanciendis spectanda hominis indoles est moralis eadem ac religiosa, 
ejusdemque curanda perfectio, sed recte atque ordine: nee imperandum 
vetandumve quidquam nisi ratione habita quid civili hominum societati 
sit, quid religiosae propositum. Hac ipsa de causa non potest Ecclesiae 
non interesse quales in civitatibus valeant leges, non quatenus ad 
rempublicam pertinent, sed quia fines debitos aliquando praetergressae 
in jus Ecclesiae invadunt. Quin imo resistere, si quando officiat re- 
ligioni disciplina reipublicae, studioseque conari, ut in leges et instituta 
populorum virtus pervadat Evangelii, munus est Ecclesiae assignatum a 
Deo. Quoniamque fortuha reipublicae potissimum ex eorum pendet 
ingenio qui populo praesunt, idcirco Ecclesia patrocinium iis hominibus 
gratiamve praebere non potest, a quibus oppugnari sese intelligat, qui 
jura ipsius vereri aperte recusent, qui rem sacram remque civilem natura 
consociatas divellere contendant. Contra fautrix, uti debet, eorum est 
qui, cum de civili deque Christiana republica quod sentire rectum est, 
ipsi sentiant, ambas in communi boni Concordes elaborare volunt. — 
His praeceptis norma continetur, quam in publica actione vitae catholi- 
cum quemque necesse est sequi. Nimirum, ubicumque in negotiis 


publicis versari per Ecclesiam licet, favendum viris est spectatae probi- 
tatis, eisdemque de christiano nomine merituris: neque causa esse ulla 
potest cur male erga religionem animates liceat anteponere. 

Ex quo apparet quam sit magnum officium tueri consensum animo- 
rum, praesertim cum per hoc tempus tanta consiliorum calliditate 
christianum oppugnetur nomen. Quotquot diligenter studuerint Ec- 
clesiae adhaerescere, quae est columna et firmamentum veritatis ' facile 
cavebunt magistros tnendaces . . libertaUm Ulis proniitUntes, cum ipti 
servi sint corruptionis: * quin imo ipsius Ecclesiaj virtutis particip)e8 
fuluri, insidias sapientia vincent, vim for^itudine. — Non est hujus loci 
exquirere, num quid, et quantum ad novas res contulerit opera segnior 
atque intestina discordia catholicorum; sed certeerant homines nequam 
minus habiiuri audaciae, nee tantas edituri ruinas, si robustior in pluri- 
morum animis viguisset fides, quae per caritatem operalur, * neque tam 
late morum christianorum tradita nobis divinitus disciplina concidisset 
Utinam praeteritae res hoc pariant, recordando, commodi, rectius sapere 
in posterum. 

Verum ad negotia publica accessuris duo sunt magnopere vitia 
fugienda, quorum alterum prudentiae nomen usurpat, alterum in temeri- 
tate versatur. — Quidam enim potenti pollentique improbitati aperte 
resistere negant oportere, ne forte hostiles animos certamen exasperet. 
Isti quidem pro Ecclesia stent, an contra, incertum: quandoquidem 
profiteri se doctrinam catholicam affirmant sed tamen vellent, certas ab 
ea discrepantes opiniones impune propagari posse Ecclesia sineret. 
Ferunt dolenter interitum fidei demutationemque morum: nihil tamen 
deremedio laborant, vel etiam nimia indulgentiaaut perniciosa quadam 
simulatione non raro malum augent. Idem de sua in apostolicam 
Sedem voluntate nemini volunt essedubium: sed habent semper aliquid, 
quod pontifici succenseant. Isliusmodi hominum prudentia ex eo est 
genere, quod a Paulo Apostolo sapientia carnis et mors animi appellatur, 
quia nee subest legi divinae, nee potest subesse. * Nihil autem minus 
est ad mala minuenda providum. Inimicis enim, quod praedicare et ia 
quo gloriari multi eorum non dubitant, hoc est omnino propositum, 
religionem catholicam, quae vera sola est, funditus, si fieri posset, 
extinguerc. Tali autem consilio nihil non audent: sentiunt enim, quo 

' I. Tim. iii. 15. » II. Petr. ii. i, 19. » Galat. r. 6. 

' Sapientia carnis inimica est Deo; legi enim Dei noa est subjecta: nee enim 
potest. — Rom. viii. 6, 7. 


magis fuerit aliorum tremefacta virtus, eo sibi expeditiorem fore mala- 
rum rerum facultatem. Itaque qui adamant prudentiam carnis, ac 
nescire se simulant, christianum quemquedebere bonum militem Christi 
esse: qui debita victoribus praemia consequi mollissima viaatque intacti 
a certamine volunt, ii tantum abest ut iter malorum intercipiant, ut 
potius expediant. 

Contra non pauci fallaci studio permoti. aut quod magis esset vitio, 
aliud agentes, aliud simulantes, non suas sibi partes assumunt. Res in 
Ecclesia geri suo ipsorum judicio atque arbitratu vellent usque eo, ut 
omne quod secus agitur, moleste ferant, aut repugnanter accipiant. Hi 
quidem inani contentione laborant, nihilo minus, quam alteri, repre- 
hendendi. Hoc enim est non sequi potestatem legitimam, sed praever- 
tere, simulque magistratuum munia ad privates rapere, magna cum 
perturbatione ordinis, quem Deus in Ecclesia sua perpetuo servandum 
constituit, nee sinit a quoquam impune violari. — Illi optime, qui 
descendere in certamen, quotiescumque est opus, non recusant, hoc 
rato persuasoque, interituram vim injustam, sanctitatique, juris et 
religionis aliquando cessuram. Qui videntur sane dignum aliquid anti- 
qua virtnte suscipere, cum tueri religionem connituntur maxime ad- 
versus factionem audacissimam, christiano nomini exagitando natam, 
quae Pontificem maximum in suam redactum potestatem consectari 
hostiliter non desistit: sed obedientiae studium diligenter retinent, nihil 
aggredi injussu soliti. Jamvero quoniam similis obtemperandi voluntas, 
robusto animo constantiaeque conjuncta, christianis universis est neces- 
saria, ut quoscumque casus tempus invexerit, in nullo sint deficientes, ' 
magnopere velimus in singulorum animis alte insidere eam, quam 
Paulus* prudenttafn spiritus nominal. Haec enim in moderandis 
actionibus humanis sequitur optimam mediocritatis regulam, illud in 
homine efficiens, ne aut timide desperet propter ignaviam aut nimis 
confidat propter temeritatem. — Est autem quod difFerat inter prudentiam 
politicam, quae ad bonum commune, et eam quae ad bonum cujusque 
privatim pertinet. Haec enim cernitur in hominibus privatis, qui con- 
silio rectaeque rationi obediunt in gubernatione sui : ilia vero in praepo- 
sitis, maximeque in princ*pibus, quorum muneris est cum potestate 
praeesse: ita quidem ut politica privatorum prudentia in hoc videatur 
tota consistere, legitimae potestatis jussa fideliter exequi. * Haec dispo- 

' Jac i. 4. ■ Rom. viii. 6. 

* Prudentia in ratione est; regere autem et gubemare proprie ration is est; et idea 


sitio atque hie ordo tanto magis vaiere in Christiana republica debet, 
quanto Pontificis politica prudentia plura complectilur: ejus enim est 
non solum tegere Ecclesiam, sed generatim civium christianoium 
actionis ita ordinare, ut cum spe adipiscendse salutis aelernae apte con* 
gruant. Kx quo apparet, praeter summam senientiarum concordiam 
et factorum, necesse esse politicam poteslaiis eccJesiasticae observare in 
agendo sapientiam. Jamvero Christianas rei administratio proxime et 
secundum Pontificem romanura ad Episcopos pertinet: qui scilicet, 
quamquam pontificalis fastigium potestatis non attingunt, sunt tamen in 
ecclesiastica hierarchia veri principes; cumque singulas Ecciesias singuli 
administrent, sunt quasi principiks arlifices ... .in adificio spiriiuali, * 
atque habent munerum adjutores, ac ministros consiliorum Clericos, 
Ad banc Ecclesiae constitutionem, quam nemo mortalium mutare po- 
test, actio est accomraodanda vitae. Propterea quemadmodum Episco- 
pis necessaria est cum Apostolica Sede in gerendo episcopaiu conjunctio, 
ita clericosque oportet cum Episcopis suis conjunctissime vivere, agere. — 
Ipsorum quidem Antistitum utique potest esse aliquid aut minus 
laudabile in moribus, aut in sententiis non probabile: sed nemo priva- 
tus arroget sibi personam judicis, quam Christus Dominus illi imposuit 
uni, quem agnis atque ovibus praefecit. Memoria quisque teneat 
sapientissimam Gregorii magni sententiam: Admonendi sunt subditi, 
ne praposilorum suorum vilam temere Judiceni, si quid eos fortasse agere 
reprehensibiliter vident, ne unde mala rede redarguunt, inde per elalionis im- 
pulsum in profundiora mergantur. Admonendi sunt, ne cum culpas prapo- 
sitorum considerant, contra eos audaciores fiant, sed sic, si qua valde sunt 
eorum prava, apud semetipsos dijudicent, ut tamem divino timore constricti 
ferre sub eisjugum reverentics non recusent .... Facta quippe prcepositorum 
oris gladio ferienda non sunt, etiam cum recte reprehendenda judicantur, ' 

unusquisque inquantum participat de regimine et gubematione, in tantum convenit 
sibi habere rationem et prudentiam. Manifestum est autem quod subditi, inquantum 
est subditus, et servi, inquantum est servus. non est regere et gubemare, sed magis 
regi et gubernari. Et tdeo prudentia non est virtus servi, inquantum est servus, nee 
subditi, inquantum est subditus. Sed quia quilibet homo inquantum est rationalis, 
participat aliquid de regimine secundum arbitrium rationis, intantum convenit ei 
prudentiam habere. Unde manifestum est quod prudentia quidem in principe est ad 
modum artis architectonica, ut dicitut in VI Ethicorum : in subditis autem ad 
modum artis manu operantis. S. Thorn, II. II., XLVII., art XII. 

' S. Thorn. Quodlib. i. art. xiv. 

* Reg. Pastor., Pars. III., cap iv. 


Verumtamen parum sunt conata profutura, nisi ad virtutum christia- 
narum disciplinam vita instituatur. — Ilia est sacrarum literaram de 
Judaeorum genere sententia. Usque dum non peccareni in conspeciu Dei 
sui, erant cum illis bona: Deus tnim illorum odit iniquitaiem .... Cum 
recessissent a 7/ia, quam dederat illis Deus ut ambularent in ea, exterminaii 
sunt proeliis a muliis nationibus. ' Atqui inchoatam formam populi 
christiani gerebat Judaeorum natio: alque in veteribus eorum casibus 
saepe imago inerat veritatis futurae; nisi quod longe majoribus beneficiis 
auxit nos atque ornavit divina benignitas, ob eamque rem ingrati animi 
crimen multo efficit christianorum graviora delicta. 

Ecclesia quidem nullo tempore nuUoque modo deseritur a Deo: 
quare nihil est, quod sibi ab hominum scelere metuat: at vero degene- 
rantibus a Christiana virtute nationibus non eadem potest esse securitas. 
Miseros oxivca. facit populos peccatum? — Cujus vim veritatemque sententiae 
si omnis retro experta est aetas, quid est caussae quamobrem nostra non 
experiatur } Imo debitas jam instare poenas, permulta declarant, idem- 
que status ipse confirmat civitatum ; quarum plures videlicet intestinis 
malis attritas, nullam ab omni parte tutam videmus. Quod si impro- 
borum factiones institutum iter audacter perrexerint: si evenerit iis ut, 
quemadmodum grassantur malis artibus et pejore proposito, sic opibus 
potentiaque invalescant, metuendum sane ne totas civitates a funda- 
mentis, quae posuit natura, convellant.- -Neque vero prohiberi tantae 
formidines sola hominum ope possunt, praesertim quia multitudo ingens, 
fide Christiana rejecta, justas superbiae poenas in hoc luit, quod veritatem 
obcaecata cupiditatibus frustra conquirit, falsa pro veris zTmplexatur, 
sibique videtur sapere cum vocat malum bonum, et bonum malum, ponens 
tenebras lucem, el lucem tenebras. ' Igitur Deus intersit, ac benignitatis 
;suae memor civilem hominum societatem respiciat necesse est. Quam- 
obrem, quod vehementer alias hortati sumus, singulari studio constantia- 
que enitendum, ut dementia divina obsecratione humili exoretur, 
virtutesque, quibus efficitur vita Christiana, revocentur. — Imprimis 
autem excitanda ac tuenda caritas est, quae praecipuum vilae christianae 
firmamentum continet, et sine qua aut nullae omnino sunt, aut fructu 
vacuae virtu tes. Idcirco beatus Paulus Colossenses adhortatus, ut 
vitium omne defugerent, variamque virtutum laudem consectarentur, 
illud subjicit, super omnia autem hcec caritatem habete, quod est vinculum 

' Judith V. 21. * Prov. xiv. 34. ' Isa. v. 20. 


per/eclionis . ' Vere vinculum est perfeclionis caritas, quia quos complexa 
est, cum Deo ipso inlime conjungit, perficitque ut vitam animae hauriant 
a Deo, cum Deo agant, ad Deum referant. Debet vero caritas Dei cum 
caritate proximorum consociari, quia infinitam Dei bonitatem homines 
participant, ejusque gerunt in se expressam imaginem atque formam. 
Hoc mandatum habtmtts a Deo, ut qui diligit Deum, diligat et fratrem 
suutn. * Si quis dixerit quanta m diligo Deum et fratrem suum oderit, 
mendax est. * Atque hoc de caritate mandatum divinus ejus later novam 
nominavit, non quod diligere homines inter se non aliqua jam lex, aut 
ipsa nalura jussisset, sed quia christianum hoc diligendi plane novum 
erat aique in omni memoria inaudilum genus. Qua enim caritate 
Jesus Christus et diligitur a Patre suo et homines ipse diligit, eandem 
impetravit alumnis ac seclatoribus suis, ut cor unum et anima una esse 
in ipso possent, sicut ipse et Paler unum natura sunt. Hujus vis 
praecepti nemo ignorat quam alte in christianorum pectus a principio 
descenderit, et quales quantosque concordiae, benevolentiae mutuae, 
pietatis, patientiae, fortitudinis fructus attulerit. Quidni opera detur 
exemplis majorum imitandis? Tempora ipsa non exiguos admovent ad 
caritatem stimulos. Renovantibus impiis adversus Jesum Christum 
odia, instauranda christianis pietas est, magnarumque rerum effectrix 
renovanda caritas. Quiescant igitur, si qua sunt, dissidia; sileant 
certationes illae quidem, quae vires dimicantium dissipant, nee ullo 
modo religioni prosunt: coUigatisque fide mentibus, caritate voluntati- 
bus, in Dei atque hominum amore, ut aequum est, vita degatur. 

Locus admonet hortari nominatim patres familias, ut his praeceptis et 
domos gubernare studeant, et liberos mature instituere. Initia reipu- 
blicae familia complectitur, magnamque partem alitur intra domesticos 
parietes fortuna civitatem. Idcirco qui has divellere ab institutis christi- 
anis volant, consilia a stirpe exorsi, corrumpere societatem domesticam 
maturant. A quo eos scelere nee cogitatio deterret, id quidem nequa- 
quam fieri sine summa parentum injuria posset; natura enim parentes 
habent jus suum instituendi, quos procrearunt, hoc adjuncto officio, ut 
cum fine cujus gratia sobolem Dei beneficio susceperunt ip)sa educatio 
conveniat et doctrina puerilis. Igitur parentibus est necessarium eniti 
et contendere, ut omnem in hoc genere propulsent injuriam, omninoque 
pervincant ut sua in potestate sit educere liberos. uti par est, more 

< Coloss. iii. 14. * I. Jo. ir. 21. > Ibid. ao. 


Christiano, maximeque prohibere scholis iis, a quibus periculum est ne 
malum venenum imbibant impietatis. Cum de fingenda probe adole- 
scentia agitur, nulla opera potest nee labor suscipi tantus, quin etiam 
sint suscipienda majora. In quo sane digni omnium admiratione sunt 
catholici ex variis gentibus complures, qui suas erudiendis pueris scholas 
magno sumptu, majore constantia paravere. iEmulari salutare exem- 
plum, ubicumque poslulare videantur tempora, decet; sed positum sit 
imprimis, omnino in puerorum animis plurimum institutionem domesti- 
cam posse. Si adolescens aetas disciplinam vitse probam, virtutumque 
christianarum tamquam palaestram domi repererit, magnum praesidium 
habitura salus est civitatum. 

Attigisse jam videmur, quas maxime res hoc tempore sequi, quas 
lugere catholici homines debeant, — Reliquum est, idque vestrarum est 
partium, Venerabiles Fratres, curare ut vox Nostra quacumque pervadat, 
omnesque intelligant quanti referat ea, quae his litteris persecuti sumus, 
reipsa efficere. Horum officiorum non potest molesta et gravis esse 
custodia, quia jugum Jesu Christi suave est, et onus ejus leve. — Si quid 
tamen diflScilius factu videatur, dabitis auctoritate exemploque operam, 
ut acrius quisque intendat invictumque praestet a difficultatibus ani- 
mum. Ostendite, quod saepius ipsi monuimus, in periculo esse prae- 
stantissima, ac summe expetenda bona: pro quorum conservatione om- 
nes esse patibiles labores putandos; ipsisque laboribus tantam remune- 
rationem fore, quantam christianae acta vita maximam parit. Alioqui 
propugnare pro Christo nolle, oppugnare est; ipse autem testatur, ' 
negaturum se coram Patre suo in coelis, quotquot ipsum coram homini- 
bus profiteri in terris recusarint. — Ad Nos quod attinet, vosque universes, 
numquam profecto, dum vita suppetat, commissuri sumus, ut auctoritas, 
consilium, opera Nostra quoquo modo in certamine desideretur. Neque 
est dubium, cum gregi, tum pastoribus singularem Dei opem, quoad 
debellatum erit, adfuturam. 

Qua erecti fiducia, caelestium munerum auspicem, benevolentiaeque 
Nostrae tamquam pignus Vobis, Venerabiles Fratres, et Clero populoque 
universo, quibus singuli praeestis, apostolicam benedictionem peramanter 
in Domino impertimus. 

Datum Romae apud S. Petrum die X Januarii An. MDCCCLXXXX. 

Pontificatus Nostri duodecimo, 


' Lake ix. 26. 




Apostolicae potestatis et benignitatis curas ad se vocavit, 
conditio et genus morbi, qui hoc tempore non Europam 
modo sed alias orbis regiones late pervasit. Hoc enim 
grassante nialo permotus Sanctissimus Dominus Leo XIII, 
pro summo studio quod gerit, ut non solum in iis quae anirai 
sunt, sed in iis etiam quae sunt corporis bono Fidelium 
consulat, Suae soUicitudinis esse putavit, ea praesidia quae in 
sua potestate sunt conferre Fidelibus, quae corporis vitaeque 
incoluinitati adversus morbi vim dominantis prodesse posse 
visa sunt. Quamobrem ministerio Sacri Consilii Supremae 
Romanae Universalis Inquisitionis utens, omnibus Archi- 
episcopis, Episcopis et locorum Ordinariis Catholici Orbis, 
cunctis in regionibus qua morbus de quo supra dictum est, 
incubuit, Apostolica auctoritate facultatem impertit, ut Fi- 
deles queis praesunt a lege solvant qua abstinentiam et 
jejunium servare tenentur, donee iisdem in locis ipsorum 
judicio, banc Apostolicam indulgentiam publicae valetudinis 
ratio et conditio requirat. Optat autem Sanctitas sua, ut 
dum Fideles Apostolica hac benignitate utuntur, studeant 
impensius piis vacare operibus, quas ad divinam clementiam 
demerendam valent. Quapropter eos hortatur, ut sublevan- 
dis caritate egenis, celebrandis ad preces et sacra officia 
templis, frcquentique sacramentorum usui ad Deum exoran- 
dum placandumque studiose dent operam,cum aperte pateat 
crebra quibus affligimur mala, ad divinam justitiam esse 
referenda, quas ob corruptos mores et late cxundantera 
flagitiorum colluviem justas poenas ab hominibus expetit. 

Romae, die 30 Januarii Anno 1890. 




ANALECTA LITURGICA sedulo collegit et in lucem protulit W. H. 
Jacobus Weale. Londini, Fascic. I— IV. 1889. 

This is quite a unique publication. Its primary object is to promote 
the study of Liturgy; but it does not propose to do so in the desultory 
manner of other liturgical periodicals. Its aim is apparently to bring 
together all the available matter from which a complete and accurate 
history of the liturgical books of the Western Church may be formed. 
The first step in this direction is a systematized examination of the Mis- 
sals and Breviaries in use in the Church of the Latin Rite. For the 
purpose of establishing a standard of comparison the author presents a 
complete Index, alphabetically arranged, of the Missal published and 
corrected by order of Pius V., the best known and most authentic of all 
the Roman Missals. A similar Index will be made of the Breviary. In 
another part we find the authorized Kalendars of the various Churches of 
Latin Rite, beginning with the Roman. These are also to have an index at 
the end, so that it will be easy to locate at once the church or churches 
in which particular saints were venerated. This is the character of the 
matter contained in the first two fasciculi. The third and fourth parts 
are of a somewhat different type. They contain a complete treasury of 
Latin Hymns which have not hitherto been published, that is, they are 
such as will not be found in the collections of Daniel, Mone, Neale, Gau- 
tier, and other acknowledged hymnologists. This we consider the most 
interesting and valuable portion of the work thus far, the more so as the 
notes which accompany the hymns bear the stamp of erudite criticism. 
This part is published under the joint editorship of Messrs. Misset and 
Weale, both evidently accomplished scholars. Besides these leading 
features the " Analecta" proposes to bring historical articles concerning 
liturgy and ritual, descriptive notices and reprints of inedited and in- 
accessible documents, as well as critiques of more recent works on liturgy. 
Contributions will be in Latin, English, French, or German. At pres- 
ent the work is issued only by subscription (limited to 500 copies) in 
quarterly numbers, making 400 pages royal octavo per annum, at a cost 
of One Pound. The style of publication is in excellent taste and bears 
the imprint of the famous Publication Society of St. Augustine (Descl6e, 


De Brouwer & Co.) in France, although the present copies are issued 
from the office of the principal Editor, Mr. W. H. James Weale, 15 in 
the Grove, Clapham Common, London, S. W. 

ST. BENEDICT'S PANIER. St. Meinrad, Ind. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 
The object of this Monthly is to popularize the devotion of the Holy 
Face, and accordingly to offer a weapon to priest and people against the 
irreverences arising out of the habit of swearing, the desecration of the 
Sunday, and similar vices. It is also the regular organ of the confraternity 
of the Holy Face, for the German speaking Catholics of the United 
States. The spirit and character of its contents need no commendation, 
as it is published by the Benedictine Fathers, whose special vocation 
it is to educate by means of writing. 

Dr. Masoin continues in this number his learned dissertation on Animal 
Magnetism. The paper has interest for the priest, proving as it does the 
physical and moral dangers of hypnotism There can be no doubt as 
to the frightful moral consequences resulting from hypnotism. "To 
say nothing," says the writer, of " the abdication of the will, under its 
despotic influence compromising letters and apocryphal wills are written, 
bills of imaginary credit or debt are signed, criminal attempts are made on 
property and on public and private morality, and the crimes are p)erpetrated 
on the instant, leaving no recollection thereof in the mind of the sub- 
jects after they have regained normal consciousness; these iniquities may 
be suggested from afar and accomplished with astonishing precision at 
the time appointed, the memory retaining no trace of any of the circum- 
stances which impose their commission.*' The medical dangers of 
hypnotism are to be treated in a following article. 

THE DUBLIN REVIEW. Jan., 1890. London : Burns and Gates. 
New York: Cath. Publ. Soc Company. 
This number offers a varied and highly interesting series of articles. 
Those of an ecclesiastical stamp are Anglicanism and Early British 
Christianity. By a member of tlu Cambrian ArchcBolog Assoc, and 
The Sacrifices of Masses, By Rev. Austin Richardson. The "object 
of the former paper is to test historically the identity alleged by Angli- 
cans of the present Church of England with the Church of Britain in the 
sixth and earlier centuries. The tests employed are monasticism, de- 
votion to the saints and to their relics, purgatory, chrism etc." The 


Other article is a refutation of a statement made by the Anglican Minis- 
ter, Mr. Gore, in his " Roman Catholic Claims, " that the 31st Article 
of the Anglican Creed is aimed against the doctrine (in the words of the 
Article * commonly ' taught) that, whereas Christ offered the Sacrifice of 
the Cross for the remission of Original Sin, He instituted the Sacrifice of 
the Mass for the remission of daily Actual sin, both mortal and venial. 
Mr. Gore, moreover, maintains "that this doctrine was taught by B. 
Abertus Magnus, and became current Catholic teaching." This double 
falsehood is ably refuted by Fr. Richardson. 

NOUVELLE REVUE TH^OLOGIQUE,, Tournai, Tom. xxi., No. 6, 

has an unusually large and important list of contents. We mention as 
of special importance the Resciipt of the S. Congr. de Propag. Fide, 
granting exceptional privileges to those who are actively interested in the 
work of the Society "for the Propagation of the Faith," through whose 
co-operation a number of our American missions have in the past been 
and are still maintained. We reserve a translation of the document 
for the next number of the "Review." — The S. Penitentiaria gives a 
decision, dated Sept. 24, 1887, but only recently published, authoriz- 
ing the bishop of Lucon in France to permit a Catholic magistrate to 
pronounce a civil divorce in a case where the petitioners appear to be 
contumacious, yet where the refusal to do so would bring considerable 
injury upon the syndicate. The magistrate is, however, required clearly 
to state that in his act he has regard merely of the civil contract, and that 
the bond of matrimony remains unbroken before God and in conscience. 

The decrees. of the Index Librorum prohibitorum since 1886 are 
given, and the Commentary on the constitution Apostolica Sedis is con- 

THE AVE MARIA. Notre Dame, Ind. vol. xxx, Nos. 1-6. 
In selecting for comment from the contents of Catholic Periodical Litera- 
ture in America and Europe such articles as are likely to prove of par- 
ticular interest to our readers, we not only aim at putting within their 
reach mnch useful information which is otherwise scattered, but we 
would also save them the labor of sifting and the time spent in tentative 
reading of much varied matter. 

In regard to the "Ave Maria" we could make no such selection 
We have glanced over its past volumes. Every page is redolent with the 
joy-inspiring odor of that Mystical Rose, whose praises the writers meant 



in one form or other to sing. We doubt, indeed, whether among our 
many superior periodicals in the English language there is one which 
has a greater claim to popularity than the "Ave Maria," both for the 
general excellence of its matter and for the graceful form in which it 
presents its fair gathering. We have seen grave theologians seek infor- 
mation and recreation in its unpretending pages, whilst many a young 
heart has imbibed zeal and courage for a good cause from its reading. 
A priest could hardly adopt a surer way of obtaining for himself the 
blessing of Christ's Holy Mother, "They who make me known and 
loved by others, will be of the number of the elect," than by introduc- 
ing this magazine among His flock. If we preach much in honor of 
Our Bl. Lady, this reading will confirm our work. If we have but rare 
opportunities of speaking about the august Queen of Heaven, ihic means 
'will supply our omission. 


quas in C- R. Universitate CEnipontana babuit Ferdinandus Aloys. 
Stentrup, S. J. Pars Altera. Soteriologia. Vol. I. pp. 696. 1888. 
Vol. II. pp. 1 176. 1889. CEniponte. Felic Raucb. Pustet &. Co- 

The first part (Christologia, pp. 1328.) of this elaborate treatise on the 
Incarnation appeared eight years ago, and received at that time high 
praise from competent critics. The present two volumes complete and 
aptly crown the entire work, enabling us, too, to form some estimate of 
the whole. — In the preceding portion Fr. Stentrup treats Chap. I. De 
Divinitate Persona in humatm natura existentis. Chap. II. De Natura 
Assumpta FiliiDei. Chap. I II. Z?^ Modo Assumplionis. A goodly chapter 
this latter, covering more than a thousand pacfes. But its contents are 
weighty and demand the thorough analysis filling its six sections: § i. 
Ontologica Christi Natura. § 2. Nestorii haresis. § 3. De ratione 
hypostaseos. § 4- Consectaria dogmatis depersonce in duabus naturis unitaie. 
§ 5. De duabus naturis distinct is et inter mixtis Christi. § 6. De 
naturce humance Christi dotibus et proprietatibus. This section is at once 
the most developed, interesting, and practical of this part of the work. Did 

" N. B. Through a printer's error a portion of Fr. Aertnys' Book review in the 
February number was misplaced. The part beginning at foot of page 153, to the 
end, belongs to page 159. 


our space permit, we would like to present the author's treatmeut of a 
question intimately connected with Christian art — a question not unfre- 
quently discussed by the secular press — that namely, which concerns the 
physical appearance of our Saviour. Fr. S. brings together the apposite 
passages of S. Scripture and of the early Christian writers under the two 
Theses (60-61): In err ore versari eos affirmamus, gut Christum de- 
forviem corpore atque oris specie fuisse arbitraniur — Probanda nobis eorunt 
sententia videtur, qui Dominum nostrum corpore pukhrum fuisse docent. 

Soteriology — the two volumes before us — opens with a chapter on the 
End of the Incarnation, i. e., Redemption. Having proved in Thesis I. 
that the Redemption of mankind was the end of the Incarnation, Fr. 
S. develops the Thomistic teaching on the disputed subject whether, in 
case man had not sinned, the Son of God would have become incarnate. — 
To the unthinking the question may appear of no special importance, 
yet to the theologian — Scholastic and Mystic — it is fruitful of weighty 
consequences. Of it De Lugo says: " Quccstio hcBC disputatur a S. 
Thoma et a theologis existimantibus earn esse ex dignioribus nostrcE theolo- 
gice" (De Inc. D. 7). S. Bonaventure, after mentioning the opposing 
tenets, goes on to say: " Quis autem horum modorum nulior sit, noroit iste, 
qui pro nobis incarnatus est. Quis etiam horum alteri prcBponendus sit, 
difficile est videre, pro eo quod uterque modus catholicus est et a viris catholicis 
sustinetur. Uterque etiam modus excitat animatn ad devoiionem secundu7n 
diver sas consider ationes" — the one being, as he says, ^'magis consonans 
Judicio rationis," the other '^ sicut appareat plus consonans pietati fidei, turn 
quod scripturcB Patrumque testimoniis consentanea magis sit, turn quod Deo 
magis honorifica sit, turn quod magis mysterium incarnationis commendel 
atque ardentius fideiium affectum inflammet." It was these reasons which 
inclined both the Seraphic and the Angelic Doctor to their view — the 
one defended by Fr. S. in the Thesis: " Videtur autem redemptio ita finis 
incarnationis fuisse, ut, homine non peccante, locum hcec non habuisset." 

Chap. II. treats of the necessity of the Divine decree regarding the In- 
carnation — showing that the necessity was not absolute, "imprimis quia 
Deo liberum fuit, hominem absque omni peccati remedio peccato et maledicto 
obnoxium relinquere" (Th. 3); moreover "quia aliis modis Deus 
humanum genus liberare a peccato potuisset" (Th. 4); " negari tamen 
nequit modum, quo Verbi incarnatione nos redemit esse convenientissimum '* 
(Th. 5); " et necessarium in hypothesi, quod divina justitia pro peccato 
nostri generis satis f actionem postularet adcequatam " (Th. 6). Twelve 



Theses are given in chap. III. to Our Lord's redeeming satisfaction *' ad 
normam plence justiticB ; " and nineteen more in chap. IV. to the work of 
Redemption in se objectivo. The treatment of Our Lord's Passion and 
Death (chap. V.) appears rather brief. The first three Theses run thus: 
' ' Omm genus malorum, quce humana malitia infligi possunt, Christus 
Dominus perpessus est (Th. 38). ** Interna Christi passio . . . seu dolor 
internus et tristitia, quern Christus tarn de malo culpce omnium et singulo- 
rum hominum quam de malo poena propria concipiebat^ adeo vehemens et acer 
erat, ut omnem dolorem quo pura creatures in studio vita afficiuntur longe 
super aret" (Th. 39). '' Externa .. .passio, seu dolor sensibilis, quern 
Christus tulit, merito creditur intensive maximus ita ut cmriem dolorem, 
quo homines affecti unquam sunt, excesserit" (Th. 40). 

These propositions are deduced from passages of Holy Writ and con- 
firmed by the arguments especially of SS. Thomas and Bonaventure. 
The deeper psychological principles on which they rest are discussed in 
the preceding volume. Fuller patristic illustration would have perfected 
their practical value. The volume closes with a chapter de descensu 
Christi ad inferos (Th. 45-53). 

The second part of Soteriology begins with a chapter (vii. Th. 54-65) 
de Resurrectione Christi, succeeded by another on Our Lord's Ascension 
(Th. 66-72). The next two chapters, de Sacerdotio Christi (Th. 73-1 25) 
zndi de Magisterio Christi {Th. 126-169), are the fullest and most inter- 
esting of this half of the work. The nature of Our Lord's Priesthood in 
itself, and in its sacrificial acts — on the cross, in heaven, on the altar, — is 
searchingly analyzed and widely illustrated. The treatise on the Euchar- 
istic Sacrifice is perhaps more fittingly placed here than in the tract 
of the Blessed Sacrament, for its real and logical connection with the 
Sacrifice offered in the Cenaculum and on Calvary can here be more 
clearly manifested. Some questions of frequent practical bearing are 
fundamentally examined in this chapter. We might instance art vii. (Th. 
117-120), wherein it is shown that the subject to whom the Mass may 
be applied " secundum omnem rationem fructus. ..sunt soli baptizati adulti 
viatores, " However, " nihil obstat quominus sacrificium eucharisticum ut 
impetratorium est, offeratur pro hominibus nondum sacro baptismi fonte 
ablutis." Moreover, whilst it may validly it cannot be licitly offered/or the 
excommunicatis vitandis vel toleratis. We remark here in passing that 
there is a misleading blunder in the wording of Th. 119 in the Index. 
" Pro iisdem '' is made to refer to the unbaptized of Th. 118; it should 


refer to excommunicatis vitandis of Th. 120. The magisterial office of 
Our Lord — in se tt in Ejus vita — is logically followed by His Kingdom, 
legislative and judiciary power, and the volume aptly ends with de 
Christo capite (ch. xii.). 

Taking the work as a whole, the complete analysis of its subject mat- 
ter, the ample development of its individual parts, the forcible and lucid 
setting forth of its arguments, place it not only in the front rank of mod- 
ern theological literature but by the side of the great productions of the 
earlier giant theologians. It is, of course, deeply indebted to the latter. 
Yet it is far from being a mere compilation. It is the expression of the 
real science, the sacra sapientia, that informs the mind of its author. 

It is to be regretted that in so extended a work, and one demanding 
such attentive study, more care was not taken to facilitate its reading by 
typographical aids — more marked divisions, headings, etc. An alpliab^ti- 
cal index is given at the close of each part. The usefulness of the work 
might have been enhanced by an analytical index — such, for instance, as 
accompany Fr. Mazella's or Dr. Jungmann's volumes. 

EPITOME EX VESPERALI concinnata ex Editionibus Typicis An- 
tiphonarii et Breviarii Romani cura et auctoritate Sacrorum Rituum 
Congregationis publicatis. Editio Stereotypica. — Ratisbonae, Neo 
Eboraci et Cincinnatii. Sumptibus, Chartis et Typis Friderici Pustet, 
S. Sedis Apostolicae et S. Rituum Congr. Typog. MDCCCXC. 

THE ROMAN VESPERAL according to the Vesperale Romanum for 
the Entire Ecclesiastical year. For the use of Catholic choirs and 
school-children. By Rev. John B. Jung, priest of the Diocese of Cleve- 
land. With the approbation of the Right Rev. R. Gilmour, Bishop of 
Cleveland, Ohio.— Fr. Pustet & Co. 

The Epitome has just been issued under the authority of the S. Congr. 
of Rites for the special convenience of parish churches where the regular 
Vespers are sung on Sundays and Festivals. It differs from the Roman 
Vesperal in this, that it does not contain the Vespers for every day in the 
year, such as ferials or minor and local Saints. It also omits everything 
which is not needed by the chanters; for example, the orations, chapters, 
etc., belonging to the celebrant. The book is accordingly the simplest 
and shortest form of Vespers for the singers on Sundays and feasts through- 
out the year in such churches and chapels where the ceremonies are 
usually carried out according to the Roman Liturgy. 

But in many of our congregations this accurate observance of the 
complete Vesper office is practically impossible. A choir, select or of 


children, or the entire congregation may be taaght to sing the Psalms 
and responses, but they could hardly master the changes of the Anti- 
phons belonging to particular feasts. This requires a certain familiarity 
with the Latin as well as with the details of the Roman Breviary, which 
can only be attained by special training. For the ordinary churches, 
therefore, where congregational singing and a general observance of the 
liturgical service is aimed at, the second volume, mentioned at the head 
of the review, although it is not a recent publication, will do excellent 
service. It contains the Vespers as they occur on Sundays and feasts, 
omitting the special antiphons. In all other respects it is complete. 
The fact that the organ-accompaniment in the latter book is in modem 
notation will probably recommend it as the more practical of the two 
works in the hands of organist and singers. As the author says: "it 
will take the priest only a minute to show the choir-master what Vespers 
are to be sung on the occurring Sunday or feast," and the service, 
rendered with spirit and exactness, will certainly increase devotion. 

DIE BISCHOFS-WEIHE nach der Lehre und Liturgie der Katholi- 
schen Kirche, von DR. OTTO ZARDETTI, Bischof von St. Cloud, 
Minn., Nordamerika. Mit 13 Phototypien nach alten Kupferstichen. — 
Druck u. Verlag: Benziger & Co., Einsiedeln. 

This beautiful little volume, published by a newly elected bishop on 
the eve of his consecration to the episcopal order, bespeaks the thought- 
fulness of him who, in assuming the high responsibility to which he is 
called, would enter into the spirit of that magnificent function by medi- 
tating its full meaning. And having realized " the sweet aroma of this 
feir flower,'' as he calls the sacred order, "surrounded by manifold leaves 
of holy ceremonies," he communicates to others, and above all to the 
Catholic faithful who might witness these sacred acts, the wonderful 
secrets which they contain. How true, what he says: "Too often 
there exists a great spiritual chasm between the faithful present in the 
nave of the church, and the ministers performing the sacred functions in 
the sanctuary." He argues eloquently in his preface in favor of popu- 
larizing the liturgy of the Church by explaining it in detail to the people, 
who many a time, when asked whether they understand what they see 
with their eyes, are forced to answer with the Aethiopian in the Acts of 
the .Apostles : " How can I, unless some one show me." 

The interpretation which Bishop Zardetti gives of the rite of episco- 
pal consecration is not drawn from devout sentiment and imagination, 


it rests upon a dogmatic foundation. And in this particular field the 
author has on previous occasions shown himself both erudite and exact. 
The book contains also the rite of consecration in full, according to 
the Roman Pontifical, so that it serves as a guide during the ceremony 
itself as well as an explanation of its many beautiful details. 

Friburgi Brisgoviae. Sumptibus Herder. MDCCCLXXXIX.— St. 
Louis, Mo. : B. Herder. 

We have already on occasion of the issue of the first two volumes 
referred to the high merits of this work, newly edited by Father Lehm- 
kuhl, S. J. The third volume, according to the title, contains the 
meditations on the Public Life of Our Lord, down to His Passion. It 
is introduced, however, by an instruction on the so called vita mixta, in 
which the active and contemplative spirit divide the life of the priest or 
religious. The opening two meditations are on the Life of St. John the 
Baptist, his preaching and humility. These are followed by the Life of 
Our Lord and the explanation of the parables which He made use of in 
His teaching. The fourth volume brings us down to Our Lord's Burial. 

PREACHING. By St. Alphonsus de Liguori, Doctor of the Church. 
Edited by Rev. Eugene Grimm, C. SS. R. — New York, Cine., Chicago: 
Benziger Bros. 1890. 

Among the many practical works which the holy Doctor wrote for 
the guidance of the clergy there is probably none, if we except his Moral 
Theology, which deserves so thorough a study on the part of those en- 
gaged in the active ministry as this one. We are almost inclined to find 
fault with the title of the book. It does not let you suspect the amount 
of solid instruction contained in the volume. It addresses itself mainly 
to the missionary, and treats of preaching, instructing, catechizing. But 
it does not simply lay down principles and precepts to guide us in the 
manner of these important functions of the Evangelical ministrj-. It 
takes up each part of the Christian discipline, the commandments, the 
sacraments, the primary devotions of Catholics, and teaches by exempli- 
fying the various portions of Christian doctrine in detail. The simple 
and popular style, which has made the devotional works of St. Alphonsus 
so accessible to all classes of persons, is also preserved here ; and the 
Saint strongly advocates simplicity both in method and expression as 
the first quality of the preacher and teacher which secures for him 


success. For those who find it necessary periodically to hold missions in 
their parishes we know of no better means to make their efforts lasting 
and proportionately fruitful, than to read this work over and over, and to 
make its methods a habit in their ministry of preaching and teaching. 

THE HIDDEN TREASURE ; or the value and excellence of the Holy 
Mass. Translated from the Italian of ST. LEONARD OF PORT 
MAURICE. -Benziger Bros. 1890. 

and Prayers for Lent. Translated from the German, by Rev. A. 
Geyer. To which are added Prayers and Devotions.— Benziger Bros. 

inary, Baltimore, Md- 
This is a modest but strong and worthy plea in behalf of the Colored 
Missions in the U. States. We need missionaries for the negroes, which 
is to say, we need priests of a more than ordinary spirit of self-sacrifice, 
and young men who are willing to become such. 

WHO WAS BRUNO ? A direct answer to a plain question. From 
the latest published documents. By John A. Mooney. New York : 
The Cath. Publ. Soc. Company. London : Burns & Gates. 1890. 
As soon as the enemies of Papal rule had determined to enact the 
Giordano Bruno scene in Rome, the Italian book-market was literally 
flooded with accounts of the life of the renegade. None of them added 
materially to what Signor Berti had published on the vile subject twenty 
years before in furtherance of his interests with the Piedmontese faction. 
But what was new about these books was their captious form, their 
infamous affrontery in title and tone, which in a thousand different 
shapes appealed to the vulgar curiosity and the political passions of a 
rabble maintained by the public works to the carrying on of which the 
confiscated church property of Italy has furnished means. Such books, 
illustrated, in prose and in verse, as the VUa anecdcHca di G. B.; La 
Confessione ; II Trionfo; Ixt Bestia trionfante and // Candtlajo from 
his own shameless pen, are enough to convince any impartial mind out 
of Giordano Bruno's mouth that he was a foul-hearted demagogue; 
these and the laudations of the honorable Sig. Bovio and II Professore 
Battaglini, together with endless editions of the lUustrazione Italiana 
and pictures and monographs of every description, called forth the 
indignant remonstrance of Catholic writers, who might have passed over 
the subject in silence but for the fear that the infectious literature would 


corrupt the unwary. The lives of Giordano Bruno from Catholic pens 
are altogether of an elevated character. The small volume by Rafiaele 
de Martinis, which was issued at Naples before the present excitement 
took definite shape in Rome, is an unprejudiced exposition of the facts 
of G. B.'s life, with the documents proving the former inserted at the 
end. Mr. Mooney has made use of this and Previti's work. But the 
best part of this brochure is the thorough good taste and rare humor 
with which the writer has made Signor Berti a witness against his 
brethren. It is pleasant reading, and gives us not only a clear statement 
of facts but a good insight into the character of the men who champion 
such moral and intellectual lepers as Giordano Bruno truly was. 

MISSALE ROMANUM ex Decreto Sacrosancti Concilii Tridentini 
restitutum S. Pii V. Pontif. Max. jussu editum, dementis VIII. Ur- 
bani VIII, et Leonis XIII auctoritate recognitum. EDITIO QUAR- 
TA JUXTA EDITIONEM TYPICAM. Ratisbonse, Neo Eboraci 
et Cincinnatii. Sumptibus, Chartis et Typis Friderici Pustet, S. 
Sedis Apost. et Sacr. Rit. Congreg. Typographi. MDCCCXC. 

The latest quarto-edition containing all the new masses in their proper 
places, this Missal needs hardly any recommendation. The mechanical 
features are as nearly perfect as the book-making art can produce them. 
We notice, however, an error which has been repeated in the later editions, 
containing the Mass of St. Philippus a Jesu (5 Feb. Propr. Miss, in 
aliquibus Dioecesibus Stat. Foederat. Americae) where Credo is added 
after the gospel. This is certainly wrong and can only be accounted 
for by the fact that the mass has been taken from the Franciscan missal 
or the Proprium of Mexico, where the Credo would be in place as 
belonging to the Patronus Ordinis or Loci. 


INSTITUTIONES LOGICALES secundum principia S. Thomae 
Aquinatis ad usum Scholasticum accommodavit TILMANNUS 
PESCH, S. J. Pars II. Logica Major. Volum. 2, continens logicam 
realem et conclusionem polemicam. Cum approbatione, etc.— Friburg^ 
Brisgoviae. Sumptibus Herder. MDCCCXC, St. Louis, Mo. : B. 
Herder. (Pr. $2.20.) 

KREUZWEGBUECHLEIN, Franziskanertext nebst taegl. Gebeten 
zu Ehren des bitteren Leidens Christi. Von Pr. Seeboeck, O. S. F. — 
New York : Fr. Pustet & Co. 



Vol. IL— May, 1890.— No. 5. 


THE canons of Ecclesiastical discipline state that the Bl. 
Sacrament is not to be publicly exposed except for 
grave reasons and with the permission of the Ordinary. ' By 
universal sanction and local statute certain days are set apart 
in every diocese, on which the Bl. Sacrament may be public- 
ly exposed, provided there be a sufficiently large gathering 
of the faithful, and nothing wanting to perform the. sacred 
function with due solemnity as regards liturgical chant, 
light, incense, vestments, servers, and whatever else is pre- 
scribed by the rubrics of the Ritual. In the United States 
solemn exposition of the Bl. Sacrament is permitted in every 
church and in the oratories of Religious, on all Sundays 
and holy-days of obligation ; on all feasts of double rite I 
and 1 1 class, even though they are not holy-days of obligation ; 
during the octave of Corpus Christi ; twice every week in 
Lent ; on each day during the time of a mission ; on the 
feast of the Sacred Heart ; during the Forty Hours' devo- 
tion ; every day during the month of October in conjunction 

' Expositio SS. Sacramerti facienda non est nisi ob causam publicam et gravem. 
S. C. Ep. 1 Sept. 1598. — Non licet sine licentia Episcopi ex levi caasa publice ex- 
ponere SS. Sacramentom. S. R. C. 12 June 1627. Deer, anlhent., n. 691. 



■with the Rosary devotions ordered by the present Sovereign 
Pontiff; finally, on all such days as the Ordinary may desig- 
nate or sanction. ' 

Gardellini, in his commentary on the Clementine Instruc- 
tion, dwells with emphasis upon the restrictions of the 
Sovereign Pontiff and the Sacred Congregations by which 
pastors of churches are warned against the too frequent 
public exposition of the M. Bl. Sacrament, lest the reverence 
due to the Sacred Mystery be thus lessened instead of being 
increased. " Multo melius est, tit non it a frequenter exponatur, 
et tunc cum debita reverentia, quam ut frequentius et sine debito 
obsequio et reverenticB significatione id fiat^ ' And again : 
" Or dinar ii locorum licentiam 7ion debent impertiri, nisi aut certi 
sint, quod debita cum reverentia sacra ilia functio per agatur, aut 
prcescribant modum, quo peragenda sit, quin ab co liceat de- 
clinare." ' In exceptional cases only can solemn Benediction 
be given twice on the same day in any one church ; always, 
however, with the express sanction of the Ordinary. 

Whilst these limitations are of strict binding force, and in- 
tended to guard the reverence of the faithful for it, it is never- 
theless a fact, that our Catholic people look upon exposition 
of the Bl. Sacrament as an almost essential portion of all 
public devotions. The Real Presence is the secret which 
draws them to the church, and indeed the beauty and at- 
tractiveness of our temples and shrines has no other sense 
than to point out the fact that they are truly the tabernacle 
of the Most High, Who speaks to His people there face to 
face. Even the most eloquent sermon of the preacher seems 
lacking in something if not followed by Benediction, and all 
other devotions could be satisfied in our homes but for the' 
blessing that comes to us afterward from the Saviour await- 
ing His burdened people upon the sacred mountain of the 
Christian altar. What are we to do? Can we allow those 
many beautiful devotions, which are so helpful in keeping 

' Cf. Decreta Cone. Plen. Bait. II. 

» Coram, ad Instr. Clem. XXXVI., n. 5. » Ibid. 


alive the spirit of faith and gratitude, and which have been 
sanctioned and are urjjed by the Church, to go into desuetude 
because we find it difficult to bring our people together for 
the practice of them in the church unless we can have 
solemn Benediction at these times? On the other hand, 
even if the Bishop gave permission to have the public ex- 
position on all occasions when a certain number of the faith- 
ful would join in special devotion, as during the afternoons 
or evenings of the months consecrated to the Sacred Heart, 
the M. Precious Blood, Our Bl. Lady, the Poor Souls, eta, 
the priest is frequently handicapped by the necessary absence 
of choir or organist, or servers, from performing the service 
with the solemn ceremonial required by the rubrics. — There 
is, however, a means to satisfy the devotion of our people and 
at the same time to free a priest from all embarrassing cir- 
cumstances in connection with it. This is what in liturgical 
language is called /rzV«/^ exposition of the M. Bl. Sacrament. 
At one time it was in common use in the Catholic Church. 
To day it is still practised in some parts of Italy, France, 
Canada, and wherever the excellent society of " Pretres Ad- 
orateurs," who make its practice and propagation their 
special object, exists. 


This form of exposition, the manner of which will be 
directly described, has the time-honored sanction of the 
Church and is treated of in her liturgical books. Its ad- 
vantages are the following : It requires no special permission 
of the Bishop ; it can be given at any time and to any number, 
however small, of persons ; it can dispense, if necessary, with 
chant, incense, servers, and other ceremonial requisites ; it 
requires no particular form of prayers, nor any other reason 
for imparting it than the devotion of the faithful or the will- 
ingness of a priest to give the time, short or long as he may 
wish, during which it lasts. Some of the objects specified 
for which it may be given are the conversion of sinners, re- 


covery of the sick, return of thanks for special graces, 
reparation of scandals, etc., even if but one person ask for the 
privilege. It may be announced to the people as taking 
place at stated times, whether it be to interest them in any 
particular good work, or simply to animate their faith and 

The private exposition of the M. Bl. Sacrament is so called 
because the Sacred Host is not openly exposed, but veiled, 
or according to others, because it requires no grave reason, 
but may be done from motives of private devotion. ' The 
following is the manner of performing the ceremony: — 

Six or more wax candles are lighted upon the altar of the 
Bl. Sacrament.' A priest, vested in surplice and stole,* 
takes the Tabernacle key and with folded hands and head 
covered with the birctum goes to the foot of the altar. 
Here he genuflects, then ascends the altar, opens the Taber- 
nacle, genuflects and moves the pyxis (ciborium) containing 
the M. Bl. Sacrament close to the door, so that it may be seen 
by the faithful. He is not permitted to take it out of the 
Tabernacle. " Si quandocumque privata ex causa Sacro- 
sancta Eucharistia exponenda videbitur, a Tabernaculo nun- 
quam extrahatur, sed in Pyxide velata, in aperto ejusdem 
Tabernaculi ostiolo. . . . collocetur." * He then genuflects on 
one knee, descends to the foot of the altar, and incenses, if 
possible, the Bl. Sacran^ent. ' He can then recite prayers in 
the Vernacular, so that the people may join in them. At the 

' Cum nullis Ecclesiae legibus, publica causa et Episccpi facnltas necessario re- 
quirantur. Inst, Clem., 1. c. n. lo. 

* Cum numero convenienti lumiiium. S. C. Ep. i Sep. 1598. Cum sfx saltern 
luminibus cereis. S. C Ep. 9 Dec. 1602. 

' Although the Decrees say simply " cum assistentia alicujus sacerdotis stola et 
snperpelliceo induti," the stole should ordinarUy be white, llie cope is not to be 

* S. C. Cone. 17 Aug. 1630; Cf. Instr. Clem. 1. c n. 11. 

* Although the incensing is not obligatory, Cavalieri, cited by Gardellini, says: 
Expositio et repositio hujusmodi, quamvis Sacramentum e Tabernaculo non extr.iha. 
tar, fiet ritn ordinario, nempecum incensatione, genoflexiouibas, aliisqne, etc.— 1. c. n. 


end it would be proper to sing or say the " Tantum Ergo," 
the Versicle " Panem de coelo " and the oration " Deus qui 
nobis sub sacramento mirabili." He may add to this the 
prayer "Pro quacumque necessitate," or any other found 
in the missal and corresponding to the character of the devo- 
tion. ' The adoration finished, the priest ascends the altar, 
genuflects on one knee, removes the Pyxis back to its place, 
genuflects, and closes the Tabernacle. Me may then give 
the blessing from the altar: " Benedictio Dei omnipolentis, 
Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti descendat super vos et 
maneat semper," making the sign of the cross with his hand 
over the people. But it is never allowed on these occasions 
to give the blessing to the people with the Pyxis, as is done 
when the Bl. Sacrament is carried to the sick. ^* Non licet 
Sacram Pyxidcm e Tabernaculo extraherc et cum ea benedi- 
ctionem populo impertiri* To do this requires an acknowl- 
edged custom* or a special privilege, which has been rarely 
accorded by the Sovereign Pontiff. One instance of it in re- 
cent times is the concession made by Leo XIII at the request 
of the sacred Congregation in behalf of poor churches, where 
the October devotions of the M. H. Rosary cannot be per- 
formed with the requisite solemnity prescribed for public 
exposition by the Ritual.* This applies only to the October 
devotions and to poor churches, and is an exceptional 
privilege not to be used without the sanction of the 
Ordinary, nor to be extended to other times and places. ' 
Thus we are enabled without inconvenience to satisfy the 
devotion of our people at all times, and to bring together at 

' " Post orationem consuetam SSi. Sacramenti addi poterit collecta pro ingrneoti 
necessitate." Cav. 1. c. 

* Instr. aem. 1. c. n. 26. * S. R. C. 16 Jan. 1886. 

* Cf. American Eccl. Revirw, Sept. 1889, page 353. 

* Attentis specialibas circnmstantiis ecdesiarum pauperom in qaibas prsescripta 
exposiiio SS. Sacramenli solemni modo seu per ostensoriam fieri nequeat absqae in- 
commodo, eadem per modum exceptionu peragi poterit, prudenti judicio Ordinarii, 
cam sacra Pyxide, aperiendo scilicet ab initio ostiolam ciborii et cam ea popalum io 
fine benedicendo. Die 4 Feb. 1886. Dec. aath. 5957 ad IV. 


least a few who during those special seasons of grace will 
cooperate with us in building up the strong walls of the 
parish, which are the piety of its faithful children offering 
glory, love, reparation to Him Who dwells in the midst of 
us, the Holy One of Israel, Our Saviour. 


Management of Christian Schools. By the Brothers of the Christian 
Schools. New Fork, 1887. 

A History of Education. By F. V, N. Painter . New York, £>. Ap- 
pleton & Co., 1887. 

DR. VV. T. Harris conceived the happy idea of editing an 
international educational series of books on the same plan 
as the well-known international scientific series published 
by the Appletons. This volume of Prof. Painter's is a 
contribution to the series. We regret that we cannot rec- 
ommend the volume to our Catholic readers. It is evident- 
ly modelled after the Histoire Universelle de la Pedagogic of 
Paroz. But our recollections of Paroz's volume are that it 
was far more fair-spoken than the one before us. Had the 
professor contented himself with translating Paroz, he would 
have given us a better book. In treating Catholic education, 
he has imported into his work all the bile and bitterness of 
Raumer. But scant justice is consequently done to the 
grand r61e played by the Church and by great Catholic 
educators in the work of education. If F6nelon is praised it 
is because the professor has mistaken him for a Jansenist. 
We do not accuse the author of deliberately misrepresenting 
us. In all probability he never set foot within a Catholic 
institution ; still less likely is it that he ever made a careful 
study of our Catholic schools and their methods. The 
sources from which he drew were poisoned. " It was in the 
library of the university of Bonn," he tells us, " nearly four 


years ago, as I sat before an alcove of educational works 
and leisurely examined the admirable histories by Raumer 
and Karl Schmidt, that the thought and purpose of prepar- 
ing this work were first conceived.' Later on he acknowl- 
edges his indebtedness to these works. Most valuable aids 
they are to the student of pedagogy, when he has antidotes 
to counteract the bigotry and prejudice pervading them. 
Pity it was he did not give more attention to Slockl, and the 
great work of Father Denifle, then just published. 

The author's omissions in treating his subject are con- 
spicuous. He ignores the educational development of Spain, 
and yet La Fuente, among others, would have enlightened 
him upon the great part Spain took in the education of 
Europe. He has no word upon the educational progress of 
Italy. A glance at Tiraboschi would have shown him the 
magnitude of Italy's claims as an educator. The smaller 
works of- Everardo Michele, Ceruti, and Milanese would 
have brought the subject home to him still more directly. 
True, all three are Catholic writers, but we can assure him 
that they are none the less trustworthy. Even when treat- 
ing of education in France, the professor finds no place for 
the work of Blessed de la Salle. And yet, in another 
volume of this same series, we find that educator character- 
ized as follows: "A man of progressive, modern thought, 
he introduced, besides normal schools, gradation and ob- 
ject-lessons, and established industrial schools, polytechnic 
institutes, and reformatories." * Blessed de la Salle is es- 
pecially identified with the Simultaneous Method. It shall 
be the purpose of the present paper to trace this method 
from its first dawnings to its full application by Blessed de 
la Salle. It is a study that has not been made in any peda- 
gogical work that has come under our notice ; it therefore 
cannot fail to interest the educator. 

' Preface. 

' Boone : Education in tht United States, p. 136. 



First, let us explain what is meant by the Simultaneous 
Method. There are three recognized methods of teaching. 
The first is that of hearing and explaining the lesson of each 
child apart, while the others may be studying. It is called 
the Individual Method. The second is that of having the 
more advanced pupils in a class to teach the less advanced 
ones under the general supervision of the master. This 
method was brought from India by Bell and was popular- 
ized by Lancaster. It is known as the Mutual Method. 
The third is that of grading the children according to their 
capacity, putting those of the same capacity in the same 
class, and having them to use the same book and follow the 
same lesson under one and the same master. It is the 
Simultaneous Method. Now, all teaching is done by one or 
other of these methods, separately or combined.* But at 
the present day, the method most in vogue, and which has 
best stood the test of time and experience, is that with which 
the Brothers of the Christian Schools are identified, and 
which is known as the Simultaneous Method. 

Like all fruitful ideas, the Simultaneous Method is not the 
exclusive property of any one man. Others discerned its 
value, and even partially applied its principle, long before 
Blessed de la Salle made it live in his work. We do not 
find it in the University methods of the middle ages. The 
mere listening to a lecture, taking notes upon it, and holding 
disputations over it, is far different from the Simultaneous 
Method. Nor does it seem to have been followed in the 
Grammar Schools. We cannot recognize it in the picture of 
them that Erasmus has transmitted to us. Here is the 
unsympathetic manner in which he speaks of the grammarians 
of his boyhood : " A r^ce, of all men the most miserable, 
who grow old at their work, surrounded by herds of boys, 
deafened by continual uproar, and poisoned by a close, foul 
atmosphere ; satisfied, however, so long as they can over- 

• See Management of Christian Schools, p. 34. 



awe the terrified throng by the terrors of their look and 
speech, and while they cut them to pieces with ferule, birch, 
and thon<j, gratify their own merciless natures at pleasure." ' 

The Jesuits organized each class in subdivisions; each 
subdivision being headed by an advanced pupil called a decu- 
rion, to whom the boys recited their lessons at stated times, 
while the master corrected exercises or heard the lessons of 
special boys. The whole class afterwards received explana- 
tions from the master. Order and discipline reigned. 
Emulation prevailed. The picture drawn by Erasmus be- 
came an impossibility in their schools. But this is not the 
Simultaneous Method. And above all, it only slowly dawned 
upon the masters of the primary schools to introduce these 
improvements into their methods of teaching. Theirs was 
exclusively the Individual Method. Each pupil passed in 
turn before the master, said his lesson, returned to his place, 
and moped, or studied, or amused himself as best it pleased 
him or as dread of the birch permitted. Such a system nec- 
essarily brought with it disorder and confusion in the school, 
and led to loss of time on the part of the scholar. The 
consequent evil was irreparable for the poor child, whose 
school-days were limited. He quitted school, fortunate if he 
had learned his catechism and how to spell throuy:h his 
Psalter; rarely fortunate if he had advanced sufficiently to 
read in his mother-tongue and to write a letter. The child 
preparing for college spent seven or eight years endeavor- 
ing to learn that which might have been mastered in half the 

In 1610, the evils of the system are spoken of in a me- 
morial dealing with the government of the University. It 
is beginning to dawn upon men's mind that the old way 
might not, after all, be the best way. This memorial is the 
first emphatic protest in France that we have come across 

• Encomium Maria. We mast rememlicr that Erasmus, like Luis Vives, is a 
reactionist against the old methods and an enthusiastic admirer of the New Learn- 
ing. Allowance should be made for their exaggerated statements as reactionists. 


against the old way. The memorialist feels the necessity of 
some method for regulating the studies and the teaching of 
children, and for preparing youths better for their University 
course. " Since our members," says he, " depend principal- 
ly upon the primary institutions, just as good health and 
natural complexion depend upon the milk we take in infancy, 
it is due to the prudence of the Magistrate, with the aid and 
counsel of experts, to provide some method to be used in 
the education of the children ; for doctrine without method 
is like a torch under a barrel, consuming itself without giving 
out a profitable light." ^ He sees no reason why children 
might not learn in four years all that, in his day, it took 
them eight or nine to learn. He appeals to experienced 
teachers to devise some means out of this roundabout meth- 
od, which consumes so much valuable time.' To realize 
an evil is one thing ; to remedy it is quite another. The 
University was too taken up with the struggle for its own 
existence against the encroachments of the separate collegiate 
system, to occupy itself with elementary schools. The evil 
grew apace. Elementary education in France reached its 
lowest degree of confusion during the first half of the seven- 
teenth century. ' The numerous wars of this period left 
little time and less inclination for the cultivation of peaceful 
pursuits. The eyes of the natural custodians of society were 
so dimmed by the dazzling brilliancy of the court of the 
Grand Monarch, they could no longer perceive the evils 
festering at their own doors. 


Blessed Peter Fourier (i 565-1640) saw in Christian educa- 
tion the remedy for many of the disorders existing among 

' M^moires pour le R^glement de I'Universit^. 1610. Bibl. nat. Printed Matter. 
Paris University (Gencralit^s). 1073. 24 1 15-2130, p. 17. 

' Ibid. p. 19. 

• Boutiot, Histoire de I'lnstruction publique et populaire ^ Troyes pendant les 
quatre derniers siicles. Troyes, 1865. p. 9. 


the poor and the laboring class. ' He was a far-seeing man, 
and anticipated more than one of our modern social improve- 
ments. In 1597, he attempted to organize a religious teach- 
ing order for boys. But the four young men whom he had 
brought together for the purpose abandoned him. The 
work was reserved for another no less worthy. However, 
Peter Fourier was more successful in organizing religious 
teachers for girls. Providence blessed and fructified his labors 
in this direction beyond his greatest hopes. He lived to see all 
Lorraine peopled by the Congregation of Notre Dame, which 
still remains a monument and a witness to his zeal and his 
enlightened views. He gave this sisterhood a rule and con- 
stitution. It was first printed in 1640. The second edition, 
bearing date of 1694, now lies before us. ' Therein the saint- 
ly author lays down rules for the management of scholars, 
and methods of teaching such branches as are usually taught 
in elementary schools. To attempt to trace the history of 
pedagogy without allusion to this remarkable book is an 
unpardonable oversight. There is wisdom in every line. 
It ranks by incontestable right and title the parish-priest 
of Mattaincourt among great educators. But even our 
Catholic historians of pedagogy do but scant justice to the 
Blessed Peter Fourier. Stockl * simply touches upon the 
personality of the man, and dismisses his works with a 
hasty notice of the Congregation of Notre Dame. Not a 
word has he about the method embodied in the Constitu- 
tions. And yet, the analysis of that method would not have 
been unworthy of a Stockl. We shall note its salient points. 
The principle of the Simultaneous Method is, for the first 
time, clearly stated: "The inspectress, or the mistress of 

' Rev, p. Jean Bedel, La Vie du Rev. Pierre Fourier. Paris, 1666. 

• Lesvraies Constitutions des Reli^'ieuses de la Congregation de Nostre Dame. 
S^conde Edition. A Toul, 1694. At the end of the volume we read: La pr^sente 
copie des Constitutions. . . . a <t«5 fidilcment extraite sur son vray original sain et 
entier, et Script de sa propre main, et se conforme de mots i autres, par le sub- 
script Notaire Apostolique. Ainsi sign^, F. Tabourin. 

» Lehrbuch d<?r Geschichtc der PaHagogik, p. 339. 


class, shall endeavor, as far as it possibly can be carried out, 
that all the pupils of the same mistress have each the same 
book, in order to learn and read therein all together the 
same lesson ; so that, whilst one is reading hers in an audi- 
ble and intelligible voice before the mistress, all the others, 
hearing her and following this lesson in their books at the 
same time, may learn it sooner, more readily, and more per- 
fectly.'" Read it how we may, it is the principle of the 
Simultaneous Method whole and entire. And yet, when 
this great man — who was in advance of his age upon every 
subject that he touched— entered into details of practice, he 
lost sight of the principle which he had laid down. In the 
very next paragraph, it is regulated that the mistress call 
up two pupils at the time and place them one at each side 
of her seat. Then, the author continues : " The more 
advanced shall read her lesson ; the other shall listen to her, 
shall correct all the faults she may make, whether in using 
the wrong words, or in pronouncing badly, or in not making 
the proper pauses. When she has finished her lesson, the 
other one shall read hers, and her companion shall likewise 
correct all her mistakes."' These two having read, two 
others shall come forward, and so on till the class is all 
heard. And here enters a rule that throws light on the 
source whence the European peasantry imbibed that gen- 
tleness and urbanity for which they are noted : " According 
to the number ot mistakes she has made, she shall say an 
Ave Maria for the companion who has corrected her." * 
Elsewhere in the same chapter we read : " If any mistakes 
are made in reading, and they are not corrected by the com- 
panions of the readers — leiirs compagnes apari^es — the mis- 
tress shall gently correct them at the time."* The nearest 
the saintly author comes in practice to the Simultaneous 
Method is when, speaking of the younger children, he says: 
■** In order the more easily to make the very young children 

• Constitutions, p. iii., ch. xi. sec. 6, p. 54. 

• Ibid., sec. 7, p. 54. • Ibid. ♦ Ibid. sec. 2, p. 52. 


profit of the lesson, the mistress shall take four or six at the 
time, of about equal capacity, and while one is reafling, the 
other five shall follow in their books, saying after her the 
same words in a low tone." * With beginners, he would 
have the Simultaneous Method practised on particular oc- 
casions: "Sometimes they shall be exercised all together, 
by pointing out to them on a large card, and making them 
say, all the letters in a syllable and all the syllables in a 
word."" Again Blessed Fourier devotes a special chapter 
to his method. The chapter is an admirable one. It grades 
the school into three chief divisions ; * it assigns special teach- 
ers to each bench when there is need for them ; * it places 
pupils of the same capacity on the same bench ; * it attempts 
to inspire at the same time devotion to the Blessed Virgin 
and an esprit de corps among the pupils of the same bench, 
by putting each under the patronage of Our Blessed Lady 
according to her feasts ; ' it seeks to create emulation 
by having a bench of honor and a bench of disgrace. * 
Here, also, the method that runs through the whole book — 
the method that is peculiar to Blessed Fourier — is distinctly 
stated : '■'■ Each mistress shall pair all her pupils^ placing them 
two by tivo, one with the other; placing together those most 
alike, not in age, or quality, or affection, but in knowl- 
edge ; in order that they may hear and correct each other, 
and piously compete for the first place, in recitation of 
prayers and catechism, and in reading." * 

Such is the method of Blessed Peter Fourier. Sometimes 
he would exercise a class of beginners all together from large 
reading cards hung up in a conspicuous place ; sometimes 
he would have all those learning to spell to work together 
under the dictation of the same mistress ; sometimes he 
would have the more advanced, when learning to read Latin, 
brought before the teachers in groups of four or six at the 

' Ibid., sec. 4, p 53. • Ibid., p 53. » Chap, vi., sec. 2, p. 19. 

* Ibid., sec. 7, p. 20. ' Ibid., sec. 7, p. 20. • Sec. 8, p. 21. 

^ Ibid., sec. 11, pp. 22, 23, 24. ' Chap, vi., sec 10, pp. 21, 22. 



time ; always he would have the most advanced pupils 
heard two by two, each reciprocating the corrections of the 
others. This is indeed a great improvement upon the Indi- 
dividual Method. We are greatly indebted to Abb6 Pier- 
fitte ' and to M. G. Du Bols ' for having called the attention 
of the pedagogical world to the rich treasures contained in 
the Constitutions. But when they tell us that this is the Sim- 
ultaneous Method pure and simple, they are calling it that 
which it is not. Equally great a misnomer is it to call the 
act of two children correcting each other under the eye of a 
teacher the Mutual Method. The essence of the Mutual 
Method is the dispensing with the teacher altogether. It is 
the pupil instructing the pupil. In the method of Peter 
Fourier it is still the teacher who instructs. The pupil's 
corrections are only for the purpose of keeping up attention. 
We may well call that method the Reciprocal Method. It 
is this method we find recommended in the teacher's manual 
for the city of Paris, the Ecole Paroissiale, edition of 1654: 
" Those who go to the master to read shall present themselves 
but two at a time. . . . The master shall call the writers to his 
desk, two by two, to correct their exercises." * 


Another thinker and educator, in another part of Europe, 
about the same time, in the midst of wanderings and perse- 
cutiong, sought to solve the problem of educating the great- 
est number, in the least time, and with the smallest pains. 
Komensky (1592-1671)* was an ardent admirer of Bacon, 
and applied his inductive method to its solution. From the 

' Paper read before the Congress of Blois, 1884. 
» L'Univers, Dec. 17, 1887. 

* 3>ne partie, chap. iv. 

* Komensky — Comenius— takes his name from his native village of Komna, in 
Moravia. He suppressed his family name on account of the persecutions to which 
he was subjected as a Moravian bishop. He held wild philosophic vagaries, which 
he pretended to draw from the Old Testament. (See Franck, Dictionnaire des 
Sciences Philosophiques, Art. Comenius) 


physical world he drew analogies for the intellectual world. 
This led him to fanciful and extravagant inferences. But 
he was observant ; he learned much from the systems of 
others, and feared not to borrow from them whatever he 
considered good and useful. Upon the Janua Linguarum of 
Father Bathe of the Irish College at Salamanca — a book 
which had been translated into eight languages by 1629 — he 
modelled, even to the very name, his more popular Janua 
Linguarum Rescrata. ' From Ratich he learned to unite the 
study of words with the study of things. From the Ratio 
Studiorum he inserted many a detail of practice and princi- 
ple in his Didactica Magna. 

Komensky asks : " How can one teacher suffice for any 
number of pupils whatever?" He replies by saying that 
not only can he suffice, but that it is for the benefit of the 
class that there be a large number, inasmuch as it excites 
sympathy and emulation.* As the sun sheds its rays upon 
the whole earth, so should the master instruct his whole 
class ; each and all, intent of eyes and ears and minds, re- 
ceiving from him whatever instruction he imparts. There- 
fore he should not instruct single pupils privately, outside of 
school-hours, nor publicly in school, but — onines simiil et 
setnel — all together at one and the same time. * All of the 
same capacity should have the same book. All should listen 
in silence to the master. In order to lessen the fatigue of 
the master, he should be assisted by decurions in correcting 
the exercises. That he may control the attention of his 
pupils, he should frequently question them promiscuously 
on what has been said. * One teacher, one book, one lesson 
for all in the same grade : this is an approximation to the 
Simultaneous Method. Charles Hoole (1610-1666) intro- 

• "Inasmuch as they (the Jesuits) were the prime inventors, we thankfully 
acknowledge it." Preface to Anchoran's translation, 1639. See Quick's Educational 
Rtformeri, pp. 63-65. 

* See S. S. Laurie, John Amos Comenitu, p. 105. Eng. Ed. 

• Didactica Magna, Amsterdam, 1657. Col. 103. 

* Ibid., col. 104. His whole method is embodied in chap. xix. 


duced this method of Komensky into England with most 
success. ' His school was efficient and a model of good 
order. He attempted to propagate the method in a little 
work called The New Discovery of the Old Art of Teaching. * 
But the method did not take root in England. Indeed, the 
influence of Komensky was not lasting. Rousseau and Pes- 
talozzi followed in his track, and unawares re-discovered 
many of his principles, " Comenius," says Buisson, "estab- 
lished nothing durable and definite ; he was simply an ad- 
mirable precursor." ' The only part of his system that has 
survived, may be summed up in the formula: *' Let all 
things be taught to all." Now this is an educational fallacy. 
The mind simply stuffed with facts is not an educated mind. 
The mind so trained and disciplined that it knows how to 
use its knowledge to purpose and advantage, is alone the truly 
cultured mind. * 

M'jfr. de Nesmond (1629-1715), Bishop of Bayeux, inde- 
pencicnflv of Komensky, was working at the same problem of 
method. In 1672, he distributed among his clergy a Plan of 
Instruction and Education for Primary Schools. * We have 
before us, for our use, a beautiful copy, bound in vellum, of 
the Pastoral and the Method. The Pastoral bewails the 
absence of schools and the lack of competent masters. It 
recites the strenuous efforts made by the early Fathers and 
the Councils of the Church in behalf of Christian education. 
It prohibits the holding of schools in churches and chapels. * 
This was at one time a general custom in country places and 

Next comes the bishop's method. He wrote it in answer 
to the question : How may large classes be taught in a 
short time by a single master? He enters into so many 

' Quarterly Journal of Education, 1867, p. 262. 

• There is a copy of this rare book in the Bodleian Library. 

• Dictionnaire de Pidagogie, Art. Comenius. 

• See S. S. Laurie on Comenius, p. 220. 
» Diet, de Pid., Art. Nesmond. 

• Ordonnance 1662, p. 56. 


practical details, and puts such good sense into all he says, 
one feels that if he were not a bishop he might have become 
an eminent educator. In the first place, he would classify 
all the children of the school. "The master shall divide his 
school into four or five benches, according to the number and 
capacity of his scholars." ' He then assigns to each bench 
the children occupied with the same subject. The division 
is instructive as revealing an order of things difllerent from 
that prevailing to-day. The most advanced scholars are 
placed on the first bench, and they are supposed to learn 
how to read French and manuscripts, and how to write and 
work arithmetic. In the second bench are placed "those 
who read passably well in their Hours." The book of 
Hours contained certain offices of the Church in Latin, and 
the child was to read therein before he had learned to read 
in his mother-tongue. A few years later, Blessed de la Salle 
— amid much opposition and many protests from bishops 
and clergy — introduced the method of teaching the child to 
read his mother-tongue before reading the Latin. 

In the next place, to each bench he would assign the same 
book. " We give the same book to each bench," he says, 
" simply in order that all the children on that bench may 
receive the same lesson, and when one begins to read, the 
others may read in a low voice at the same time." * This is 
a decided improvement on Peter Fourier's system of reading 
by two's. Like Komensky, Mgr. de Nesmond goes to the 
root of the difficulty connected with this method, by showing 
how the children's attention is to be sustained ; for, he adds 
in another place, without this attention, " the method would 
not only be a delusion, but irksome, and even unbearable." * 
The means he would adopt is the only rational one : " And 
in order to oblige those children — who should all have the 
same lesson and the same book — to read in a low tone of 
voice what one of their companions reads aloud, it were well 

' Mithode pour imtruire tn ptu de Temps les En/ants, p. 59. 
« Ibid., p. 60. » Ibid., p. 65. 


sometimes to take them by surprise, and to make those least 
expecting it continue the lesson." ' 

The wisdom of his remarks has not grown old. They are 
as true to-day as they were in his da}'. They apply as well 
to our class-rooms in America as to the little country-schools 
for which he was legislating. In order to awaken the child's 
intelligence, he suggests that the master be not too prompt 
in naming a word over which the child hesitates, but rather 
to let the child spell it and make it out for himself." He 
would have the lessons short." It is of great advantage for 
children to do a little and to do that little well.* Commence 
by the more advanced pupils, so that the others may learn 
from them, and that the former may be occupied during the 
remainder of the school-hours in writing and arithmetic* 

The daily regulation is no less instructive. It reveals 
customs that are gone out of use. School opens at seven in 
summer and at eight in winter. The scholars bring their 
breakfast with them. They are taken to Mass two by two. 
Upon returning to the school, they shall say grace before 
breakfast, standing ; during the meal, one of the more ad- 
vanced scholars shall make public reading either from the 
Lives of the Saints or some othe pious book, unless the 
master himself should choose to entertain them with their 
defects or their duties." Here the page is lit up with a 
beautiful trait of Christian charity. It is recommended that 
a pupil go around with a basket and collect food for the 
poor scholars having none, taking care that insinuating or 
flattering children do not deprive themselves in order to 
gain the good graces of the master or of him making the 
collection. To this little touch of nature is added this other 
touch of grace : " And the poor shtill say a Pater and Ave 
for those among their companions who have acted so chari- 
tably." ' La Salle regulated the matter after a more gentle 
manner — and one less calculated to take away the merit of 

» Methode, p. 64 « Ibid,, p. 65. ^ ibid., p. 66. 

< Ibid., p. 68. » Ibid. « Ibid., p. 72. ' Ibid., p. 75. 


the act of charity by vanity or other human motive. The 
master should see that the pupils bring some breakfast, 
without however forcing them to do so. A basket is placed 
in the corner for whatever the children cannot use. This is 
distributed to the poor children who have come without any 
breakfast, and the master shall exhort them to pray to God 
for their benefactors. They must understand, furthermore, 
that if they are allowed to eat in school •' it is that they may 
learn to eat with wisdom, modesty, and in a becoming man- 
ner, and to pray to God before and after their meal." ' All 
this brings us back to other days, when poverty was general- 
ly allied to scholarship. In the fourteenth century we find 
the children of the College called Bons Enfants going out 
daily to beg for their sustenance. * 

In the fifteenth century the poor students of Montaigu 
College went to the neighboring Carthusian monastery to 
beg their daily pittance with the other indigent poor. We 
know how mercilessly Rabelais lashes these Montaigu spar- 
row-hawks — esparviers de Montaigu — as he calls them. * The 
spirit of charity and prayerfulness reigned everywhere dur- 
ing these ages of faith, and healed the misery and supplied 
the indigence of poor master and poor scholar. These 
things are of the past ; but they are the welding and cement- 
ing elements that have made of the past a strong foundation 
on which to build up the present and the future. This 
inculcating of charity and gentleness and unselfishness was 
the refining and educating factor in mediaeval life. 

But we cannot linger longer over the interesting little 
book of Mgr. de Nesmond. We have found it a precious 
landmark in the history of pedagogy. The author groups 
and classifies the scholars ; with Peter Fourier, he gives 

' Conduite dts Ecoles Chritiennes. 1720. Chap, ii., art. i., p. 8. 
' Dii des Crieries dt Paris : 

" Les Bons-Enfans orrez crier: 

Da pain! n'es veuil pas oablier." 
' Garganlua, Hv. I., ch. 37. 


those on the same form the same book ; with Komensky, he 
appoints officers to hear repetition of catechism, serving at 
Mass, and other memory-lessons, while a class is reading 
before the master ; but he has not conceived the Simul- 
taneous Method. 


About 1675, Charles Demia, a zealous and enlightened 
priest, founder of the Brethren of St. Charles, drew up rules 
for the schools of the city and diocese of Lyons. * They run 
along the same lines as those of Mgr. de Nesmond. The 
scholars are divided up into bands according to their ca- 
pacity. The more advanced pupils taught those less ad- 
vanced. " M. Demia," says Ravelet, " had the intuition of 
the mutual system of teaching ; at least he appealed to the 
good will of the older pupils, and established among them 
dignitaries who aided the master." * In his general remarks 
upon reading he lays stress : " i. That children of the same 
band be of the same capacit}' ; 2. that they have the same 
book, in the same print, and the same lesson ; 3. that each 
one follow, holding his finger or marker on the word that is 
being read." ^ He further introduced a system which Vener- 
able Caesar du Bus had borrowed from the Jesuits, and had 
applied to the free schools that he began to establish in 1592 ; 
namely, that of public disputation among the pupils on all 
the branches taught — catechism, arithmetic, spelling, polite- 
ness, and we are told, even " the method of making mental 
prayer " — those distinguishing themselves receiving clothes 
or other necessary articles according to their wants. 

In this manner were earnest educators groping towards 
the light, and out of chaos seeking to make order. But these 
were the exceptional souls of this period. The large majority 
ran in the old grooves. Small pa3--schools multiplied. Even 

* Riglements pour Us Ecoles de la Ville et Diocise de Lyon. 
» Histoire du Venerable J. B, de la Salle, Ed. 1874, p. 64. 

• Buisson, Diet, de Pedagogie, Art. Lecture. 


many of the clergy, especially in country places, kept pay- 
schools for small boys, as a means of subsistence. ' It had 
been decreed by law that no child should be retained in a 
private school beyond his ninth year completed. * But the 
statutes were ignored or defied. Boys were retained years 
beyond their limitations. Professors were engaged for 
various branches, and the private elementary school soon 
grew into an academy rivalling the University colleges. 
The University complained. Its halls were becoming de- 
serted. We find it bringing action at law against that most 
active, most domineering, and most combative of Precentors, 
Claude Joly, for licensing so many small boarding-schools. 
In the course of its argument, the University says : " Method- 
mongers, like searchers after the philosopher's stone, have 
always been in vogue, but it does not seem that they ever 
succeed.... It is safer and more advantageous to have 
children pass regularly through the ordinary college classes. 
It may be longer, but it is surer." ' The University here 
alludes to the charlatanism practised in many of these private 
schools. Every professor had his nostrum. Some pretended 
to be able to teach Latin in three months, and in six to have 
the student competent to interpret all classical authors. * 
Circulars as flaring as any of our own day were issued, an- 
nouncing wonderful results and advertising for situations for 
students who should finish with the master. ' 

' See Babeaa, La Vilte sous rAncun Rfgime, p. 484. 

« Statutes Henri IV., 1598, Art. 10. 

' Factum pour I'Universit^ de Paris centre M. le Chantre de I'Eglise Cath^drale 
et ses Permissionaires tenans Ecole k Pensions. Seconde Partie. pp. 22 seqq. 
(Bibl. de 1' University. H. F. a. a. 9 1675- 1677). 

* Jourdain. Ilistoire de F Universiti de Paris, p. 240. This, I dare say, was the 
foible of Rafich, which must have penetrated the schools of Paris about that time. 

* Here is one snatched from oblivion: " L'orthographe fran^oise imprimde de 
puis pen, a rendu nos petits escoliers si S9avans dans I'orthographe, qu'ils sont tout 
prfits de combattre centre les plus grands maistr esde cet art, mesme avec party du 
double centre le simple. Le champ de bataille est ouvert ^ tous vcnans, et i toute 

•' Si qnelcnn a besoin, pour son service, de petits gar^ons tout faits et bien in- 


In Spite of these strenuous efforts to introduce method in- 
to primary education, we still find the old disorderly ways 
prevailing. In the latter half of the seventeenth century, a 
voice in Paris cries out against the inhuman discipline to 
which young children are subjected in the primary schools. 
It is still another protest against the old, confusing, round- 
about manner of teaching a school full of children one by one. 
It is the voice of an educator — evidently a layman — of forty 
years' experience, whose labors, he tells us, were found worthy 
of the approval of gentlemen of the University, of the Jesuit 
Fathers, and of the professors of St. Nicholas de Chardonnet. 
It is a memorial pleading for a school in which to apply the 
same principles that Komensky, Peter Fourier, Mgr, de 
Nesmond, and Charles Demia had applied — " proposing to 
myself," says the author, "no other end than the glory of my 
God, and asking no other reward than His mercy." ' — The 
voice comes to us out of a miscellaneous collection of pam- 
phlets of the seventeenth century. The collection is a recent 
acquisition of the Bibliotheque Nationale of Paris. In the 
midst of school-boy exercises, by way of translations from 
French into Latin, a eulogy upon Henry of Matignon in 
1658, an account of the canonization of Peter of Alcantara in 
1671, and other tracts, is found this memorial, well written 
and clearly reasoned, but without name or date. M. Leopold 
Delisle, Director of the Library, kindly examined the pam- 
phlet for us, and after carefully considering type, style, and 
matter, came to the conclusion that it could not be of later 
date than 1680. It certainly must have been prior to 1690, 
for by that time the method of Blessed de la Salle was be- 
coming the admiration of the people and the envy of the 
schoolmasters of Paris. 

struits dans le Giristianisme, bons lecleurs^ ^crivains, et parfaits orthographes, 
nostre escole luy en fournira ^ son choix. 

" C'est dans la rue Bourg-l'Abb^ k I'escole de charit6." Biblioth^ue Mazarine. 
274 A'3 in-fol. 

' Avis touchant les Petites £coles. Bibl. Nat. (p. Z. 320) p. 6. 


The voice that speaks from the pamphlet has the ring of 
sincerity. After exposing the difficulties that beset children 
in their first attempts at learning, the anonymous author 
justly and considerately asks : '* Were one designedly to 
oppose the good of children, and cause them to consume 
time uselessly and with great trouble, could one have acted 
otherwise ? " ' He sees students classified according to ca- 
pacity in the colleges, and he wonders why no one thinks of 
applying the same method to the elementary schools. 
" Why," he asks, *' are these little ones deprived of the light, 
the beauty, the comfort, and all the advantages that order 
and grading produce ? * He pictures the ease with which a 
great number might be taught by the method in which " one 
master, one book, and one voice teach." * Farther on, in 
stating his method, the first principle which he lays down is 
the principle of the Simultaneous Method. " The primary 
school," he tells us, " should be so disposed that one and the 
same book, one and the same master, one and the same lesson, 
one and the same correction, should serve for all, so that 
each scholar would thereby possess his master wholly and 
entirely, and occupy all his care, all his time, and all his 
trouble." * Still, although the principle is clearly stated, 
when we remember what these little schools were, and how 
they contained all grades of scholars, from those learning 
their ABC out of their primer decorated with the sign of 
the Cross, * to those reading in manuscripts, we perceive at 
a glance the impossibility of carrying out this principle 
under a single master. The anonymous author does not get 
beyond the regulations laid down by Charles Demia and 
Mgr. de Nesmond. They also speak of one book and one 

The voice is the voice of a precursor, feeling acutely the 
wants and shortcomings of his age in educational matters, 

• Avis, p. 4. ' Ibid., p. 13. » Ibid, p. 13. * Ibid., p. 19. 

* Hence the name given to the child's Primer of that day : Cr»ix de par Dieu; 
L e., de parte Dei. 


but unable to remedy them. He advocates strongly public 
examinations as a means of exciting emulation.' He con- 
siders such examinations a powerful corrective upon both 
teacher and pupil. He feels the necessity of training teachers 
before allowing them to assume charge of a school: "A 
shoemaker or blacksmith must learn his trade, but young 
men without experience, and who are themselves studying, 
are allowed to try their 'prentice-hand at the expense of 
those poor little ones."' At the very time that this cry is 
going up in Paris, a saintly priest is quietly evolving the 
solution to all these problems. In 1681, Blessed John Baptist 
de la Salle had organized the Brothers of the Christian 
Schools, and had given them the Simultaneous Method of 
teaching. What Blessed Peter Fourier touched ; what Ko- 
mensky, and Mgr. de Nesmond, and Charles Demia had glim- 
merings of ; what the anonymous memorialist could nowhere 
find and thought to realize, had become a fact. 


There is no uncertainty about the language of Blessed de 
la Salle in regard to the method he would have his disciples 
follow. It is no longer a single master governing a whole 
school ; it is two, three, or more, according to the number of 
pupils ; each taking those of the same capacity and teaching 
them altogether. In order to give effect to this method he 
regulates the duty of the masters in their respective classes : 
" The Brothers shall pay particular attention to three things 
in the school-room : i. During the lessons, to correct every 
word that the scholar who is reading pronounces badly ; 2. 
to cause all who read in the same lesson to follow therein ; 3. 
to have silence strictly observed in the school." ' The 
pupils .follow in the same lesson ; they observe strict si- 

' Avis, p. 10. * Ibid, p. 13. 

^ Regies Communes des Freres des £co!es Chretiennes. Translation trom the 
MS. of 1 718, signed and authenticated by Brother Bartholomew, .Second Superior- 


lence ; the master, in correcting one, is correcting all : here 
is the essence of the Simultaneous Method. Glancing over 
the pages of the admirable manual of school-management 
which Blessed de la Salle prepared, we find scattered through 
them this principle inspiring all the rules of wisdom and 
prudence in which the book abounds. In one place we read : 
** All the scholars in the same lesson shall follow together, 
without distinction or discernment, according as they shall 
be notified by the master." * On the page following it is said : 
•• All the scholars in each lesson shall have the same book 
and shall be given the same lesson."* A few pages further 
on we find the same thing repeated : '* All shall have but 
one lesson, and whilst one spells or reads, all the others shall 
follow, those who spell and read as well as those only 
reading." * Again he generalizes the principle for all the 
lessons : " In all the lessons from alphabet-cards, syllabaries, 
and other, books, whether French or Latin, and even during 
arithmetic, while one reads, all the others of the same lesson 
shall follow ; that is, they shall read to themselves from their 
books without making noise with their lips what the one read- 
ing pronounces aloud from his book."* Note the expres- 
sions : in all the lessons. . . . all the others. . . .shall follow. The 
four or six pupils of Peter Fourier, or the whole bench of 
children of Charles Demia and Mgr. Nesmond, following 
that which one is reading, whilst all the others are occupied 
as best they may, is a far different thing from that of the 
whole class following in silence the one who reads, whilst 
the master corrects, or has the pupils to correct, the mistakes 
that are made. In order to sustain the attention of the pupils, 
the saintly Founder would have him who is called upon to 
continue not to repeat a word or syllable that has been read. • 
With truth has Matthew Arnold said, in speaking of this 

' Conduite des Ecoles Chritunnes. Avignon. 1724. P. i., ch. iii., art. i., sect, i., 
p. 19. 

« Ibid., p. 18. ^ Ibid., p. 33. « Ibid., p. 120. 

* Ibid., p 10 ; See also p. 120. 


handbook of methods: "Later works on the same subject 
have little improved the precepts, while they entirely lack 
the unction." ' 

We might quote pages from this precious hand-book, ap- 
plying the Simultaneous Method to all the details of school- 
life with a precision and directness that bespeak the master- 
mind. But it is needless. The method has not only been 
embedded in a book ; it has also been embodied in a living 
organism, that has preserved its traditions with the greatest 
fidelity, and that still applies them the world over. Because 
we all of us have been trained according to this method, 
and see it practised in nearly all our public and many of our 
private schools, and have ceased to find it a subject of won- 
der, we may be inclined to undervalue its importance. Not 
so was it regarded in the days of La Salle. Then a Brothers' 
School was looked upon with admiration. Strangers were 
shown it as a curiosity worth visiting. It is thus that two 
merchants of Marseilles are introduced into the Brothers' 
Schools of Avignon. On their return, so highly did they 
speak of" the discipline of the schools, the piety of the mas- 
ters, and the novelty ot the method," ' that they induced 
their townsmen to establish similar schools, which in their 
turn also became the admiration of all who witnessed their 
working. * 

This method, as practised by the Brothers to-day, is still 
the same in principle with that taught by their Blessed 
Founder. The requirements of the present may have en- 
larged the course of studies ; the accumulated experiences 
of two centuries may have modified some details and added 
others; but the broad outlines and the working principle 
have remained unchanged. Speaking of the teaching man- 

' The Popular Education of France^ London, 1861, p. 15. 

^ Ravelet, p. 369. WTiat especially struck the Marseilles merchants was the 
manner in which a large number of children was taught altogether and at the same 
time, with very few words on the part of the masters. 

» Ibid., p. 383. 


ual of La Salle, Ravelet says with truth : " If we take a 
recent copy of this little book, and go back from edition to 
edition up to the first type, noting in each what has been 
suppressed or added, we shall be astonished to find how 
almost alike the latest one is to that emanating from the 
founder's hands. The rules are the same ; the hints and 
counsels are the same; the expressions, many of them, are 
the same. In these latter days more stress is laid upon 
developing the child's intelligence and making less use of 
mechanical processes. The minds of our children, having in 
their present environments an earlier development than those 
of children formerly, admit of this amelioration ; but withal 
the principle of the method has not changed. La Salle had 
at first glance discovered all that should be done, and there 
remained but to follow in the path traced out by his genius." ' 
Not that La Salle did not make a careful study of the schools 
and methods within his reach, and take from them whatever 
he found good and useful. His was too practical a mind to 
do otherwise. We are told in the earliest edition of the 
school-manual that has come down to us — that of 1724 — how 
from time to time hints and suggestions were adopted, ac- 
cording as the work progressed and the Brothers were 
gaining experience, and his own observations multiplied. 
In 1708 he writes to Brother Gabriel Drolin in Rome, ask- 
ing for information concerning the rules, management, and 
government of the Piarist schools there established by St 
Joseph Calasanzio. ' In 17 14 we find him stopping over at 
Lyons for several days, in order to examine the working of 
Charles Demia's schools. * 

We take in hand the latest English version of Blessed de 
La Salle's admirable school-manual. We open it at the fifth 
chapter, dealing with teaching and method. We there find, 
within the compass of eight pages, as clear, concise, practical, 
and efficient a body of rules for teaching with method and 

' Histoire du Vintrable J. B. de la Salle, Ed. 1874, pp. 260, 261. 
« Ibid., p. 345. » Ibid., p. 447. 


drawing out the intelligence of the child, as can be found in 
the whole range of the literature of pedagogy. First, we are 
told what method is, how it is based upon principles, and 
therefore not arbitrary ; how these principles "are grounded 
in the subjects to be imparted, and in the intellect to be 
taught. " Then method in teaching is defined ** to consist 
in the selection, arrangement, and employment of means and 
processes the most fitting to bring the minds of pupils in 
certain branches of study to a certain degree of develop- 
ment. " ' Already the student of Methodology has opened 
up to him a field of speculation on which volumes have been 
written and fruitful volumes still remain to be written. 
Finally, the practical rules for teaching with method are 
simply and concisely stated. " The master who teaches with 
method observes the following rules : i. He determines the 
relative intelligence of every child in his class. 2. He adapts 
his language and explanations to the general capacity of his 
class, and is careful never to neglect the duller pupils. 3. 
He makes sure that the pupils know the meaning of the 
words they employ. 4. He advances from the simple to the 
complex, from easy to difficult. 5. He makes it a special 
point to insist greatly on the elementary part of each sub- 
ject ; not to advance till the pupils are well grounded on 
what goes before. ... 9. To state but few principles at a 
time, but to explain them well. ... 10. To speak much to the 
eyes of the pupils, making use of the blackboard. ... 11. To 
prepare every lesson carefully. 12. To place no faulty 
models or standards before the pupils ; always to speak to 
them in a sensible manner, expressing one's self in good Eng- 
lish, and with clearness and precision. 13. To employ none 
but exact definitions and well-founded divisions. ... 18. To 
assert nothing without being positively certain of its truth, 
especially as regards facts, definitions, or principles. 19. To 
make frequent use of the system of question and answer. " ' 

' Management of Christian Schools, New York, 1887, p. 31. 
* Management of Christian Schools, chap, v., art. ii., pp. 31-33. 



Then come twenty rules laid down concerning the mode of 
putting questions and receiving answers: " Every question 
should be clear, brief, special, and adapted to the capacity 

of the pupils Questions should generally begin according 

to a certain order, so as to retain the connection of all the 
parts, and lead up to the proper development of the lesson ; 
in recapitulations, however, this rule might be profitably de- 
parted from. . . . The pupils should be taught not to answer 
too hastily, but to reflect first on the question put to them. . . 
When the master gives an answer it should possess the 
following qualities : it should be brief ; it should be clear 
and exact ; it should be adapted to the capacity of the 
average, and even of the most deficient pupil ; it should ex- 
press a complete meaning, independently of the question." * 
The rules that we have omitted from these extracts are no 
less to the point. They all bespeak the same practical good 
sense. T4iey reveal an intimate knowledge of boy-nature. 
Written to cover the requirements of men engaged in ele- 
mentary teaching, the rules of this school-manual stand for 
all time, and are equally applicable to the teaching of higher 
studies. They are the same rules by which Blessed de la 
Salle prepared the sons of the noblemen who followed James 
II. to France for positions of trust in the land of their exile. 
They are the principles by which, under his supervision, his 
disciples made the boarding-school of St. Yon the most suc- 
cessful and advanced polytechnic school of its day. They 
are the principles with which he indoctrinated the young 
teachers he sent forth from the normal schools which he had 
established. They prevail to-day in the workshops of St. 
Nicholas at Paris, and in those of the Catholic Protectory of 
New York ; in the chemical laboratory of the Brothers' 
house at Passy, and in the science room of their college at 
Tooting ; in their language courses at Cairo, and in their 
literary and philosophic courses at Manhattan. They pre- 
vail, above all, in the innumerable parish schools that the 

' Management of Christian Schools, chap, v., art. iv., pp. 35-38. 


Brothers conduct the word over. They prevail in all the 
class-rooms of all the lay religious teaching orders of men 
and women, who have now more or less modelled their 
methods upon that of Blessed de la Salle. 

The Church, in crowning him Blessed, has most fittingly 
given to popular education a patron. He is the benefactor 
of the modern schoolmaster. He it was who raised primary 
teaching out of the ruts of never-ending routine, carried on 
in the midst of time-honored noise and confusion, and, in giv- 
ing it principles and a method, made of it a science. He 
hedged in the dignity of the schoolmaster. He was the first 
to assert the exclusive right of the master to devote his 
whole time to his school-work. Prior to him, teachers, if 
clerics, were ecclesiastics with a varjnng round of parish- 
duties to perform likewise, or were students making their 
own studies for the priesthood ; if laymen, they sang at the 
public offices of the church, rang the bells, and performed 
the functions of sacristan. Not that such functions were 
at all considered as degrading. On the contrary, in those 
ages of faith it was thought an honor to serve m the house 
of God in any the most menial capacity. ' Here was the 
usual formula of agreement to which the teacher sub- 
scribed : " The aforesaid Gaillardet promises to teach read- 
ing, writing, ciphering, and plain-chant He also obligates 

himself to ring the priory bells when storms, tempests, or 
bail-showers threaten, and to sing in the said priory during 
Advent and Lent." * These terms sound strange to modern 
ears; but they bring us nearer to, and throw light upon, 
other times and other customs. The outside services were 
distracting. They left little or no time for preparation 
of lessons. Blessed de la Salle, through much opposition 
and no small persecution on account thereof, withdrew the 
Brothers from all such distractions. He brought home to 

' Alain, V Instrnciion Primaire avant la Rivolution^ p. 132. 

8 L. Maggiolo, Art. Bourgogne, in Buisson's Dictiomtaire de PMagogie. 


them that their calling was one worthy of their whole energy 
and their undivided attention. "The new institute set out 
with this thought, that teaching is less a career or instru- 
ment of fortune, than that it is the most elevated expression 
of the spirit of sacrifice and devotedness." ' Nor is this all. 
La Salle broke down the barriers of exclusiveness that con- 
fined the schoolmaster to certain subjects, beyond which he 
dare not go, to the detriment of poor children. Thus, a de- 
cree of 1661 forbade the teachers of elementary schools to 
instruct their pupils in writing beyond the merest elements, 
without a writingmaster's license ; while on the other hand 
writingmasters were also restricted in their subjects. * By 
ignoring these distinctions, introducing the modern, simple, 
and more efficient method of writing, and enlarging the 
whole course of popular instruction, Blessed de la Salle 
drew upon himself and his disciples the enmity of the writing- 
masters, and emancipated the youth of France from their 
thraldom. Still more : in making, for the first time in the 
history of education, the mother-tongue the basis of all in- 
struction, he appealed to the intelligence of the child, pre- 
pared the way for the study of national literature, and 
opened up to the grown man avenues of knowledge and 
amusement that had hitherto been encumbered with rubbish. 
His was the merit of the pioneer. And if to-day the artisan 
and the workingman, the world over, can read and write 
and discuss intelligently all the political and social issues of 
the hour, they owe it in great measure to the method of 
teaching completed and perfected by Blessed de la Salle and 
his disciples, the Brothers of the Christian Schools. 

Brother Azarias. 

' De Q\i^xm9&%t, L^ Instruction Primaire dans r Ancien Diocise d\4utun, p. 41. 
• d. Jourdain, Histoirede r Universiti de Paris, p. 215. 



According to the Am. Eccl. Rev. for 1890, note, page 54, 
it is clear that by virtue of faculty 9, formulary C, our 
bishops, and priests delegated by them, can give to the ordi- 
nary rosary, by simply making over it the sign of the cross, 
together with the papal also the so-called Bridgetine indul- 

But who practically gains these Bridgetine indulgences ? 
I answer with full conviction : they are gained, if at all, by 
very few among us. Why ? The reason is, that very few 
know how the Bridgetine rosary is to be said in order to 
gain the indulgences. If the works prescribed as necessary 
for the gaining of an indulgence are not performed in the 
manner specified, the indulgence is not obtained, no matter 
how firmly one may believe that he has fulfilled the pre- 
scribed conditions. In our case there is indeed an excuse 
for the error. In several works lately published by writers 
of good standing, it is said that these indulgences may be 
gained by saying the common rosary. But the same authors 
tell us that in the time of Benedict XIII. the indulgences of 
the ordinary rosary and those of the Bridgetine rosary were 
perfectly identical, but that Benedict XIV. (document not 
given), imparted special indulgences to the Bridgetine rosary, 
and finally, that when saying this rosary it is not necessary 
to meditate upon the mystery as is required in the ordinary 
rosary of St. Dominic ; and that such meditation is not nec- 
essary even when the Bridgetine rosary is said after the man^ 
ner of the common rosary. Will not every person who reads 
these words say to himself : if that be the case, then I wish 
to gain the Bridgetine indulgences. Many, we feel con- 
vinced, up to the present day have thought and have acted 


Let us, however, examine the matter a little more closely, 
and for this purpose let us consult the perfectly reliable edi- 
tion of the Raccolta di Orazioni e pie Opere of 1886, 
approved by Leo XIII., May 24th, 1886, as the standard for 
all, and P. Behringer's approved work, ' who has drawn 
carefully from all sources. 

1. It is true that in saying the Bridgetine rosary the 
meditation on the mysteries is not necessary. The Congre- 
gation of Indulgences has so decided on several occasions.* 

2. It is true only in a certain sense that the indulgences of 
the Bridgetine rosary are greater than those of the common 
rosary. But there are two ways* of saying the Bridgetine 
rosary, and different indulgences are obtained according to 
the method chosen. If one chooses the shorter method, of 
five decades, each decade consisting of one " Our Father," 
and ten " Hail Marys," and the Creed, then only two plen- 
ary indulgences are obtained, one on any day of the year, 
provided one has said this rosary every day, and the other 
on the feast of St. Bridget (8th Oct.), if one has recited it 
at least every week. In both instances confession, Com- 
munion, and the prayers to be said according to the inten- 
tion of the Holy Father are necessary, and to gain the 
indulgence, one must also visit his parish church. * 

Compared with these indulgences those of the ordinary 
rosary are much greater. For, besides a plenary indul- 
gence that may be gained on any day of the year (confes- 
sion, Communion, and the prayers according to the intention 
of the Holy Father being necessary), for saying at least 
the third part of the rosary, or five decades, daily, and 
another plenary indulgence (under the same conditions as 
above) if one recites the rosary in the confraternity of the 
Living Rosary at a fixed hour, * and a third plenary indul- 
gence on the last Sunday of every month (confession, Com- 

> Die Ablasse, Paderborn and Milnster, 1887. • Behringer, p. 361. 

» Ibid., p. 359; Raccolta, pp. 191, 192. 

* Behringer, p. 359; Raccolta, pp. 191, 192. » Behringer, pp. 702. 803. 



munion, and prayers according to the intention af the Holy 
Father, said in a church, being necessary), for reciting the 
rosary in common with others at least three times each 
week, — one gains for each Our " Father," and each " Hail 
Mary" loodays indulgence, and if said in common, in addi- 
tion thereto ten years and ten times 40 days, once a day. 
Finally, to gain the indulgences of the common rosary, it 
suffices when it is recited in common that one person makes 
use of the rosary, and that the others in this case unite them- 
selves with him, a privilege which cannot, however, be 
said to belong to the Bridgetine rosary. ' 

3. If, however, one recites the original, or longer Bridg- 
etine rosary, it would appear that more indulgences are 
obtained than by saying the ordinary, or Dominican rosary; 
for, prescinding from certain partial indulgences which 
may be gained by the performance of certain good works, 
if a person devoutly carries the rosary about him, he can 
gain, as often as he says it, an indulgence of seven years and 
seven times 40 days, and for each "Our Father," and each 
" Hail Mary " and Creed 100 days ; if it be recited every day 
for a whole month, a plenary indulgence may be gained on 
any day after previous confession, Communion, and the reci- 
tation of the indulgence-prayers ; finally, a person can ob- 
tain the plenary indulgence for the hour of death under the 
usual conditions, provided one has recited the rosary at 
least once a week. ' 

But in this case he who wishes to gain the indulgences 
must say six decades, each decade consisting of one " Our 
Father," ten " Hail Marys," and the Creed, and in addition 
one " Our Father " and three •* Hail Marys," thus making in 
all 63 "Hail Marys," in honor of the 63 years spent by Our 
Lady here on earth, and 7 " Our Fathers," to commemorate 
her seven joys and seven sorrows. 

From the foregoing we learn the relation of the Bridget- 

' Behringer, pp. 574-376, 361, 368 ; Raccolta, p. 204. 
' Behringer, pp. 358, 359 ; Raccolta, pp. 190, 191. 


ine to the ordinary rosary, and we see how the former is to 
be recited. 

4. As we have remarked elsewhere, certain recent authors 
maintain that, when by virtue of an apostolic faculty the 
Bridgetine indulgences have been imparted to the rosary of 
five or of fifteen decades, a person, by using this " Bridget- 
ized " rosary to recite the ordinary one, can gain the Bridget- 
ine indulgences. Now the decrees quoted to sustain this 
opinion, dated Oct. 2, 1840, and Jan. 28, 1842, both published 
for Rouen, and taken from Prinzivalli's Collection, ' together 
with the decrees of Aug. 12, 1726, Dec. 25, 1841, and Jan. 
24, 1842, cited in decree of Jan. 28, 1842, for Rouen, have 
all been omitted in the collection approved as authentic by 
Leo XIII., Aug. 19, 1882. Hence they cannot be adduced 
as proof. The decree of Jan. 15, 1839,' ^^so cited in proof, 
does not, in the first place, say what it is quoted as say- 
ing, and in the second place it is itself based upon an old 
edition of the Raccolta, in which the indulgences of the 
Bridgetine rosary and the manner of praying it are not 
stated so clearly and so precisely as to dispel all doubts ; 
but this defect has been remedied in the last edition of the 
Raccolta. * Father Behringer, who is now consultor of the 
Congregation of Indulgences, and for that reason well versed 
in these matters, tells us that the obtaining of the Bridget- 
ine indulgences attached to the two ways of saying the 
rosary does not depend upon the fact that the material 
rosary has five or six or ten or fifteen decades, but upon the 
fact that such rosary has been blessed by a priest having 
the faculty, and that the form of prayer as given above be ob- 
served. Therefore, he adds, one can say the longer Bridget- 
ine rosary on one of five decades. * Hence, to gain the 
Bridgetine indulgences of the rosary, it must be recited in 
the manner given in the Raccolta, which we have described 
above ; nor will it suffice to pray the ordinary rosary. 

' A private collection; cfr. Linzer Qaartal-Scbr., 1889, p. 379. 

* Deer, aathentica, n. 268. * Behringer, p. 360. * Behringer, pp. 362-364. 


5. But, as the ordinary or Dominican rosary is the only 
one that can be said to be in general use among us, and as 
on the other hand the proper manner of saying the rosary 
in order to gain the Bridgetine indulgences is not sufficiently 
known, it is clear from what has been said that the Bridget- 
ine rosary indulgences are gained, if at all, by very few 
persons. For this reason, and also because Leo XIII, in his 
repeated recommendations of the rosary, which according 
to the general opinion refer to the common rosary, spoke 
exclusively of the latter, the faculty to impart the Bridget- 
ine indulgences is of little or of no importance to us. 

Here — and the same may be said of most other countries 
— only the faculty for the ordinary rosary is of practical im- 

Now, who has this faculty among us? It is evident from 
the Raccolta, page 205, and from Behringer, page 375, that 
the Dominicans have it, for it is the general custom on 
missions that the different missionaries bless these rosaries, 
and consequently they must have this faculty from the 
general of the Dominicans ; that the Redemptorist Fathers 
enjoy it appears from the Tr^sor Spiritnel, ' p. 257, by P. 
Ulrich, a consultor-general of the same Congregation, and 
from the Petit Trdsor Spirituel, ' p. 70, of P. Jacques. 

But have our bishops, by virtue of faculty 9, formulary C, 
and the priests to whom they communicate such faculty, the 
power to bless the Dominican rosary } 

It cannot be doubted that the directors of the confraterni- 
ties of the rosary, erected by our bishops in good faith up 
to July 16, 1887, and under that date rendered valid in 
radice by the Holy Father, have this power, but it can be 
exercised only for the members of such confraternities, and 
for no others ; such members can gain greater and more 
numerous indulgences by saying the rosary than those who 
are not members. 

This and nothing more is what P. Konings seems also to 

* Paris and Tournai, Castennan, 1863. * Paris and Tournai, 1883. 



maintain in speaking of the subject. ' The same thing is ex- 
pressed in a decree of June 7, 1842, • where we are told that, 
if the pastor is the only priest in the place where the con- 
fraternity exists, he is to be considered its director, with the 
power to bless rosaries for the members, etc. 

The faculty, however, to bless the Dominican rosary for 
non-members of confraternities of the rosary diflfers entirely 
from the other faculty of which we have spoken. Nowhere 
is it stated that the directors of the confraternities of the 
rosary can bless rosaries for non-members. 

With regard to the faculty of our bishops contained in 
fac. 9, form. C, so far as the blessing of the rosaries is con- 
cerned, they can now, according to a brief of the Cardinal 
Prefect of the Propaganda, dated June, 1889, * give only the 
ordinary confraternity indulgences, and there is no mention 
of further privileges. 

There is therefore only one course open to him who wishes 
to impart to the rosaries of the faithful who are not members 
of a Confraternity the ordinary rosary indulgences outside 
the time of missions : that is to say, he has to send in a 
petition for this faculty (possibly through some Dominican 
superior) to the general of the order. If the faculty be 
obtained, he must observe the restriction generally added — 
which holds good also for missionaries, dummodo nullus 
sacerdos ex ordine Praedicatorum inveniatur ; " then he can 
bless rosaries of five, ten, or fifteen decades, but not those of 
six decades ; finally, in blessing them he must make use of 
the prescribed formula, that is, he cannot use the formula to 
be found in the excerpta ex Rituali Romano, with the title, 
Benedictio Coronarum aut Rosariorum, printed at Baltimore, 
but the one which in the Rit. Rom., Edit. Ratisbon., 1882, 
p. 1 12, and in Behringer, p. 860, is marked as propria ordinis 
Praedicatorum. * He can then also impart to the rosaries 
thus blessed the papal and the Bridgetine indulgences, pro- 

> Comment in facult., n. 142. * Decret aath., n. 304. 

» Vide Am. EccL Rev., 1889, p. 465. * Behringer, pp. 326, 375, 860. 


vided he has obtained from his bishop for the members of 
the diocese the necessary power ex facultate 9, formulae C. It 
is clear from the concluding words of formula C, " nee illis 
ubi possit extra fines suae dioecesis," that such blessing can 
be validly given only for members of the diocese.' The 
faculty to bless rosaries obtained from the general of the 
Dominicans is the only one which may be used for all persons 
without distinction. J. P. 



Sacra Embryologia stve de Officio sacerdotum, medicorum tt aliorum circa 
ceiernam parvulorum in utero existeniium salutem libri quattuor: auctort et 
interprett Francisco Emmanuele Cangiamila. S. Theol. et U. f. Doctor e, 
in Compendium redacti. Ipris, 1775. — Ejusdem operis Epitome Parisiis 
anno 1766 evulgati idiomati Gallico a D. Dinouart. 

Traite Pratique d' Embriologie Sacree ou Theologique. Par P. f. C. 
Debreyne, Docteur en medecine, de la faculte de Paris, professeur particulier 
de medecine pratique, pretre etreligieux de la Grande- Trappe (Orne). Ed. 
1845 ^^ '853- 

La TJieologie Morale et les sciences medicates. Par Le P. Debreyne. 
Sixieme edition entierement refondue par Le Dr. A. Ferrand, medecin des 
hdpitaux de Paris, chevalier de S. Gregoire Le Grand. — Paris, 1884. 

Medicina Pastoralis. Edidit Dr. C. Capellmann, medicus Aquisgranen- 
sis. Editio Septima, Latinarum altera. — Aquisgrani, Sumpt. Rudolphi 
Barth. 1890. 

American fournal of Obstetrics. Vol. XII. Paper by Dr. E. J. Duer. 

Vita S. Raymundi. Act. Sanct. Aug. — Vol. VI. 

It not unfrequently happens, particularly in large cities, 
that a priest is called to administer the last sacraments to a 
mother •* quae versatur in statu praegnationis " and is certain 
to die before the birth of her child. As it is possible for the 
latter not only to live "in utero" for some time after the 

' Konings, Comment, in facalt, n. 118; Litelli, Appar. Jur. EccL, p^ 58. 



mother's death, but there is also, if the circumstances arc- 
otherwise favorable, every hope of prolonged life for the 
infant, the civil law in Europe ordains in the interest of 
humanity, and hence under penalty, that physicians in such 
cases perform what is called the Caesarean operation. By 
this means the child's life is often saved after the death of 
its mother. 

Apart from the principle of humanity which underlies the 
civil legislation in this case, we are to be guided by the 
religious principle, which seeks to secure the eternal salva- 
tion of the child, through the administration of Baptism, 
whenever it is possible to do so. According to Catholic 
theology there are several ways in which the sacramental 
grace of Baptism may be supplied through the providence 
of God to those who are outside of the reach of human 
assistance ; but on the other hand, man's neglect or fault may 
cause a soul which has been intrusted to his care to perish. 
Hence the Roman Ritual, laying down certain fundamental 
rules to be observed in the administration of the sacrament 
of Baptism to children, says on this point : " Si mater prce- 
gnuns tnortua futr it, foetus qiiam primum caute extrahatur, ac si 
vivus fuerit, baptizatur " '^ It will be noticed that the Ritual 
makes no distinction as regards the probabilities of the foetus 
being alive, nor does it mention anything as to its age or the 
person who is to perform the operation. It merely instructs 
the priest what is to be done " si mater praegnans mortua 

The rule is plain enough in what it states, viz., quam pri- 
mum — caute — ac si vivus fuerit, baptizatur. Nevertheless, in 
its practical application it gives rise to a number of perplex- 
ing doubts in the mind of a priest when he is unexpectedly 
made aware of his responsibility in the matter.* Is he 

' " Ritnale Rom., Tit. II., Cap. i, de Baptuandis Parvnlis, n. 17. 

» A priest in one of our large cities, whohas had a number of such cases within the 
lasit few years, writes to us: From the questionable success of the operation, and 
the immense cfTort expended, getting doctors to remain or come at the exact time. 


bound at all hazards to have this operation performed ? And 
what becomes of this obligation of preserving the life of the 
child, if there be no one competent or willing to save it by 
the means suggested ; or, if the members of the family should 
protest, although the priest advise it and the €urgeon be 
prepared to perform it ; or if, on the other hand, the physi- 
cian himself object, because he deems it useless, either be- 
lieving the child to be already dead or that it could not 
outlive the operation ? Or supposing that priest or ph)-- 
sician miss the hour of death, what time must have elapsed 
before the obligation to take action in the hope of saving a 
life and a soul could cease for him ? These and similar 
doubts that may arise are questions to which we find but 
scant answer in theological books, yet which confront us in 
one form or other in the practical ministry. In attempting 
to point out a safe line of conduct we cannot merely appeal 
to the principles laid down in the science of theology. We 
must look on the one hand to certain positive rules of eccle- 
siastical discipline regarding the subject, and on the other to 
such views of experienced physicians as have been accepted 
by the professional world and which offer a sound basis for 
the carrying out of Catholic principle. All theologians agree 
that there exists without doubt an obligation to have the 
Cassarean section performed immediately after the death of 
the mother in statu prasgnationis.* But what is practically the 

the anxiety, etc. — in one case I remained up all night awaiting the mother's death — 
I am led to write you and seek bow far the obligation extends in practice, if you 
will allow the modification. I know the theologians say there is an obligation, etc., 
but can it be practically carried out ? 

' Igitur mortua matre, nullum dubium est, quin sectio fieri possit etdebeat, idque 
etiamsi conceptio a brevi tempore facta sit. Quare quam citissime fieri potest, 
chirurgus aliusve, qui possit sectionem facere, advocandus est : interim vero uterus 
matris mortuae calidus servandus, os ejus aperiendum est , neque facile credendum 
est medico forte dicenti, omnem conatum incassum fieri, eo quod foetus jam sit 
emortuas : siquidem id rare omnino certo sciunt.— Lehmkuhl, Theol. Moral, vol. 
n., L. I., Tr. II., n. 75, 3. 



on the part of a priest ? We answer the question at once by 
reference to an instruction of the S. Congregation of the 
Inquisition, whose office is to lay down practical rules of 
conduct in disciplinary matters touching faith and morals. 
The Sacred Office urges the obligation of saving the life of ^ 
the child and deprecates the false and unreasonable notions 
of modesty which would prevent us from advising and 
urging it. The document then proceeds : " Haec autem 
foetus extractio de praegnantis defunctaeque alvo matris 
quamvis patefacienda ut dicimus ac persuadinda sit, expresse 
tamencavet prohibetque Sanctitas sua, ne Missionarii '\\\ casibus 
particularibus se ingerant in dcmandanda sectione, multoque 
minus in ea peragenda. Sat proinde Missionariis fiierit illius 
notitiam edidisse, curasscque ut ejus perficiendce rationem addis- 
cant, qui chirurgicis intendunt, laid homifies, tum vero cum 
casus tulerit, ejusdem praxim ipsorum oneri ac muneri reli- 
quisse." ' The priest's duty therefore is to call the serious • 
attention of the physician, or of those who are likely to see that 
the injunction be carried out, to the fact that the foetus may 
and should receive baptism. But he is neither called upon to 
perform the operation himself nor to persist in forcing others •" 
to do it. This is the extent of his obligation. We cannot, 
however, wholly ignore the fact that there may be cases of 
real necessity, wherein a priest would be justified in perform- 
ing without prejudice to his calling or other risk an operation 
which as a rule is forbidden him as unseemly to his state and 
requiring a particular skill which belongs ordinarily only to 
the practised surgeon. Under such circumstances the ques- 
tion of saving a soul, the reserved wording of the Ritual, the 
indefinite manner in which theologians generally speak of 
this obligation, and perhaps even the fact that the Rescript 
of the S. Congregation addresses itself expressly to mission- 
ary priests only, would decide the doubt in favor of the 

> S. C S. O., IS Febr, 1760. Cf. Bucceronl, Enchiridion Morale, n. 256. 


child. Cangiamila and Debreyne make no doubt whatever 
of the matter, but both seem to us to urge this point all too 

In the case of a physician who is himself a practical 
Catholic we can hardly suppose that he could object to per- 
forming the section for the purpose of conferring Baptism 
upon the foetus, no matter at what stage of its life. As the 
existence of the soul is commonly admitted by theologians to 
be coincident with the first development of vitality, only 
certain death of the foetus could justify the omission of at 
least conditional Baptism. Lehmkuhl adds on this point: 
Neque post longius etiam tempus, si statim collatus non sit, 
baptismus omittendus est. ' And what is said here in regard 
to conscientious Catholic physicians may be said of the med- 
ical profession in this country generally. Every respectable 
physician would defer to the expressed wish of a priest to 
perform the operation in order that Baptism might be ad- 
ministered, even if there were no doubt that the foetus could 
not outlive the exposure. We are informed that this is a 
rule of professional conduct taught in our medical schools. 
It may happen that a physician, although willing and perfect- 
ly competent to operate, would yet be either ignorant of, or 
fail to appreciate the requisites to a valid administration of 
the sacrament, and expose the foetus in such a way as to 
frustrate Baptism. For this reason the physician of the soul 
must be prepared to give intelligent direction if it be needed. 
The necessary caution under this head may be learned from 
such works on pastoral medicine as have been placed at the 
head of this paper. ' It must suffice here to cite a passage 
from Capellmann, which is approvingly quoted by Lehm- 
kuhl. Speaking of the " foetus qui ovo inclusus editur," he 
says : " approbare non possum, ut in ovo clauso baptismus 
conferatur. ... Si caute ovum aperitur, atque si liquor amnii 
lente, hoc est, nisi ex negligentia subito profluat, aer accedens 

' ' Theol. Moral., Vol. II., loc. cit. 
• Ferrand's work is less satisfactory in this respect than his model Debreyne. 



fcetum quamvis exiguum non illico occidet. Turn. . . . aperto 
ovo e vestigio baptismus sub conditione conferatur. . . . 
Utilissimum ac certissimum consilium erit, ut baptismum per 
immersionem conferant, et ita quidem, ut in vel sub aqua (non 
frigida, sed nonnihil tepidci) velamenta disrumpant, hisque 
disru ptis statim formulam baptismi pronuntient. Apprehende 
igitur utriusque manus poUice et indice aliquam velamenti 
plicaturam, atque ita disrumpe, ut materia ovi effluat, h. e., ut 
aqua baptismalis integram ovi materiam bene abluat. Quod 
si ita fit, etiam vitabitur accedentis agris appulsus in embry- 
onem, quern nonnulli adeo timent." ' Lelimkuhl adds to the 
note the following observation : " At ut securius agas, foetum 
^/immerge in aquam et ex ea extrahe." 

Occasionally a ph3'sician is met with who will object to 
the operation on the ground that in most cases the foetus of 
less than 28 weeks dies with, if not before the mother, and 
that this, is invariably the case in certain diseases. Again, 
that, as the signs of death are frequently deceptive, there is 
danger of operating on a living body instead of a corpse, 
until after some hours, when, the forerunners of decomposition 
having set in, all doubt is removed. Of course, we must re- 
spect the judgment of the physician, as this matter belongs 
to his profession. Nevertheless, it is well to understand the 
real force of these objections, which at the hands of unscru- 
pulous practitioners might serve to shield a mere reluctance 
to perform an act of humanity or charity. This is all the 
more necessary when we remember that in many cases, 
especially of the poor, the priest is the only person who can 
intelligently urge the saving of the child, although it would 
perhaps be preferable if such request came from some re- 
sponsible member of the family. 

As to the likelihood of the foetus dying before or with the 
mother, all authorities on the subject agree that no fixed rule 
can be laid down. Statistics taken from a French maternity 
Hospital show that fully thirty per cent of children delivered 

' Medicina jMistor., ed. lat altera, pp. Ill, 112. 


before the twenty -eighth week continued to live, and Dr. Wm. 
H. Parish, professor of Anatomy, Women's Medic. Coll., and 
president of the Obstetrical Soc. at Philadelphia, expresses his 
opinion that the European law might more justly be fixed at 
23 instead of 28 weeks. Capellmann makes the same sugges- 
tion in his work. Considering the recent improvements in 
the way of fostering the young life by incubation and arti- 
ficial nutrition, the time of viability may be placed even earlier 
than this. In all these cases— and whenever "extractio per 
vias naturales " is impossible — medical authorities consider 
the Cassarian section to be an imperative duty on the part of 
the physician. " One must not wait for the consent of a 
relative. It is sufficient to have no active resistance from 
that direction. The surviving parent should not be permit- 
ted to doom the imprisoned foetus to death." ' 

In regard to the probable vitality of the foetus previous to 
the time above indicated it appears quite impossible to lay 
down any fixed rule. The signs usually looked upon as in- 
dicative of death are with one or two exceptions deceptive. 
Dr. Parish assures us that "the foetal heart sounds may be 
absent, and yet the foetus be living." ' And the rule which 
he lays down for physicians with respect to the time when 
viability of the foetus is probable, holds good for us in all 
cases where it is possible to administer Baptism validly. 
No matter how probable it is that the foetus will die or is 
already dead, the physician is bound by the law of his pro- 
fession to perform the section unless he is certain of the death 
of the foetus. " Where it is very probable that the foetus 
will die or that it is already dead, nondelivery is unjustifiable. 
Only certain death of the foetus can justify the attendant 
from withholding his hand." ' As it is very difficult to have 
evidence of the death of the foetus, "it ought to have the 
benefit of the doubt for Baptism." 

' Two cases of Csesarean section— post mortem matris, by Dr. Wm. H. Parish. 
''Weekly Medical Review," Jan. i8, 1890, page 42. 
* Loc. cit. 3 Ibid 


It is quite evident from the principles laid down in the best 
medical text books which are in use in this country, that 
every physician who respects the code of ethics of his 
profession, no matter what his religious convictions are, will 
readily undertake the operation for the purpose of baptism. 
" Delivery prior to viability, by section or otherwise^ is indi- 
cated for purpose of baptism, if the relatives or deceased mother s 
clergytnan so desire, for we as physicians must respect such re- 
ligious rights and convictions. * 

The second objection is one more serious. Catalepsy as- 
sumes at times a likeness of death so perfect that only the 
most skilled physician can detect a difference. Facts in the 
history of the medical profession prove that practitioners us- 
ing the scalpel on what they thought to be a corpse found 
it assuming life under their hands and failed in the operation 
owing to the sudden excitement. Capellmann deals with this 
objection in the following manner : It is evident that the 
operation should be performed as quickly as possible after 
the death of the mother. Considerable difficulties may arise 
from the fact that it is not always easy to acquire absolute 
certainty of death, especially when the decease was sudden. 
But the physician may in this case prove his skill and pres- 
ence of mind. Let him perform the operation with the 
same caution as if he were performing it on a living body, 
so that nothing be lost if the woman who seemed dead be 
still living. ' Dr. Theophilus Parvin, in his well-known 
work Science and Art of Obstetrics, ' makes use of almost the 
same words in this connection, but mentions the method of 
Th6venot *' per vias naturales " as preferable in cases of 
doubt as to the actual death of the mother. Every physician 
knows that there is nothing exceptionally dangerous in the 
operation itself, if properly performed, and the firm hand of 
the surgeon, guided by a cool head, can accomplish it in a few 

Dr. Parish, loc. cit. * Medicina Pastoralis, pag. 28. 

• Philad., 1886. p. 671. 


It has been asked : what is the limit of time that may 
elapse between the death of the mother and the operation 
before it would be certain that the foetus had perished. The 
question is evidently important, since probably in the ma- 
jority of such cases it will happen that either the priest or 
the physician or both are absent at the moment of death. 
Prof. Duer's table shows that in several instances a living 
foetus was removed two hours after the death of the mother. 
Dr. Parish, supplementing Duer's statistics, authenticates a 
case in which a foetus in the twenty-eighth week was taken 
from a corpse two and a half hours after the death of the 
mother. She had been suffering from protracted phthisis 
pulmonalis, a disease in which it is generally believed that 
the foetus dies either before or immediately after the mother. 
Of another case the same authority says : " We estimate it 
was about twenty-five minutes after the mother's death be- 
fore permission to make a section was granted. As I still 
held my knife in my hand I made a rapid section, and in two 
strokes the foetus was removed." * 

In the absence of the physician direction should be given 
to keep the corpse, circa regionem uteri, wrapt in warm 
flannel, etc. In this way a soul and a valuable life may 
/ frequently be saved, of which fact we have a striking instance 
in the life of St.. Raymond, who has his surname Nonnatus 
from the fact that he was brought to life by the Caesarean 
operation after the death of his mother. ■ 

It is remarkable that in his case the physicians assured 
the father that the child, not 28 weeks old, was unquestion- 
ably dead and had in fact caused the mother's death. The 
count, being not only a devout Catholic but a well-informed 
man, had serious doubts, and a relative who stood by, seeing 

' Vd. article cited above. 

* Ideo Nonnatus dictus, qaod caeso defanctse matris utero prodiit. Acta Sanct., 
Aag., Tom, VI., pag. 737. An old antiphon in honor of the Saint reads : 

" Levamen miseris S. Ramon impetra : 
Te Deus vivnm traxit ab utero matris extinctae." 


that precious time was being lost in argument, took a poig- 
nard and made a bold incision in the left side, when the 
child was laid open, showing signs of life. ' Thus the learned 
cardinal, the saintly priest, the man who spent his goods 
and life to redeem thousands of captives in the Algerian 
slave markets that they might obtain the grace of baptism and 
the hope of heaven, was preserved to the world and to the 
Church. How easily he might have perished ! 

In conclusion, we would add the wise and practical re- 
marks of a physician who speaks from long experience, and 
who has studied this subject in particular in its connection 
with Catholic Theology. '* Primis quidem mensibus prae- 
gnationis vix unquam sperandum cst^ fore ut ovulum sectione 
caesarea vivens extrahatiir. Completo autetn quarto fere tnense 
sectionem cassaream facerem, dummodo ne graves habean- 
tur rationes existimandi, foetum jam ante matrem vel simul 
cum matre mortuum esse ; imprimis sectionem caesaream 
facerem, quandocumque mulieres praegnantes subitanea vel 
celerrima morte praeripiuntur." ' We have italicized the 
words which indicate on what ground a practical judg- 
ment may be formed. For the rest, charity must be held by 
the hand of prudence and knowledge. 


A LARGE number of our American dioceses have in the 
•^-^ past and are still being aided by the alms collected 
through the " Society for the Propagation of the Faith," whose 
headquarters are in France. The contributions which the 
society receives from those parts of Catholic America which in 
former days it helped to build up are in no proportion to the 
sums annually distributed to our needy churches West and 

■ Saint Raymond Nonnat, Les PetiU Bollandiste*> Tom. X., p. 357. 
* Capellm., Medic. Past., p. 27. 



South in the United States.' This looks like a long shadow 
for our time of day, when we remember that the unparalleled 
success, the prosperity, generosity, and zeal of Catholic 
America are being sounded abroad as having attained their 
noonday-light of glor}'. " Our poor relations " are actually 
beggars at the hand of European Catholics. This apathy is 
not without ingratitude, as even those dioceses which to-day 
enjoy great prosperity were in their early struggles sus- 
tained by the " Society for the Propagation of the Faith." 
It sounds, therefore, like a gentle rebuke when we read in 
last year's Report of the Society the following words refer- 
ring to America : " That Church, founded by the alms and 
prayers of our first associates, continues in peace the course 
of its glorious destinies." ' In fact, considerably less is done 
now than in former times. Then the " Annals " were regu- 
larly published in this country ; to-day we have to ask the 
loan of them from Ireland, where 12,500 copies are printed 
for English readers. France issues over 200,000 copies 
for her own country, including the Breton Edition ; Germany 
prints 31,400 and Italy 21,500 copies; besides, there are 
Spanish, Flemish, Portuguese, Dutch, Basque, and Polish 
editions. Of course, there are some excuses for this retro- 
gression on our part ; still, they weigh little against what 
may justly be expected of us. 

Whilst our own needs and hence the demands made upon 
the society from America are daily lessening, those of other 
lands increase. The missionary field in Asia, Africa, and 
Oceanica is constantly growing, and the necessities in some 
of these abandoned regions are extremely urgent. With 
little encouragement from the respective governments which 
control the countries south and east of Europe, and much 

' The accounts of the Society for the year 1888 show that America received for 
poor missions in various parts of the country, including the entire continent, 533i6i3 
francs, whereas she contributed only 331,211 ; in other words, we received the 
gratuitous donation of over 40,000 dollars for our poor churches. 

' Annals of the Propagation of the Faith, January, 1890. page 7. 


Opposition from factions and traders who allure the natives 
simply to make them instruments of their avarice and cruelty, 
the missionaries have to contend with a thousand obstacles 
from without. To make any headway in civilizing the bar- 
barians, they must employ, as far as possible, the superior 
methods of modern civilization. They require both appara- 
tus and money. The Society for the Propagation of the 
Faith collects annually over a million dollars from those who 
are in the peaceful and prosperous enjoyment of their faith. 
This money is judiciously distributed wherever needed to 
help the struggling churches throughout the world. It goes 
without saying that the demands are greater than the supply 
of this devoted association can go. Hence Leo XIII, in re- 
peated Encyclical Letters,' not only urgently recommended 
the work to the zeal and generosity of the faithful, but has 
enriched it with unusual privileges. The latest of these 
favors are in behalf of priests. 

According to a Pontifical Rescript, dated August, 1889, and 
granted in answer to a request made by the heads of the 
Association in France, the following special Faculties are 
granted : 

I. To priests who, having been duly authorized for the pur- 
posey collect alms for the work of the " Propagation of the Faith " 
in a parish or institution (irrespective of the sum they may re- 
ceive) ; or who from their own resources shall contribute yearly 
the amount of about fifty Dollars : ' 

ist. The favor of the Privileged Altar three times a week.* 

2d. The faculty of applying a Plenary Indulgence to the 
faithful at the hour of death ; of applying the Apostolic In- 
dulgences to the blessing of rosaries, crosses, crucifixes, 
pictures, statuettes and medals ; to impart the Bridgetine 

• Dec. 3, 1880 ; July 25, 1883. 

' The equivalent of one hundred sabscriptions, . or, 10 £. 16 sh. 8 d. English 

' This would be independent of any similar privilege already enjoyed by those who 
have the personal faculty of the " altare privilegiatum. " 



3d. The faculty of attaching to crucifixes the Indulgence 
of the Via crucis. 

IT. Priests who are members of a councilor committee appointed 
to watch over the interests of the Association, etc. ; or who make 
a return within the year of a sum of five hundred Dollars col- 
lected for the Association, are entitled to the following privileges : 

I St. The same faculties as in the preceding category. 

2d. The favor of the Privileged Altar five times a week, 

3d. The faculty of blessing crosses by attaching to them 
the Indulgences applied to the exercise of the Via crucis. 

The faculty of investing with the seraphic cord and scap- 
ular, and all the Indulgences and privileges granted to this 
investiture by the Sovereign Pontiffs. 

4th. The faculty of blessing and investing the faithful with 
the scapulars of Mount Carmel, the Immaculate Conception, 
and the Passion of Our Lord. 

III. A priest who contributes at one time from his private re- 
sources five hundred Dollars ' obtains for life the faculties 
granted to priests who are members of a cowtcil, as already men- 
tioned. ' 

There are probably few priests who, rightly understanding 
the value of these privileges, would not gladly avail them- 
selves of the opportunity of obtaining them and thus promote 
at the same time the noble work of evangelizing the nations. 
Although we enjoy already some of the above-mentioned 
faculties, the greater part of them are the exclusive right of 
the religious Orders, to whom the secular clergy have to 
refer the faithful of their own flocks who seek the special 
graces connected with the respective devotions. Isolated 
privileges of this kind may be obtained by direct application 
to Rome ; but they are generally restricted. The privileged 
altar, the granting of the cord of St. Francis, the Indulgences 

1 A sum representing the total of a thousand subscriptions. 
' The original Letter and Rescript will be found below in this number, under 



of the Via cruets attached to crucifixes, etc., are favors of 
sufficient importance to every parish priest to invite the 
effort of an annual collection for the work of the " Propa- 
gation," or, where the personal resources of a priest allow 
it, the sacrifice of a sum of money which is better thus in- 
vested during life than left in charity after death. 


X., a candidate at an election, during his canvass offers 
B., one of his constituents, ten Dollars, not a word being 
exchanged between them as to the object for which the 
money is paid ; but B. feels perfectly satisfied that the object 
is to influence his vote. B. accepts the money, intending at 
the same time not to be influenced by the bribe, and as a 
matter of fact votes according to his conscience. 

Qu. Is B. guilty of sin in accepting the money? 

Resp. Let us assume that B. in accepting the money is 
guilty of sin. The sin would arise out of a violation either 
of justice, or of charity, or of both. It would be a violation 
of justice, if B., in accepting the money, consented to a con- 
tract, at the same time having the intention ot not perform- 
ing his part of the agreement. But this can hardly be said 
to be the case here ; for, although words are not essential to 
the validity of a contract, there must be at least a mutual 
understanding leaving no doubt on either side as to the 
intention of binding themselves by the terms implied in the 
agreement. There is here indeed on the one side the as- 
sumed intention " do ut des," but no more. It is simply 
what theologians call a '• donum ad alliciendum." X. could 
not determine what value B. might set upon his right of 
vote, even under the supposition that the latter were willing 
to sell it. It would require a more definite declaration on 
B's. part than the acceptance of a gift without other refer- 
ence to the supposed venal commodity. 


De Lugo, speaking of those who accept gifts offered them 
with a view of obtaining certain offices and emoluments in 
return, says : " Etiamsi aliquis ad finem obtinendi dignita- 
tem aut beneficia pinguia coUatori munera pretiosa donet, 
absque ullo tamen facto explicito vel implicito, quamvis 
indecore quidem accipiantur, absque injustitia tamen retineri 
possunty etiamsi is qui dedit spe sua defraudetur, quia solum 
data sunt liberaliter ad alliciendum ejus animam et captan- 
dara benevolentiam.' A little further on he gives a case in 
some respects analogous to the one in question : " An 
peccat femina quae accipit pecuniam ab eo qui dat animo 
ipsam sollicitandi ad turpia, licet in mente habeat non con- 
sentiendi peccato?" He answers as follows: " Certum 
mihi est non esse peccatum contra justitiam, licet animum 
habeat positivum non consentiendi t.urpitudini desideratae, 
quia acceptio muneris non includit promissionem tacitam vel 
expressam consentiendi, sed inducit solum obligationem mo- 
ralem gratitudinis in Ileitis et honestis.' 

It may be said : but even though there is no actual 
contract, does not he who receives a bribe, knowing for 
what purpose it is offered, co-operate in an injustice against 
the state, and does he not co-operate in the accomplishment 
of the sin of bribery ? 

We answer, no. — Supposing that the law prohibiting 
bribery of this kind be not merely a penal law, but have 
such binding force in conscience as to make its violation a 
positive sin, the mere acceptance of the bribe could not be 
an injustice against the state, as long as the recipient does 
not bind himself, nor intends to vote against his conscience. 
Nor is his accepting the money rightly speaking a co-opera- 
tion in the sin of him who offers it, for that sin is completed 
independently of him who accepts, since the acceptance 
alone is, as we have seen, no violation of justice. " Jam 
invenitur posita tota culpa et malitia ex parte donantis, qua 
posita non apparet qucB culpa sit in acceptiofie, cum non sit causa 

' De Jastitiaet Jure Disp., i8, sect. 3, n. 49. * IbiA, n. 50. 


cklpce donantis, sed earn totam Jam invenit positam, nee per 
defectum acceptionis minui potest: ergo nee eontra charitatem 
peccabit." ' 

Nevertheless, the acceptance of a bribe under the circum- 
stances may be a sin against charity. For it may give 
scandal; it may foster and. encourage corrupt practices to 
the detriment of the common good, public morality, etc. 
De Lugo admits this in the case cited by him : " Negari 
tamen non potest quod multum deserviat ad fovendam in 
posterum spem turpem donatoris, et ad tentanda alia me- 
dia .... quam si munera constanter repulsa fuissent." * 

Practically, however, it must be kept in mind, that the 
moral bearing ot civil legislation and its binding force in 
conscience are to be largely measured by the end which the 
particular laws have in view ; by the actual harm their 
violation may do, or the good it may prevent ; by the inter- 
pretation which universal custom has given to them, etc. 
And whilst it appears always " indecore " to accept gifts 
which may be supposed to be offered from sinister or selfish 
motives, there may nevertheless be instances when their 
refusal does greater harm. A person may for example pro- 
voke enmities which would effectually injure an entire com- 
munity, etc. Under such conditions, whilst simulation would 
be a sin, a person might lawfully dissemble, and even be 
bound to do so from motives of charity. 

Furthermore, as the money thus spent is generally taken 
from funds liberally set aside for the purpose of increasing the 
popularity of the candidates, and is disbursed independently 
of personal considerations, there is hardly any danger that 
he who receives a gift out of the common fund for the pur- 
pose of influencing his vote might thereby unjustly deprive 
another of what belongs to him. Those interested in the 
elections and disbursing money in the promotion of their 
claims are likely aware that they run a certain risk in the 
application of their funds. 

> De Jastitia et Jate Disp., 18, sect. 3, n. 50. * Ibid. n. 51. 


There are other aspects of the case ; however, we believe 
to have answered the difficulty with the support of sufficient 
authority to permit its safe, practical application. B. peccasse 
nobis non videtur, nisi forte contra charitatem, quod ex cir- 
cumstantiis particularibus dijudicandum erit. 



{Seven Churches reported in 1888.) 

Apr. 30, Vesp. de seq. Nulla com. 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 
Maj. I, Fer. 5. Rub. SS. Philippi et Jacobi App. Dupl. i. cl. cum 
Oct. Oflf. ut in Calend. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 

Infr. Oct. et in die Octava fit ut in Calend. pro utroq. Clero 
cum com. Oct. in Vesp. Laud et Miss, (except, fest. Invent. 
S. Crucis) Praef. App. (cum ead. except.) et Cr. Pro 3. Noct 
habentur Lectt. special, in Octavar. 


{Sixteen Churches in 1888.) 

Fest. S. Jacobi perpetuo figend. tanq. Dupl. 2. cl. in 11. Maji, 
pro Clero Romano, in 9. Junii nisi antehac superiori die fuerit 
Apr. 30, Vesp. de seq. Antiph. Vesp. ex Laud, festi, ad Magn. pr. 
Or. de fest. in singul. Nulla com. 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 
Maj. I, Rub. S. Philippi Ap. Dupl. i cl. cum Oct off. de App. temp. 
Fasch. et pr. loc. Lectt. i. Noct. de com. App. 2. Noct. i. pr. 
2. et 3. de com. 3. Noct. ex festo Antiph. ad Laud, et Bened. 
ex festo, reliqua de com. Miss. pr. cum orationibus in singul. 
In 2. Vesp. Antiph. ex Laud, ad Magn. ut in fest. Com. Seq. 
Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 


Infra Oct. et in Oct. pro ulroq. Clero ut in Calend, cum com. 
Oct. in Vesp. Laud, et Miss, (except, festo S. Cruc.) Praef. App. 
(cum ead. except. )et Cr. 


(Oni hundred and fifteen Churches in 1888, dedicated to St. '^ames; 
nearly all of them, however, have for Titular St. yames the Greater, 
honored on July 25th.) 

Fest. S. Philipp. perpetuo figendum tanq, Dupl. 2. cl. 11. 
Maji ; pro Clero Romano, nisi anterius fuerit fixum, 9. Junii. 
Apr. 30, Vesp. de seq. (de com. App.) or. pr. in sing. Nulla com. 

Pro Clero Romano, idem. 
Maj. I. Rub. S. Jacobi Ap. Dupl. i. cl. cum Oct. Off. de App. temp. 
Pasch. et pr. loc. Lectt. i. Noct. ut in fest. 2. Noct. i. et 2. 
pr. 3. de com. App. 3. Noct. et reliqua de com. Miss. PrO' 
texisti or. pr. in sing. Gl. Cr. Evgl. ex Miss. vot. SS. Petri et 
Pauli. In 2. Vesp. (de com. App.) com. seq. 
Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 

Infra Oct. et in Oct. pro utroq. Cler. ut in Calend. cum com. 
Oct. in Vesp. Laud, et Miss, (except, fest. S. Cruc.) Praef. App. 
(cum ead. except.) et Cr. 


{Three Churches in 1888.) 

Maj. I. Vesp. de seq. Com. praec. 

Pro Clero Romano, idem. 
2, Fer. 6. Alb. S. Athanasii Ep. C. D. Dupl. i. d. cum Oct. 
Off. C. P. rit. Pasch. et pr. loc. Lectt. i. Noct. Sapientiam 
Miss. pr. cum Gl. Cr. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 

Infr. Oct. ut in Calend. cum com. Oct. (except fest. Invent. 
S. Cruc.) in Vesp. Laud, et Miss, in qua Cr. 
8, In 2. Vesp. com. Oct. (ut in i. Vesp.) 

Pro Clero Romano, idem. 

Fest. S. Greg. Naz. perpetuo figend. 11. Maji; pro Clero 
Romano, 9. Junii nisi antehac fuerit fixam. 


9, Fer. 6. Alb. Oct. S. Athan, Lectt. i. Noct. de Script, occ. 
2. Noct. ex Octavar, Sollicitissime vel ex Breviar. ut in 
fest. 3. NocL ut in festo vel ut 26 Januar. Dominus diem, 
Reliq. ut in fest. et pro Vesp. ut in Calend. 
Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 


(Fifty-one Churches in i888y among them the Cathedral of Boston^ 

All churches dedicated to the Holy Cross, except those that have for 
title the Exaltation of the H. Cross, have their Titular feast on the 3d 
of May. 

Maj. 2. Vesp. de seq. Nulla com. 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 
3, Sabb. Rub. Inventio SS. Crucis D. N. J. C. Dupl. i. cl. cum 
Oct. off. pr. 9. Lect. incip. a verbo Intendat. Nihil fit de 
Simplic. Jn 2. Vesp. com. seq. et Dom. 
Pro Clirj Romano, omnia ut supra. 

Infr. 0( t. pro utroq. Clero ut in Calend. cum com. Oct. in Vesp. 
Laud, et Miss, in qua Cr. et (except, fest. S. Joan.) Praef. Cruc. 

9, Vesp. de seq. (ut in i Vesp.) com. praec. et SS. Mart. 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 

Fest S. Antonini permanent, mutand. in diem seq./ro Clero 
Romano, in 9. Jan. si non antea fuerit prius fixum. 

10, Sabb. Rub. Oct. Invent. SS. Crucis. Dupl. Lectt. i. Noct de 
Script, occ. 2. et 3. Noct. ex Octavar. pro hac die vel ut in 
festo 9. Lectt. et com. SS. Mart, in Laud, et Miss, ut in fest 
In 2. Vesp. com. seq. et Dom. 

Pro Clero Romano, Omnia ut supra. 

11, Dom. 5. post Pasch. Alb. S. Antonini Ep. C. Dupl. (fix. ex 
heri) off. C. P. rit P. m. et v. et pr. loc. cum 9, Lect. de 
hom. et com. Dom. in Laud, et Miss. In 2. Vesp. com. 
Dom. et seq. 

Pro Clero Romano, S. Alexandri ut in Calend. 


{Nine Churches in 1888). 

Maj. 3, Vesp. de seq. Com. praec et Dom. 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 


4, Dom. 4. post Pasch. Alb. S. Monicae Vid. Dupl. i. cl. cum 
Oct. Off. nee V. nee M. rit. P. ct pr. loe. Lectt i. Noct. 
Mulierem fortem 2. et 3. Noct. pr. 9. Lect. do horn, et com. 
Dom. in Laud, et Miss. pr. cum Gl. Cr. et Evgl. Dom. in 
fine. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. et Dom. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 

5, Fer. 2. S. Pii V. ut in Calend. Lecit. r. NocL Incip. Ep. B. 
Jacob, (ex heri) Com. Oct. in Laud, et Miss, in qua Cr. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 

Infr. Oct. ut in Calend. pro utroq. Cler. cum com. Oct in 
Vesp. Laud, et Miss. 

10, Vesp. a cap. de seq. Com. prsee. et Dom. 

Pro Clero Romano, idem. Fest. S. Alex, nisi jam antea 
fixum, permanent, mutand. in 9. Junii. 

11, Dom. 5. post Pasch. Alb. Oct. S. Monicae Dupl. Leett. i. 
Noct. de Script, oec. 2. Noct. ex Octavar. Duplicia palla vel 
ex Breviar. ut in fest. 3. Noct. ut in Fer. 5. Hebd. 4. 
Quadrag. 9. Lect. de hom. etcom. Dom. in Laud, et Miss, (ut 
in fest.) cum Gl. Cr. et Evgl. Dom. in fine. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 


{Ten Churches in 1888.) 

Maj. 4, Vesp. de seq. m. t. v. Nulla com. 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 
5, Fer. 2. Alb. S. Pii V. Pap. C. Dupl. i. cl. cum Oct. Off. C. P. 
rit. Pasch. ct pr. loc. LeetL i. Noct. Fidelis sermo Miss. 
Statuit cum Gl. ct Cr. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. 
Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 

Infr. Oct. pro utroq. Cler. ut in Calend. cum com. Oct in 
Vesp. Laud, et Miss, in qua Cr. In Domin. omit. com. de 
Cruce et Prec. et dicunL duae tant. orationes. 

1 1, Vesp. de seq. com. Dom. 

Pro Clero Romano. Vesp. a cap. de seq. com Dom. Fest. SS. 
Nerei et Soc. permanent, mutand. in diem seq. pro Clero Ro- 
mans in 9. Junii nisi jam fuerit anterius fixum. 

12, Fer. 2. Rogat. Alb. Oct. S. Pii Dupl. Lectt. r. Noct. Fidelis 


sermo. 2. Noct. ex Octavar. Tantum debel vel ex Breviar. ut 
in fest. 3. Noct. ex Octavar. Datur unicuique vel ut in 
fest. 9. Lect. de horn. et. com. Fer. 2. Rogat. tant, in Laud, 
et Miss, ut in fest. cum Evgl. Fer. in fin. In 2. Vesp. com. 
seq. tant. — Pro reliq. vd. Calend. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. Vesp. a cap. de seq. 
Com. praec. 

12, Fer. 3 Rogat. Rub. SS. Nerei. A Soc. Mart. (fix. ex heri) 
semid. Mutat. mutandis ut heri. Lectt. i. Noct. de Script, occ. 
In Miss. 2. or. Rogat. 3. B. M. V. Concede. Evgl. S. Joan, in 
fin. In 2. Vesp. pro iis qui off. vot. utunt. com. seq. 
Pro Clero Romano, ut in Calend. 


{There are over thirty Churches in the United States reported as 
dedicated to St. Stanislas and St. Stanislas Kostka. Most of the former^ 
howeter, have also for title St. Stanislas Kostka, not the Bishop, Martyr.) 

Maj. 6, Vesp. de seq. Nulla com. 

Pro Clero Romano, idem. — Fest. S. Bened. II. perpetuo 
figend. 13. Maji. 
7, Fer. 4. Rub. S. Stanislai Ep. M. Dupl. i. cl. cum Oct. Off. 
Mart. temp. Pasch. et pr. loc. Lectt. i. Noct. A Mileto 
Reliq. ut in Calend. cum Cr. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 
Fer. 5, 6. Sabb, (Dom. tiizra. pro Clero Romano) ut in Calend. 
cum com. Oct. in Vesp. Laud, et Miss, in qua Cr. 

11, Dom. 5. post Pasch. Rub. ut in Calend. cum com. Oct tant 
Omitt. com. de Cruce et Prec. 

12, Fer. 2. ut in Calend. cum com. Oct. in Laud, et Miss, ante 
com. Rogat. Omitt. com. de Cruc. Prec. et Or. B. M. V. in 
Miss, in qua Cr. Vesp. a cap. de seq. com. praec. 

Pro Clero Romano, ut supra. Vesp. de seq. com. praec. et 

13, Fer. 3. Rogat Rub. De Oct Gemid. Lectt. i. Noct. de Script 
occ. 2. Noct Quibus ego vos laudibus. 3. Noct. ex Octavar. 
Ego sum viiis vel ex Breviar. ut in fest. Nulla com. ad Laud. 


nec Prfc. Miss, ut in fest. 2. or. Rogat. 3. B. M. V. GI. Cr. 
Vcsp. de seq. ut in i. Vesp. fest. Com. S. Bonif. M. 

Pro Clero Romano, Alb. S. Bened. II. Pap. C. Dupl. (fixum 
ex 7. hujus) ut in Calend. ad ist. diem cum com. Oct. in Laud, 
et Miss, in qua Gl. Cr. 3. or. Rogat. Vesp. a cap. de seq. Com. 
prsec. et S. Bonif. M. — Fest. S. Paschal, perpetuo mutand. in 
9. Junii. 
14, Fer. 4. Rogat. et Vig. Ascens. Rub. Oct. S. Stanislai Dupl. 
Lectt. I. Noct. a Mileto 2. Noct. ex Octavar. Sump/us ad 
turrim vel ex Breviar. ut in fest 3. Noct. ex Octavar. Ea 
de causa, vel ut in festo 9. Lect. de hom. et com. Vig. et S. 
Mart, in Laud. Miss, ut in fest. cum Gl. 2. or. Vig. 3. Rogat. 
4. S. Mart. Cr. et Evgl. Vig. in fin. Vesp. de seq. sine com. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 


(^One Church in 1888.) 

Maj. 10, Fest. celebr. ut Dupl. i cl. sine com. Lectt. i. Noct. A. 

Mileto. Dicit. Cr. per tot. Oct. et fit hujus com. in Vesp. 

Laud, et Miss, fit de Oct. Maj. 13 et 14. 
Maj. 17, Oct S. Anton. — Fest. S. Pasch. Baylon perpetuo mutand. 

in 21. Maj. et pro Clero Romano, fest. S. Joan. Nepom. in 9. 

Junii nisi antehac prius fuerit fixum. Pro celebr. Octav. Cfi". 

Octava S. Pii V. supra. 


{Three Churches in i888.) 
Omnia ut in Calend. pro utroq. Clero ad 1 5. Maji. 


{Sixteen Churches in 1888.) 

Fest. S. Ubaldi permanenter mutand. in 22. hujus, ubi hoc 
anno ejus com. tantum. Pro Clero Romano, in 17. hujus. 
Maj. 15, In 2. Vesp. Com. seq. (or. pr.) 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 
16, Fer. 6. Rub. S. Joannis Nepom. M. Dupl. i. cl. cum Oct. 
Off. Mart. temp. Pasch. et pr. loc. (Legend, prius ex duob. off. 


in fin. Brev. nisi ubi secund. specialiter concessum). Lectt. i. 
Noct. A Mileto Omit. com. Oct. Miss. Protexisti cum Gl. 
Evgl. Nihil est opertum et Cr. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. tant. 
Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 

17, Sabb. S. Pasch. Bayl. ut in Calend. cum com. 2. Octt. 
Lectt. I. Noct. Incip. Ep. 2. S. Petri. 

Pro Clero Romano, Alb. S. Ubald. Episc. C. Semid. (fix. ex 
heri) ut in Calend. ad 16. mutatis mutand. com. 2. Octt. 

Infr. reliq. hebd. pro utroq. Cler. ut in Calend. cum com. 
Oct. in Vesp. Laud, et Miss, in qua Cr. 
21 et 22, loc. com. S. Joan. Nep. fit com. S. Ubald. hcijusq. 

9. Lect. 
23, Fer. 6. Rub. Oct. S. Joan. Nepom. Dupl. Lectt. i. Noct. 
ut in Calend. 2. Noct. Quibus ego vos laudibus. vel ut in fest. 
3. Noct.ex Octavar. Si tanta est vel ut in festo. Miss, ut in 
fest. cum Gl. Cr. et Praef. Ascens. In 2. Vesp. com. Fer. 6. 
post Oct. Ascens. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. Fest. S. J. B. de 
Rossi mutand. in 9. Junii nisi jam anterius fixum. 


{^Three Churches in 1888.) 

Maj. 17, Vesp. de seq. com. Dom. tant. 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 

18, Dom. infr. Oct. Ascens. Rub. S. Venantii M. Dupl. i. cl. 
cum Oct. partial, off. Mart. temp. Pasch. et pr. loc. Lectt. i. 
Noct. A Mileto 9. Lect. de horn, et com. Dom. tant. in Laud, 
et Miss, cum reliq. ut in Calend. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. et 
Dom. tant. 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 

19, Lectt. I. Noct. Incip. Ep. B. Joan. Ap. (ex heri) Com, 2, 
Oct. 20, 21, 22 ut in Calend. cum com. Oct. Titul. 

23, Fer. 6. Alb. De Oct. 6. die Semid. Lectt. r. Noct. Inc. Ep. 
3 . B. Joan. 2 . Noct. Dignum et congruum 3. Noct. ex Oc- 
tavar. Manentes ergo vel ut in fest. Com. Fer. 6. post Oct. 
Ascens. in Laud, et Miss, (ut in fest.) cum Gl. 3. or. B. M. V. 
Concede. Cr. et Praef. Ascens. In 2. Vesp. com. Fer. 


Pro Clero Romano, ut in Calend. cura com. Oct et Cr. 
Hie clauditur Oct. S. Venantii. 


{One Church in 1888.) 

19, Vesp. de seq. Nulla com. 
Pro Clero Romano, idem. 

20, Fer. 3. Alb. S. Bernardin. Senens. C. Dupl. i. cl. cum Oct. 
partial off. C. non P. Rit. Pasch. et pr. loc. Lectt. i. Noct. 
Justus si moru una or. in Laud. Miss, et Vesp. Reliq. ut in 

Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. 
21 et 22, ut in Calend. cum com. Titul. 

21, Fer 6. Alb. De Oct, 4. die Semid. Lectt. i. Noct. ut in 
Calend. 2. NocL ex Octavar. quantum autem vel ex Breviar. 
.5^aA' (Bernardini) dies 3. Noct. ex Octavar. Si centuplum vel 
ut in fest. Com. Fer. 6. post Oct. Ascens. in Laud, et Miss, 
(ut in fest ) cum 01. 3. or. B. M. V. Concede Cr. et Praef. 
Ascens. In 2. Vesp, com. Fer. 

Pro Clero Romano, ut in Calend. cum com. Oct. et Cr. 
Hie clauditur Octava S. Bernardini. 


{Fourteen Churches in 1888.) 

25, Dom Pentecostes. Rub. Dupl. i. cl. cum Oct. privil. 
Omnia ut in Calend. per. totam Octavam pro utroq. Clero. 

Any other Titulars that may occur in the month of May after the 23d 
must this year, on account of the Feast and Octave of Pentecost, be 
transferred for the common Calendar to the 2d of June, and for the 
Roman Calendar to the 9th of that month. Among them are the B. 
Virgin, Help of Christians, St. Mary Magdalene de Pazzi, (fix. June 
8. in Rom. Calend.) St. Philip Neri, and St. Augustine of Canterbury. 

H. Gabriels. 



The Preface of a " Transferred" Patron. 

When the solemn celebration of the Patronal feast of a 

church is transferred to the following Sunday, the preface, 

unless the Patron have one which is proper, is to be de SS, 

Trinitate or de tempore. 

S, R. C. die 10 Feb. 1888, in Nanneten. 

" Churching" the Mother of a Child that has Died without 


Qu. A woman whose child has died without Baptism 
comes to be churched. In the form Benedictio mulieris post 
partum occur the words : Prassta ut post hanc vitam ad 
aeternae beatitudinis praemia cum prole sua pervenire merea- 
tur. — ist. Is the woman to be churched ? 2d. What form is 
to be used, since the prayer of the Ritual seems in this case 
to contain a useless petition, as the child cannot attain to the 
ceternce beatitudinis prcemia. 

Resp. The S. C. decides that the woman is to be churched, 
and that the ordinary form, without change or omission, is to 
be used. As the latter admits of a wider interpretation than 
the one implied in the above question, there appears no 
reason for hesitating about its use. 


Consueverunt mulieres post partum coram sacerdote se 
sistere pro benedictione accipienda, etiamsi proles mortua 
fuerit quandoque sine Baptismo. In illo tamen -casu verba 

orationum Ritualis Romani verificari non possunt, et 

aliunde benedictio non omitteretur sine aliqua admiratione 
plebis, et sine aggravatione moeroris mulierum hujusmodi. 
Quaeritur quid agendum, et utrum liceat, demptis iis, quae 
non verificantur, postquam mulier in ecclesiam introducta 
foret, substituta aliqua oratione ex iis, quae in Missali con- 
tinentur, benedictionem prout in Rituali impertiri ? 


Resp. Servandum omnino Ritualc Romanum. 

S. R. C. die 12 Sept. 1857. 
n. 5251 ad XX. 

Indulgences of the " Agnus Dei." 

Qu. Are the Indulgences attached to the "Agnus Dei" 
as blessed by the Sovereign Pontiff, (i. e. pieces of wax, 
several inches in diameter, with the form of a lamb imprinted 
upon them) also applied in the case of the small particles 
into which these larger pieces are divided and made into 
various forms of hearts, etc.? All the authorities which I 
have consulted speak only of the large form, and seem to 
require the image of the lamb expressed upon it as an essen- 
tial feature of the " Agnus Pei." 

Resp. It is an error to suppose that there are indulgences 
attached to the " Agnus Dei," whether large or small. If 
any author mentions such, they are not authentic. The 
benedictions of the Church as imparted by the Sovereign 
Pontiff through the prayers and invocations which he pro- 
nounces in blessing the pure wax taken from the Paschal 
candle give a certain virtue to the same, by which those 
who devoutly wear a portion of it are protected from physical 
and moral evils, such a sickness, unforeseen dangers, tempta- 
tion, and the like. 

That the same virtue is attached to the small particles of 
wax which are enveloped in figures of hearts and the like, 
made of silk or other material, that they might be more con- 
veniently worn by the faithful, appears from a note of Gar- 
dellini, who, speaking of the blessing of the Paschal candle, 
sa3's: " Olim dispertiebantur populo particulae Cerei Pas- 
chalis ad suffumigandum una cum thure, pio ac religioso 
animo ad avertenda mala, bonaque postulanda. Est ea se- 
cundaria Cerei Paschalis institutionis causa. Quemadmodum 
vero substituti fuerunt cerei Agmts Dei ad excitandam reti- 
nendamque baptismi memoriam in recenter baptizatis, et pro 
cereo Paschali sive hujus particula parvi Cerei ipsis dabantur, 


ita et Cerei Agnus Dei post modum pro Cerei magni particula 
et pro parvis cereis populo distribui cceperunt, et praecipuo 
fini, qui fuit in illorum institutione, ut Deus illis utentibus 
mala averteret, etc. ' 

The Absolutio Post Missam de Requie. 

Qu. Can a priest who has not sung the Mass "de Requie " 
give the absolution after it, especially if he is to preach on the 
occasion ? 

Resp. The "absolution " should be given by the celebrant 
of the Mass himself, except in the case where a Bishop is 
present at the obsequies, when the latter may give the ab- 
solution, although he did not say the Mass. 


Juxta Decretum S. R. Congregationis die 12 Augusti 1854 
in Briocen. solus Episcopus jure gaudet absolvendi post mis- 
sam in die obitus, quin illam celebraverit et per Decretum 
die 21 Julii 1855 i^^ Briocen. declaratum: Congruum esse ut 
absolutio fiat ab ipso sacerdote qui missam celebravit, non ab 
alio di verso. Quum non una sit sententia sacerdotum Dice' 
cesis Bajonen. circa sensum harum declarationum; idcirco 
sacram Congregationem enixe rogat orator ut certam indu- 
biamque praefinire dignetur rationem, per quam errandi liber- 
tas auferatur. 

Sacra porro eadem Congregatio, referente infrascripto 
Secretario audito voto in scriptis alterius ex Apostolicarum 
Caeremoniarum Magistris, propositis dubiis rescribendum 
censuit : 

Congruum est ut absolutio fiat abipso celebrante juxta 
'Decretum in Briocen. die 21 Julii 1855, nisi adsit Episcopus, 
juxta alias Decreta. Atque ita rescripsit et servari mandavit 
die 25 Septembris 1875. 

(Deer. auth. 5637, ad VII.) 

' Cf. Muehlbauer, Decreta, toI. I., Cereus Pasch. 


The Clergy in the Sanctuary Genuflecting during Ferial 


Qti. The clergy who are in the Sanctuary (in choro), except 
Prelates and Chanters, genuflect in ferial masses during Lent, 
Advent, Quartertenscs (except Pentecost) and on all but the 
privileged Vigils of Easter, Pentecost, and Christmas, from 
the " Sanctus" to the *' Pax Domini." So say the Rubrics of 
the Missal. Does this mean to the " Pax Domini " inclusive 
or exclusive ? 

Resp. It means to the " Pax Domini " inclusive, that is, the 
Master of Ceremonies gives the sign for the clergy to rise, 
after the celebrant has finished singing the " Pax Domini sit 
semper vobiscum." 


Ex Rub'ricis GeneralibusMissalis Tit. XVII n. 5 in Missis 
Feriarum Adventus, etc., genuflcctcre debent omnes in cho- 
ro ; dicto per celebrantem Sanctus usque ad Pax Domini; 
quaeritur utrum haec rubrica intelligenda sit usque ad Pax 
Domini inclusive vel exclusive ? 

S. R. C. resp. Inclusive usque ad Pax Domini per cele- 

Die 29 Dec. 1884 (Deer. auth. 5929 ad XI.) 

Blessing of the Baptismal Font on the Eve of Pentecost. 

We referred last year to a comparatively recent decree of 
the S. Congregation of Rites (Cf. American Eccl. Review, 
1889, p. 155), stating that the blessing of the Font on the Eve 
of Pentecost is oblisfatory. We call attention to the clause 
in this decree which says that all custom to the contrary is 
to be eliminated " non obstante quncumque contraria consue- 
tudine, quae omnino eliminari debet." 

On the day before the blessinsf, the Font is emptied and 
cleaned, (some water being reserved for cases of necessitv 


which may occur in the mean time; which water is afterwards 
thrown into the sacrarium). For the Blessing the same rite 
is observed as on Holy Saturday, except the omission of the 
Flectamus Genua. 



Privileges accorded to priests participating in the work of the 
Propagation of the Faith. 

The *' Annales de la Propagation de la Foi," num. 367, 
Nov. 1889, bring the following letter and Pontifical Rescript, 
by which certain privileges are accorded to priests who 
take part in the work. We give the original text in French, 
as the document has already been full}'^ explained in another 
part of this number. 

Tr6s Saint P^re, 

Les Presidents des Conseils centraux de I'Oeuvre de la 
Propagation de la Foi, humblement prostern6s aux pieds de 
Votre Saintet6, La supplient instamment de daigner ac- 
corder k perp6tuit6 les faveurs et facult^s enonc6cs ci-dessous 
aux pr^tres qui serviront la dite Oeuvre dans les conditions 
exprim6es ci-aprfes, k savoir : 

I. A tout pretre qui sera charg6 dans une paroisse ou dans 
un 6tablissement de recueillir des aum6nes pour I'Oeuvre de 
la Propagation de la Foi, quelle que soit d'ailleurs la somme 
qu'il recueille, ou qui de ses propres ressources versera dans 
la caisse de I'Oeuvre le produit d'une dizaine entiere: 

1° La faveur de I'autel privil6gi6 trois fois par semaine. 

20 Le pouvoir d'appliquer les indulgences suivantes: aux 
fiddles qui sont k I'article de la mort, I'indulgence pl6ni^re; 
aux chapelets ou rosaires, croix, crucifix, images, statuettes et 
m6dailles, les indulgences apostoliques ; aux chapelets, les 
indulgences dites de sainte Brigitte. 



3° La facult6 d'attacher aux crucifix les indulgences du 
Chemin de la Croix. 

II. A tout prfetre membrc d'un Conseil ou d'un Comit^ 
charg6 de vcillcr aux int6r6ts de I'Oeuvre, etc. 

A tout prfitre qui, dans rann6e, aura vers6 k la caisse de 
rOeuvre une somme r6presentant au moins le produit de 
mille souscriptions, quelle que soil d'ailleurs la provenance 
de cette somme : 

1° Les mSmes faveurs que les pretres de la cat6gorie pr6- 

2° La faveur de I'autel privil6gi6 personnel cinq fois par 

3° La faveur de b6nir les croix en y attacliant les induU 
ijences appliques ^ I'exercice du Chemin de la Croix, et de 
plus le pouvoir d'imposer le cordon et le scapulaire s6ra- 
phiqucs avec toutes les indulgences et les privileges accord^s 
a cette imposition par les Souverains Ponlifes. 

4^^ Le pouvoir de b^nir et d'imposer aux fiddles les sca- 
pulaires du Mont-Carmel, de I'lmmacul^e-Conception et de la 
Passion de Notrc-Seigneur. 

Dans le cas ou les sommes ti recueillir seraient momentan^- 
ment incompletes, les susdits Presidents implorent de Votre 
Saintet6 la prorogation des pouvoirs du pretre qui aura fait 
deversement integral de I'ann^e pr6c6dente, jusqu'a la cloture 
le I'exercice courant. 

III. Tout prStre qui versera en une fois de ses propres 
ressources une somme repr^sentant le produit de mille sous- 
criptions aura droit toute sa vie aux faveurs accord6es aux 
prStres membres d'un Conseil. 

Ex Audieniia SSmi habit a die 4 (5 ?) Augusti 1889. 
SSmus Dominus noster Leo divina Providentia PP. XIII, 
referente me infrascripto Archiepiscopo Tyren., S. Congrega- 
tionis de Propaganda Fide Secretario, expetitas extcnsiones 
indulgentiarum concedere dignatus est, easque in perpctuum 
pio operi tribuit, excepta facultate benedicendi coronas, quam 
non ultra quinquennium concessit. 


Datum Romx ex aedibus dictae Congregationis die et anno 
ut supra. 

L. S. Pro R. P. D. Secretario, 

Philippus Borroni, substitutus. 


By the following Decree the Sovereign Pontiff grants to 
all the faithful who on fifteen successive Saturdays devoutly 
recite at least five decades of the Rosary (or otherwise 
honor the sacred mysteries of the Rosary) an Indulgence of 
seven years and seven times forty days for each of the fifteen 
Saturdays, and a Plenary Indulgence once during that time, 
under the usual conditions of Confession, H. Communion, 
and prayer for the Sovereign Pontiff. These Indulgences 
are likewise applicable to the Souls in Purgatory. 


Urbis et Orbis ; quo conccditur Indulgentia Christifidelibus piuvt 
exercitiuin quindecim Sabbathormn in honorent Dciparce 
sub titulo Sanctissimi Rosarii peragentibus. 

Pluribus abhinc annis Sodales Confraternitatum SSi Rosa- 
rii consueverunt singulare pietatis obsequium Bmae Mariae 
Virgin! tribuere quindecim Sabbathis, hand interruptis, vel 
immediate ante festum ejusdem B. Mariae Virginis sub me- 
morato titulo, vel etiam quolibet infra annum tempore. Haec 
autem pia praxis sacris jam Indulgcntiis a summis Pontifici- 
bus pro supradictis tantummodo sodalibus ditata, in eo sita 
est, ut nempe singulis praefatis Sabbathis sodales accedant 
ad sacramenta Confessionis et SS. Eucharistias, simulque ali- 
quem devotionis actum eliciant in honorem quindecim 
Mysteriorum, quas recensentur in marialibus precibus SSi 
Rosarii. Modo vero quum apud Christifideles usus exhi- 
bendi hujusmodi obsequium B. Marias Virgini frequentissi- 
mus invaluerit, preces dclatas sunt SS. Domino Nostro 
Leoni Papas XIII, ut etiam Christifidelibus devote peragen- 


tibiis hoc pium exercitium coelestes Indulgentiarum the- 
sauros benigne reserare dignaretur, Porro Sanctitas sua, 
cui summopere cordi est, ut erga B. Virginem sub titulo SS. 
Rosarii cultus foveatur et pietas, relatas preces in audientia 
habita die 21 Scptembiis 1889 ab infrascripto Secretario S. 
Congregationis Indulgentiis sacrisque Reliquiis praepositae 
peramanter excepit et, alia quaecumque abrogata Indulgen- 
tia, quae fortasse pro universis Christifidelibus eidem pio ex- 
ercitio quomodolibet fuerit adnexa, omnibus utriusque sexus 
Christifidelibus, qui in singulis haud interruptis quindecim 
Sabbathis vel immediate praecedentibus idem festura B. 
Mariae Virginis sub titulo SS. Rosarii, vel etiam quolibet in- 
fra annum tempore vere pcEnitentes, confessi ac sacra Com- 
munione refecti, tertiam saltem SS. Rosarii partem devote 
recitaverint, vel aliter ejusmodi SS. Rosarii mysteria pie re- 
coluerint, Plenariam Indulgentiam, defunctis quoque applica- 
bilem, semel tantum in uno ex supradictis Sabbathis unius- 
cujusque arbitrio eligendo, benigne concessit ; in reliquis 
vero quatuordecim Sabbathis Indulgeniiam septem annorum 
iotidemque quadragcnarum animnbus pariter in Purgatorio 
detentis applicabilem, clementer elargitus est. Praesenti in 
perpetuum valituro absque ulla Brevis expeditione. Con- 
trariis quibuscumque non obstantibus. Datura Romae ex 
Secretaria ejusdem S. Congregationis die 21 Sept. 1889. 
Pro Emo ac Rmo Dno C. Card. Cristofori, Praefecto, 
Aloisius Card. Episcopus Sabinensis. 
Alexander Episc. Oensis, Secretarius. 


We subjoin some of the principal works placed on the 
Index Librorum, since December 1886, which circulate in 
this country, and which Catholics are prohibited from read- 
ing or circulating on account of the errors or the dangerous 
tendency which they contain in regard to faith and morals. 


G. Hahn, S. J., Professeur de physiologic au College de la 
Comp. de J^sus a Louvain. Bruxelles, Alfred Vromant, im- 
primeur 6diteur, 1883. Les PhJnomines Histdriques et les Re- 
velations de Sainte ThMse. 

Deer. S. Rit. C. Die i Dec. 1885. 
The author retracted his erroneous opinions and censured 
his work. 

Deer. II Jan. 1886. 

Henri Des Houx. Souvenir d'xin Journaliste Franqais it 
Rome. Paris, Paul OUendorf, 6diteur. 1886. 

Deer. I Apr. 1886. 
The author retracted and censured his work. 

Deer. 25 Jan. 1886. 

Casus Moralis. Pisis, 1886. Typ. Mariotti. Dec. S. Off. 
Per. IV. die 15 Sept. 1886. 

Deer. 31 Dec. 1886. 

G. B. Savarese, auctor opusculi cujus titulus : La scom- 
tniinica di un idea. — Riposta al Card. Vicario di Roma. 

Dec. S. Off. Per. IV. die 26 Nov. 1884. 
The author retracted and censured his work. 

Deer. 14 Dec. 1886. 

Le Pape et I Allemagne. — Rome, Typogr. Rue Arcione, iii, 
I Mar. 1887. 

Deer. 10 Mar. 1887. 

Henri Lasserre. Les Saints Evangiles, traduction nouvelle. 
Paris, 1887. 

Francois Lenormant. Les origines de Vhistoire d'aprh la 
Bible et les traditions des peuples orientaux. — De la creation de 



Vhommc au deluge. Vol. \.— V humanity notivelle et la dispersion 
despeuples. Vol. II. 1 880-1882- 1883. 

The author, before his death, retracted everything in his 
works that may be found censurable in the judgment of the 

Deer. 19 Dec, 1887. 

Augusto Pierantoni, Professore ordinario della R. Univer- 
sity di Roma. Trattatodidirittointernazionale. Vol. I. Pro- 
legomeni. Sloria dell' anlichitd al 1400. Roma. Forzani 

e C, tipogr. del Senato. 

Deer. 14 Dec. 1888. 

Roma e I Italia e la realth delle cose, pensieri di un Prelato 
Italiano. Opusculo estratto dalla Rassegna Nazionale an. 
XI., Vol. XLVI., I Mar. 1889. Firenze. 

Deer. 13 Apr. 1889. 

// Rosmini Enciclopedia di Scienze e Lettere redatta da un 

Consiglio di Direzione composto di Scrittori accreditati net di- 

versi rami del sapere. Milano. Deer. S. Off. Fer. IV. die 

29, Mai. 1889. 

Deer. 14 June 1889. 

Jean de Bonnefon. Le Pape de demain. Paris, E. Dentu. 
1889. Deer. S. Off. die 14 Junii 1889. 

Deer. 4 Dec. 1889. 



The number opens with an account of the introductory process of the 
Canonization of Princess Louise, in religion. Sister Th^rhede S. Augus- 
Hn, who died in the odor of sanctity in a Carmelite Convent of Saint 



D^nis in 1787. The process of Beatification had been begun in 1685. 
The traditions of her community and the contemporary history attesting 
her extraordinary virtues cover an immense field. They consist mainly 
of ancient manuscript chronicles kept in the monastery of Autun, where 
the nuns, who had lived seventeen years with the saint, went after the 
restoration in France. There are also a great number of letters and 
memorials written by those who had known her personally. Some 700 
letters were presented to the H. Father, coming from eminent persons, 
asking to have the cause introduced. Among these the first is from 
the hand of the Count De Chambord, a lineal descendant of the royal 
house to which the holy Princess belonged. She was the daughter 
of Louis XV., king of France, and the noble Mary Leszczinska. At 
her baptism, which she received on the day of her birth, she was called 
Aloysia Maria. Even as an infant she was intrusted to the care of the 
nuns at the royal abbey Fontevrault, where at the age of eight she re- 
ceived the Sacrament of Confirmation and her first H. Communion. At 
fourteen she returned to court Accounts which we have here give a 
brief but lovely picture of her gentle yet withal fervent disposition. At 
sixteen she happened to be present at the reception of the Carmelite 
habit by a young noblewoman, and forthwith the desire to spend her 
life in religion took hold of her. Her delicate health and her mother's 
wishes prevented her for years from carrying out the most cherished 
desire of her heart. On April nth 1770, at the age of thirty-three, she 
felt herself free to leave the court of Versailles and cast herself into the 
arms of her longed-for Spouse. She died seventeen years later the 
most precious of deaths, and the instinct of those who had loved her in 
life sought and found her aid after her death. " Deus operatur mira- 
cula ad demonstrandam sanclitatem alicujus quern vult proponere in 
exemplum virtutum." S. Thom. II., 2, qu. 28, art. i. 

The final portion of the treatise Doctoral de S. Alphonse deals with the 
ascetical works of the Saint and their practical value. It establishes, with 
reference to what has been previously argued, the solidity of the dogmatic 
and moral doctrine of St. Alphonsus, and points to his efficient adminis- 
tration as bishop and religious founder as a' conclusive proof of this. 
The conclusion is a magnificent piece of work, both in point of style, 
every line betraying the Tullian power and harmonious movement of 
thought and expression, and also as a summing up of the entire argu- 
ment, " Satis multa mihi videor dixisse, ut objecta omnia, quae dili- 



gentia censoris sollertissimi contra emincntem S. Alphonsi doctrinam 
rei.)erire potuit, refutareni prorsus atque diluerem. Sed antequam 
orationi finem imponam, 1 ceat mihi, iul instar viatoris longum iter 
emensi per amocna el florentia v%eta, consisieie paulisjier et ea respici- 
endo quae pulcherrinia visa sunt, nonnihil ab exantlato labore recreari." 
One is strongly reminded of the defense *' Pro Archia poeta" in the 
very words the auth'^r uses to set forth the eminent gifts of his holy 
client and withal patron. " Tanla autem vis ingenii, tanta dicendi 
facultas in co eluxit, ut legentes jucundissime alliciat et in sui admira- 
tionem rapiat. Utilitas demum ex illius scriptis tanta obvenit universe 
populo christiano, ui nulla pars sit catholici orbis, in qua mentes com- 
plunum non illustrarit, vel corda non moverit ad colendam virlutem, 
et ad charitatem non incendcrit." As examples the writer cites the 
doctrine of the saint in regard to the vexed questit n o{ gratia efficax and 
gratia sufficiens; the book on iht glories of Mary; his defence of the 
Primacy and Infallibility ; his exposition of the system of cBquiprobabil- 
ism, etc., all of which works prove that he has a just claim to the title 
of Doctor Ecclesiae. 

The article Le Concile de 2'rente et la Coutume is a rather severe stric- 
ture of the teaching of Mgr. Santi, vho has since died, in his work on 
Canon Law published a few years ago. Santi, it appears, maintained 
that, although the Council of Trent had abrogated previous customs 
contrary to the Canons of the universal Church, new customs might in 
course of time obtain the force of law against the decrees of Trent. 
Tlie writer in the Analecta shows that this opinion is directly opposed 
to the constant teaching of unquestionable authorities in the whole' 
range of ecclesiastical jurisprudence. 

The Melanges Liturgiquts bring the continuation of decisions of the 
S. Congregation, beginning with Sept. 1882, to Jan. 1884. Some of 
these have already been j)ublished in the Am. Eccl. ReviiW. 

STIMMEN AUS MARIA-LAACH. Freiburg Brisg. xxxviii. 3. 
"The Pedagogy of Our divine Lord " is an interesting study of the 
gospel narrative. It brings out the characteristic qualities of Christ as 
a teacher and examines His methods and His success. The author, 
Father Moschler, S. J., shows how the requisites of a guod teacher, 
namely, authority, love, prudence, and disinterestedness are marked fea- 
tures in the personality of Our Lord. He then points out His methods. 
The true and right art of educating keeps principally four things in 


view : the end and aim of the education which is to be imparted ; the 
nature and character of the pupil ; the special means at the command 
of the teacher, and the manner in whjph they are to be employed to at- 
tain their proper object. The author shows how Our Lord, in following 
out the fundamental principles of education for heaven, adapts himself 
to the different characters and stations of His hearers. With the poor 
He is gentle, forbearing, seeks them out and anticipates their needs. 
With the princes and great ones of the earth He is reserved until they 
approach Him, then He fulfils their wishes kindly and simply, without 
allowing any show of extraordinary gratitude. Beautiful is the manner 
in which the writer draws out Our Lord's conduct towards Nicode- 
mus. He makes the learned scribe feel his inferiority as a teacher, yet 
there is a cordial forbearance in the manner in which He reproves him. 
But these features of Our Lord's life must be thoughtfully studied to 
be appreciated. The manner in which He trains His apostles is es- 
pecially fruitful inasmuch as it points out how, whilst teaching them 
all, He educates them separately. Finally the writer points to the suc- 
cess of Our Lord's method. God is the teacher of mankind for all 
times. His methods are essentially efficient. They who abandon 
themselves to His guidance become the most perfect, often from having 
been the most wretched sinners. But Our Lord as an educator counts 
failures also. They are many, and come where we least expect them, 
as in the case of Judas. Still, where the seed fell on good ground, 
where the Master's loving lesson called forth the sweet acknowledgment: 
Rabboni — mine, there it lasted, aye, and produced fruits such as na 
secular education can ever hope to bring forth. 

Of similar character as the above is an excellent review of a number 
of writings on the subject of pedagogy by Overberg, F6nelon, St. Je- 
rome, Alcuin, and Hrabanus Maurus, part of an educational series pub- 
lished by Ferd. Schoeningh of Paderborn. 


usum seninariorum. 4. Ed. Paris and Lyons. 1889. (122 pag.) 

The fact that the author, Ca-tion Alldgre, has made his studies unde^ 
the best Roman canonists, Santi, De Angelis, Roncetti, leads us a 



prion to expect to find this an excellent work. The favorable reception 
accorded the little work upon its first appearance, in 1885, the laudatory 
criticism bestowed upon it by competent judges in France, Germany, 
and Italy, and the appearance of four editions within so short a time, 
can only tend to strengthen our expectation. And, indeed, after an 
attentive perusal we must say, that the orderly and logical exposition, 
as well as the easy, flowing, and withal extremely precise language have 
impressed us very favorably. This favorable impression is, no doubt, due 
also in part to the quotations from various authors and ecclesiastical doc- 
uments, in which the work abounds. In fact, the learned canon shows 
that he is perfectly familiar with the works of others bearing upon his 
subject, also with such as have appeared outside of France, and thor- 
oughly conversant with the decisions of the Church touching the many 
important points of matrimony. Space forbids our entering into details. 
Suffice it to say, that the subject-matter of the work is the same as that 
to be found in our ordinary compendiums in the treatise de Matrimonio; 
the form, however, is quite different; the author has avoided thecut-and- 
dried form of the class-book, adopted a lively and pleasing stylo, and 
thus produced a very readable work. 

A few remarks may be of interest to our readers. On page 45 AU^gre 
informs us, upon the authority of Papp-Szilagyi, that the Greeks do 
not regard the eighth degree of consanguinity or affinity according to 
the reckoning of the Roman civil law, which, as is well known, obtains 
throughout the Oriental Church, or the fourth degree according to canon 
law, as an impedimentum dirimens, and that marriages within this de- 
gree are contracted without a dispensation. This is perfectly true; 
Mansella (S. C. de Prop. Fide pro Rituum Orienlalium negotiis 
Officialis, etc., De Impedimentis Matr. dir., Romae. 1881, p. 38 ) tells 
us the same thing. The practice is tolerated rather than approved of by 
the Holy See. Rome has repeatedly endeavored to enforce throughout 
the Oriental church the observance of this general law in its entire ex- 
tension. The proofs are to be found in the Collectio Lacensis, Vol. II. 
(pp. 163, 172, 330, 422, 440, 448, 476, 517). These efforts proved 
successful only among the Maronites and the few Greeks in Italy, the 
so-called Italo-Graeci, to be met with chiefly in Southern Italy and Sicily, 
and numbering about 60,000. As regards the remaining Greeks and 
other Orientals, it was deemed advisable, owing to unfavorable circum- 
stances, to urge them no further in this matter. Not even the letter of 


Innocent IV. to Otto, Cardinal-legate at Cyprus, was published. (Coll. 
Lac. II. p. 448.) A small number of Greek-Catholics have also found 
their way into our own country. Three Greek-Catholic pari.«hes have 
been formed in the diocese of Scranton, Pa. They are composed of 
emigrants from Hungary and other eastern parts of Austria, the home 
of some 7,000,000 Greeks, — those of Bosnia and Herzegovina not in- 
cluded, — of whom 4 ,000,000 are in union with Rome, the remaining 
3,000,000 being schismatics. As on the one hand these members of 
the Catholic Church in the East observe rites differing considerably from 
the Latin rite of the West, and as in matters of jurisprudence, too, they 
are not in full accord with the Roman canon law, as appears from the ex- 
ample given by All^gre; and as on the other hand the Roman Pontiffs 
have again and again insisted upon the retention of these rites, and have 
forbidden the transition from one rite to another (Cfr. Zitelli: Appara- 
tus juris eccl. Roma 1886. p. 247-260), it follows that we also must 
take these facts into consideration in our dealings with such of these 
people as have taken up their abode among us. One or the other of 
our priests, engaged in the practical work of the ministry, may therefore 
find it desirable or necessary to make himself acquainted with the 
peculiarities of these people. To such a one we would recommend, as 
a safe guide, a work written by the learned and zealous Greek-Roma- 
nian bishop of Grosswardein, Hungary, Mgr. Jos. Papp-Szilagyi, and 
published at the beginning of his episcopal career imder the title " En- 
chiridion juris Ecclesise orientalis catholicae.'* Magno Varadinae, 1862. 
8°. An extract of that portion of the bishop's work which concerns 
the impediments of matrimony and other matrimonial affairs, may be 
found in Mansella. 

In addition we beg to be allowed to express our opinion on one or 
the other point of the learned canon's work. On page 57 he says 
that it is doubtful whether the impedimentum publicae honestatis arises 
from the sponsalia privata, and on page 62 he likewise puts it down as 
doubtful whether the impedimentum criminis neutro machinante arises 
from a matrimonium civile attentatum, supposito adulterio. We think 
that there are reasons sufficiently certain to oblige us to give a decidedly 
affirmative answer to both these questions; for the former we refer to 
Lehmkuhl, II., n. 765; Konings, n. 1593, qu. 2; Marc. 2043.; Buc- 
ceroni: Enchiridion morale, p. 163; for the latter we refer to Feije, n. 
784.; Marc, 2036; Aertnys: Theol. mor. , vol. II., p. 321, qu. 80; and 


De Aogelis, Vol. III., p. 139, where the arguments and positive deci- 
sions bearing upon the two questions will be found. Finally, on page 
64, where there is question of imf)eciimentum criminis uno machinante, 
we would like to see mention made of the opinio probabilis of St. 
Alphonsus (lib. VI., n. 1036, ad 6), according to which, to incur this 
impediment, it is necessary that the machinans should manifest the 
intentio matrimonii to the compars by some external means or other, 
and that, too, praecedenter ad occasionem. not merely post factum, as 
some think. There are times when a confessor is glad to be able to ex- 
tricate himself from an embarrassment or help himself out of a difficulty 
by means of a probable opinion; especially when, as in the present case, 
a dispensation is not easily granted, and recourse must be had to Rome, 
as our bishops have no faculties for such a case. 

These remarks are by no means intended to detract in any way from 
the merits of the work under consideration. On the contrary, we repeat 
that we regard it as most useful not only for students of theology, but 
also for pastors and missionaries, some of whom, we feel sure, will find 
much in the book that will seem new to them. 

J. P. 

By Rev. J. F. X. O'Conor, S. J. 

This, together with another pamphlet, " Books and Reading," which 
we noticed on a previous occasion, are publications of incalculable 
value and need be placed in the hands of readers young and old. It is 
quite impossible to stay the torrent of noxious literature which sweeps 
incessantly over the land and threatens to carry away our younger 
generation. To speak and write against the evil influences of bad and 
indifferent literature is useless, unless we systematically educate our people 
by the adoption of safety rules, such as are here laid down, and by point- 
ing out what is to be read. Happily a movement has begun in that 
direction, and the clergy everywhere can hardly find it to their interest 
to be slow in encouraging it by every means at their command. 

But speaking of young readers, who are to form a taste and a judg- 
ment in the matter of reading, and for whom the pages of this book are 
mainly designed, we cannot refrain from urging a caution which Fr. 
O'Conor in a measure anticipates but deprecates. This is in regard to 
the reading of Ruskin, whom, aside of Newman, we find repeatedly set 


forth as the model in prose, and this both on account of his principles 
and of his style (pag. 41). It were useless here to go over the reasons 
which Fr. O'Conor sufficiently intimates as being conscious of when 
he admits certain objections made by eminent critics against an author 
who is apt, even more than Newman, to carry one away in the reading 
of his books. His great strength, aside of the varied beauty of his style, 
lies, as the author shows, in his suggest! veness. "There is no author 
that I have ever read can so make me pause over a page and see new 
and newer thoughts come rolling in and raising the mind in an ecstasy 
of wonder at the power of suggestion which one mind can exert over 
another*' (p^o- 23)- This is unquestionably true of men whose minds 
have been trained to reflection, whose instincts are towards right, and 
who have reached the well-formed maturity which has power to direct 
the imagination. With such, whilst nearly all their reading turns to 
their advantage, the suggestiveness of Ruskin is especially fiuitful. But 
it is very different with the young, or with those less robust minds whose 
strength lies in their feelings — and they are perhaps the very ones whom 
Ruskin would most fascinate, not by reason of his suggestiveness, but 
by the beautiful extravagance which is the cause of reflection with other 
men. In the forty years or more which have elapsed between his first 
edition of "Modern Painters" and the last, Ruskin has changed his 
views on the subject of art considerably, and it may be much safer 
to read him to-day than it was formerly. We have stood and gazed at 
the Turner gallery with the best intention in the world of profiting by 
the critic's revelations about the superiority of the new over the old 
masters — but the cartoons of Kensington kept their fascination in spite 
of our endeavors, and we should regret to think that with all that is 
almirable in Ruskin he should succeed in impressing upon the ixiinds 
of our youth the correctness of his canons and principles in art Let 
men read him by all means — but to the rest he must be given in choice 
portions and under supervision. This is a long critique for a small 
book; yet we consider Father O'Connor's pamphlet a very important 
one, and the size of a volume is not an index of the notice it merits. 

ST. AUGUSTINE'S CHURCH. Kalamazoo, Mich. 1890. 

St. Augustine's is a model parish if we may judge from the way in 
which this "Parish Book" is arranged. The prudent ways of financial 
administration and the orderly ways of perfect organization, so as to 
cover all the interests of the people, whose salvation depends in a 


manner on their pastors, are things that are hardly touched upon in the 
curriculum of Seminar)' study, yet they are extremely important. Father 
O'Brien and his clergy have thrown considerable liglit upon the subject 
by allowing this " Parish Book *' to go abroad. 


The metition of Books under this head does not preclude further notice 
of them in subsequent numbers. 

ters Encyclicz Leonis XIII. Deutsch u. Latein.— Herder. 1890. St. 
Louis, Mo. 

CURSUS SCRIPTURiE SACRiE, auctoribus B. Comely, I. Knaben- 
bauer, Fr. de Hummelaner aliisque Soc. Jesu presbyteris : COM- 
Knabenbauer, S. J. — Parisiis. P. Lethielleux iPustet & Co.) 1890. 
pp. 542. . 

LECTIONARIUM. Die Epistela und Evangelien der Sonn-u. Fest- 
tageaus dem Rcemischen Messbuche uebersetzt von Dr. Jacob Ecker. 
—Trier : Paulinas Druckerei. 1889. 

LIFE OF FATHER CHARLES SIRE, S. J. A simple Biography 
compiled from his writings and the testimony of those who have 
known him best. By his Brother Rev. Vital Sire. Transl. from the 
French. — New York, Cincinnati, Chicago : Benziger Bros. 1890. 

EXEMPLAR ACTORUM FOR^NSIUM quibus inquirendum est de 
matrimonii nullitate ex capite impotentix ac de matrimonii rati et 
non consummati diremptione, auctore Corolo Sagnori, in Romana 
Curia advocato. -Romae: ex typogr. Pacis. MDCCCLXXXIX. 

domads feriis. -Romae: ex Typogr. Tiberina. 1890. 

Protectory to the Legislature of the State and to the Common Council 
of New York.— West Chester: Printed at the N. Y. Catholic Pro- 
tectory. 1890. 

COLLECTIO RERUM LITURGICARUM, qua in sacro ministerio 
sxpius occurrunt, curante Jos. Wuest, C SS. R.-Neo Eboraci, Cin- 
cin , Chicago: Benziger Fratr. 1889. 


moditatera Cleri Congestura curajos. Wuest, C.SS.R. — Neo Eboraci, 
Cincin., Chicago: Benziger Fratr. 1889. 

proved sources. Published with the Approbation of the Most Rev. 
Archb. of Philadelphia for the benefit of All Saints Chapel (.Blockby). 

DER APOSTEL VON OHIO. Lebensbild des Hochw. EDWARD 
DOMINIK FENWICK, ersten Bischofs von Cincinnati, Ohio. Von 
P. Bonaventura Hammer, O. S. F. — Freiburg: Harder. 1890. St. 
Louis, Mo. : B. Herder. Pr., $.75. 

BENJAMIN HERDER. Fuenfzig Jahre eines geistigen Befreiungs- 
kampfes. Von P. Alb. Maria Weiss, O. Pr.- Freiburg: Herder. 

1889. St. Louis, Mo.: B. Herder. Pr., $1.00. 

g^ngen des Propheten Daniel. Von Franz Duesterwald. — Freiburg : 
Herder. 1890. St. Louis, Mo.: B. Herder. Pr. $1.00. 

gene Grimm, SRR.C— New York, Cine, Chicago: Benziger Bros 

1890. Pr., $1.25. 

in Busembaum Medullam absolvit et edidit Dominicus Palmieri, S- J. 
Volumen II.,Tractatus continens de Praeceptis virtutum theologicarum, 
etc. -Prati: ex offic. Libraria Giachetti, Fil et Soc. 1890. 

" Dogmatik." By Joseph Wilhelm, D.D., Ph.D. and Thomas B. 
Scannell, B.D., with a Preface by the Cardinal Archbishop of West- 
minster. Vol I. — London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Truebner & Co. 
New York : The Catholic Publ. Society Co. 1890. 

Brother Azarias, of the Brothers of the Christian Schools. Third 
Edition. New York : D. Appleton & Co. 1890. 

PHILOSOPHIA LACENSIS sive series Institutionum Philos. Scho- 
lasticae edita a presbyteris Soc. Jesu in collegio quondam B. Marise ad 
Lacura disciplinas philosophicas professis: INSTITUTIONES 
LOGIC ALES secundum principia S. Thomae Aq., ad usum scholasti- 
cum accommodavit TILMANNUS PESCH, S. J. Pars. II. Logica 
Major. Vol. 2 continens LOGICAM REALEM ET CONCLUSIO- 
NEM POLEMICAM. Friburgi Brisgoviae -(St. Louis, Mo) Herder 
1890. pp. xvi. sss- 



Vol. II.— June, 1890.— No. 6. 


IN June of last year the S. Congregation of Rites issued a 
decree by which the feast of the S. Heart was raised to 
a Duplex I. classis for the Universal Church. It also granted 
to those who assist at the Exposition of the Bl. Sacrament 
on the feast of the S. Heart the same Indulgences which can 
be gained during the Octave of the feast of Corpus Christie 
And finally it allowed that in the churches and oratories 
where special morning devotions in honor c f the S. Heart 
are held on the first Friday of each month, the Votive Mass 
of the S. Heart be celebrated, provided it be not a feast of 
Our Lord, or a Duplex I. classis, or one of the privileged 
Ferials, Vigils, or Octaves. 

In consequence of the change of the feast from a Duplex 
majus' to a Duplex I. classis, the Kalendarium vras altered, 
but not according to the usual rules of concurrence, as they 
are laid down in the Breviary. According to these rules the 
Vespers on the eve of the feast should be First Vespers of 

■ " In canctis ecclesiis et oratoriis in quibus die festo, sivc proprio sive translate, 
ipsius Sacri Cordis Jesu coram SSa. Eucharistia persolventur divina officia." — Cf. 
Docoment under Analecta, vol. i., pag. 390, of the Review. 

• Instituted by Pius IX., 23 Aug., 1856. 



the S. Heart without commemoration of the preceding 
Octave of Corpus Christi.' Contrary to these estabHshed 
rules, the Decree states that the Vespers are {o be of the 
Octave of Corpus Christi without commemoration of the 
feast of the Sacred Heart.' We shall directly explain the 
reason of this deviation, to which also those churches and 
communities appear to be held where the office had been 
previously granted as a Duplex I. or H. classis, and which 
then followed the ordinary Rubrics, there being at the time 
no special legislation to the contrary. For the rest, the feast 
of the S. Heart yields precedence to no other feast, unless 
where the feasts of the Nativity of St. John Bapt., of SS. 
Peter and Paul, of the Dedication, Titular, or Patron are 
holydays of obligation. 

Why does the Octave of Corpus Christi apparently take 
preference over the feast of the S. Heart in the disposition 
of the Office, (Vespers), although the latter is a Duplex I. 
classis, and therefore of higher rank ? The answer lies in the 
relation which these two feasts, the one following close upon 
the other, bear to each other. They are in reality but one 
and the same feast. The object of the devotion of the S. 
Heart is indeed the human or material heart of Our Lord, 
worthy, by reason of the hypostatic union, of our veriest 
adoration. But when we are asked why does the Church 
propose to us this worship and adoration of the Son of God 
under the form of the S. Heart apart from that of His divine 
humanity as set forth in her Scriptural doctrine, we reply : 
because in the devotion to the S. Heart we are led to con- 
centrate our minds and hearts, so to say, upon the spirit of 
exceeding love which animated the Divine Saviour of the 
world, when He assumed the form and character of man. It 

' Since in this case the two feasts have the same object. Otherwise the com- 
memoration would have to be made in a Duplex I. classis. Cf. Rubric gener. 
Miss; Tabell. de concurr. 

* Other commemorations are to be made, except oi festa simplicia. This year 
S. John a S. Facund. is commemorated, and his office is otherwise omitted. 


is, if we may interpret the mind of the Church, to draw us 
to the fuller realization of the love in God, of which in man 
the heart is the seat and symbol. But the most perfect ex- 
pression, the full unfolding, as it were, of Our Lord's love for 
man is to be found in the Most Blessed Sacrament, which St. 
Bernard calls " the love of loves." The Holy Eucharist and 
the Sacred Heart are one and the same, cause and effect, 
like flame and fire compenetrating each other — both im- 
measurable love. Thus the feast of the Sacred Heart may 
be considered as the continuation, the grand finale of the 
feast of Corpus Christi, when love speaks as it spoke before, 
the same accents, only more emphatic, in the last assurance 
of aflfection. It is as if during the week of Corpus Christi we 
had looked upon the Man-God, knowing Him to be there all 
the time, though the cloud of the Sacred Species hid His 
fair countenance. But on the feast of the Sacred Heart, 
when our -minds are filled with the past week's contempla- 
tion, when the strain of longing has made us more sensitive, 
we again invite Him into our hearts, and though the eye is 
still dimmed, we begin to feel His touch and hear more dis- 
tinctly the sound of His sweet words : " Come to me." 

Ad ana parola 
Del re mio diletto 
M'intesi nel petto 
II cor liqaeCar.' 

Then, indeed, we are sure of His presence by the thrill of 
gratitude that it calls forth in our own poor hearts, for there 
is no goodness on earth that could so captivate us — it must 
be the unbounded charity of the Sacred Heart ! Thus, whilst 
the feast of the Heart divine ends the feast of most merciful 
love, it does so with a burst of grateful affection unequalled 
by the joy of any other Octave ; a joy full on the eighth 
day and overflowing into the following feast of the sweetest 
love on earth and in heaven. 

' S. Alfons. Lig. 



On every first Friday of the month the Votive Mass of the 
S. Heart may be celebrated in churches and chapels where 
special devotions in honor of the Sacred Heart are held in 
the morning. The Decree makes no* distinction between 
private and public chapels. Hence the Indult may be inter- 
preted in the wider sense as embracing all chapels where 
Mass can be said, with the approbation of the Ordinary. 
There is likewise no limitation of the word " missa," whence 
it is lawful to infer that a Low Mass is sufficient to avail one's 
self of the privilege.* 

The Mass is that In Festo SS. Cordis Jesu as found in the 
" Proprium Sanctorum " at the end of May. The two " Al- 
leluja " at the Introit are omitted, except in Paschal time. 

During Paschal time the Gradual is omitted, and the 
Verse with Alleluja recited in its stead. The latter is sup- 
plied from another Mass of the S. Heart found in the supple- 
ment of the Missal " Pro aliquibus locis " at the end of May. 
Here will also be found the Gradual and Tract which are to 
be said from Septuagesima to Holy Week. 

This Votive Mass may be said on any first Friday of the 
month which is not a feast of Our Lord, nor a Duplex L 
classis, nor one of the privileged Ferials, Vigils, or Octaves.* 

The color of the vestments \s white. The Mass has both 
Gloria and Credo, since it enjoys the privileges of what is 
called in Liturgy a missa solemnis votiva, as is evident from 
the fact that it may be said on all days except doubles of the 
first class, etc. 

This Mass has ordinarily but one prayer, but if any feast or 
feasts occur on the same day, they are to be commemorated, 
according to what seems to us the more reasonable opinion 
of rubricists, whether the Mass be a Low Mass or a " missa 
cantata," except in churches where the so-called Conventual 

* Cf. Ephemerid. Litnrg., iii., 338. 

* Christmas, Epiphany, Pentecost, Corpus Christi. 


Masses are obligatory. Where this is the case, no commem- 
oration of the occurring feast is made in the Votive Mass.* 

The Preface is De Nativitate, except from Septuagesima to 
Pentecost, when it is Dc Cruce. 


Urban VIII., following the regulations of the Council of 
Trent in regard to devotional images, statues, and the like, 
prohibited not only all representations of sacred persons or 
objects which savored of the profane, but interdicted also 
such as were odd and novel : nova, inordinata, insolita.' As 
a difference of views and tastes requires some authoritative 
judgment in order to determine in particular cases what is 
novel or odd, or out of harmony with the true spirit of 
Catholic devotion, the Holy See charges the bishops in 
their various localities to supervise and regulate the use 
and spread of all such images, statues, etc., in churches, or 
among the faithful of their flock. Hence, whenever there 
is doubt as to the propriety of exposing such images, 
statues, etc., for public worship or general circulation, the 
matter is to be referred to the Bishop, who is the proper 
judge in each case. 

There appears to be an impression that the use of the 
symbol of the Sacred Heart with cross surmounting it, and 
surrounded by a crown of thorns, is prohibited in churches, 
etc., whenever it is represented apart from the figure of 
Our Lord. We can find no such decree in the authentic 
collection by Gardellini. The only decree which refers to 
this particular emblem simply leaves it to the judgment of 
the Ordinary of the diocese to allow or prohibit the use of 
it in the churches or among the faithful. In 1857, whilst 
the process of Beatification of Bl. Margaret Mary Alacoque 

* Cf. Ephemeridcs Liturgicae.vol. iii., page 338: "Addimus . . . . ut omnes occurren- 
tes commemorationes fieri debeant in Missa votiva solemni, si ecclesia ad Missx con- 
ventualis onas non adigatur." 

* Bulla Sacrosancta^ 1$ Marl. 1642. 


was Still pending, the Bishop of Moulins, in France, asked the 
S. Congregation, whether the image of the Sacred Heart, 
surmounted by a cross and surrounded by a crown of 
thorns, as it is commonly represented, without Our Lord's 
person being indicated, could be exposed in the churches. » 
The S. Congregation answered by a Votum in which it 
called the attention of the Bishop to the Decree of Urban 
VIII., to which we referred above, and it summed up in 
these words : "Ad Episcopum, servata forma decretorum 
Concilii Tridentini et Urbani VIII." It depends on the 
Bishop, theretore, and it is needless to add that as a matter 
of fact this picture has since received in many dioceses the 
express, and probably everywhere else at least the tacit 
approbation of the bishops. Nevertheless, the reservation, 
by which a symbol expressive of divine love may, if the Or- 
dinary thinks proper, be supressed, is a thoroughly, wise one. 
We have heard of a case where the influence of Catholic 
missionaries among the Indians was destroyed in an instant 
by the exhibition of a picture of St. Aloysius with a skull 
before him, which in the eyes of the Indians meant that the 
missionaries were in league with one of the hostile tribes. 
So there may be circumstances of place and time and per- 
sons which would forbid the use of a representation of the 
Sacred Heart, which to the devoutly rearec^ Catholic is full 
of devotional meaning. The tenor of the Bull of Urban 
VIII. is, that only such images are to be made use of in 
Catholic worship and for purposes of devotion as will in- 
crease piety and reverence for the sacred things of God. 
Hence, all those extravagant representations of the Sacred 
Heart in which a distorted imagination adds numberless 
details, incompatible alike with true devotion and common 
sense, should be suppressed. 

In some cases the Church makes a distinction between 

* Utrum liceat exponere in ecclesiis imaginem cordis septi corona spinea cum 
cruce superposita ad designandum Cor D. N. J. C. absque eo quod persona D. N. 
alio modo reprsesentetur. B. Miihlb., Decret. Supplem., I., page 967, 


pictures used in public worship and such as may lawfully 
circulate among the faithful with a view of increasing their 
devotion. Hence not every representation approved as 
rightly expressive of Catholic devotion is therefore a suit- 
able subject for the altar. An example of this is the well- 
known symbol of the two hearts representing the Sacred 
Heart of Our Lord and that of His Immaculate Mother, 
the latter with a sword piercing it and surrounded by a 
wreath of roses. The S. Congregation was asked whether 
this emblem could be approved and tolerated. The object 
of the question, which came from a professor of theology in 
one of the French seminaries, was apparently to ascertain 
whether the fact that these two hearts were joined together 
and surrounded by the same circle of rays did not convey 
the idea as if the two persons of Our divine Lord and His 
Bl. Mother suffered no distinction. The S. Congregation 
answered that, while the representation was perfectly law- 
ful for private devotion, it could not be placed upon the 
altar : " Ejusmodi emblemata privata ex devotione permitti 
posse dummodo altaribus non apponantur." ' The reason 
of the distinction will be plain if we keep in view the ob- 
ject of images in Catholic worship ; for, whilst no well- 
informed Catholic would misunderstand the meaning of the 
picture, as if it expressed equality of worship due to Our 
Lord and His virgin mother, it might be falsely construed 
by others. It will be more easy to understand this caution 
if we keep in mind the object of images in Catholic worship. 
This object is on the one hand to edify, on the other to in- 
struct. Many representations, especially those of a symbolic 
character, will elicit devout thoughts in him who by reason 
of a previous disposition readily enters into the spirit of the 
devotion which they reflect. To others they are meaning- 
less, and sometimes do even positive violence to their natural 
though probably untrained feeling of reverence. Thus the 
late Dr. Brownson had, we are assured, no particular sym- 

' Deer, auth., 5 Apr. 1879, n. 5780. 


pathy for the devotion of the Sacred Heart in the form in 
which most of us so highly prize it ; yet it would be unjust 
to say that he did not ardently love Our Lord, which is to 
say, His Sacred Heart. In ancient times the Church kept 
certain of her doctrines a secret (called arcanum) from those 
who had not been sufficiently instructed, lest they might be 
tempted to underestimate or even revile what they did 
not understand. To-day, whilst the use of the arcanum is no 
longer retained in the letter, its spirit is still preserved in 
the liturgy of Catholic devotions. Hence, the images, 
statues, etc., placed upon our altars, where they are seen by 
all, are to be expressions of dogma rather than devout senti- 
ment ; they are to tell facts, whether of faith or sacred his- 
tory, speaking plainly to all who profess the Catholic faith, 
rather than present symbols in the interpretation of which 
those who are weak may readily err. 

About the image of Our Lord exposing His Sacred Heart 
there is no question of its lawfulness in public worship. 
Moreover, those who pray before it obtain special indul- 
gences. ' From this must be distinguished another image, 
representing Blessed Margaret Mary adoring the figure of 
the Sacred Heart. 

In 1877 the S. Congregation of Rites was asked whether 
it be lawful to expose to public veneration the image or 
statue of Our Lord showing His Sacred Heart to Bl. Margaret 
Mary, who kneels at His feet. The answer was : Not with- 
out consulting the Holy See, according to the decree of Pope 
Alexander VII. of 27 Sept., 1659.'^ Looking at the decree of 

' Qui templum, oratorium, seu allare, nbi sacra Cordis D. N. J. C. imago pn- 
bliczE venerationi decenti forma quae convenit, ut moris est, exposita habetur, pie in- 
viserint necnon per aliquod temporis spatium" juxta mentem SS. Deum oraverint, 
Pius VI., die 2 Januar. 1792, Indulg. 7 annor. totidemque quadrag. concessit. 

* An publicse venerationi, prouti in pluribus suae Diceceseos locis jam^obtinet, ex- 
poni possint simulacra, seu statuae D. N. J. C. suum cor sacratissimum monstrantis 
Beatse Margaritae Alacoque ad ejus pedes provolutae ? — Negative, inconsulta Sede 
Apostolica, juxta Decretum s. m. Alexandri Papse VII, die 27 Sept. 1659. Atque 
ita rescripsere ac servari mandarunt die 12 Maji 1877. — Vd. Deer, auth., n. 5693. 


Alexander VII. to which the Cardinals refer we find that it 
interdicts public veneration to be paid, as it were in the name 
of the Church, to saints who have not yet been solemnly can- 
onized, although they are called and honored by the title of 
Blessed. The Church wishes to maintain in her cult the dis- 
tinction between saints whom the faithful may indeed honor, 
as certainly possessed of the heavenly beatitude, but who have 
not as yet obtained that solemn sanction by which they are 
placed upon her altars. She may give such sanction to local 
churches and for special reasons. In fact, she does so in this 
case, when she allows the Mass of BI. Margaret Mary, as it is 
found in the Roman Missal " pro aliquibus locis," to be cele- 
brated in certain places, in which case the image as above 
described may lawfully be placed over the principal altar, as 
the S. Congregation has expressly declared. ' There is, then, 
no doubt that this image may be placed over the altar wher- 
ever the Mass of Bl. Margaret Mary (25 Oct.) has been granted, 
as is the case in numerous religious communities and confrater- 
nity churches and chapels. Nor do we think that the inten- 
tion of the Church is to have such images entirely banished 
from holy places, so long as they do not invite the faithful to 
direct veneration, as would be the case where the}' are placed 
in the sanctuary or over the altar. The decree of Alexan- 
der VII. says, it is true: " Beatorum imagines etiam non 
principaliter et uti supplices appositae." But that this is not 
to be taken in its strictest interpretation is evident from the 
manner in which the following clause was dispensed with : 
" Quod ibi indultum fuerit per Sedem Apostolicam imagines, 
simulacra pictasque tabellas in ecclesiis poni et coli posse, in 
pariete tantum, non autem super altare coUocandi facultas 
concedatur." A few months after this Bull, and under the 
same Pontiff, the question whether it be lawful to expose 
" imaginem et simulacrum nee non votivas tabellas super 

' An abi indaltnm fuerit at Missa de aliquo Beato celebretor, liceat ejas imaginem 
«t simulacrum nee non votivas tabellas super altare exponere ? — Resp. S. C. R. 
Affimiaiive. Die 17 Apr. 1660; Deer. auth. no 2046. 


altare " wherever the Mass had been sanctioned, was, as we 
saw above, unconditionally answered Affirmative. The mean- 
ing of this Bull, as we take it, salvo meliore judicio, is that 
the Pontiff not only excludes all direct and public veneration 
in Catholic worship, such as would have the character of 
prayer to the Blsssed, but likewise anything which might 
elicit from the faithful such demonstrations of veneration 
in public as would seem to assume and anticipate the final 
act of canonization. 

For the rest, this image of the S. Heart, or rather of 
Bl. Maragaret Mary adoring the S. Heart, is fully ap- 
proved, both for private devotion and public exposition, out- 
side of the church or chapel. Certainly any unbecoming or 
unnatural details, such as are occasionally found in reproduc- 
tions of this picture, are out of place and fall under the judg- 
ment of the Ordinary. Nor is it really necessary to remove 
from the walls of sanctuary or church the image of Bl. 
Margaret Mary wherever there is a good reason to have it. 
In churches dedicated to the S. Heart it is a favorite altar- 
piece, and elsewhere it would only be requisite to solicit the 
Bishop's leave and through him request the S. Congregation 
to retain the image. The only object of all this legislation, 
as we have intimated sufficiently, is to prevent excess in 
matters of devotion, where, as in all other things, it frustrates 
the good which is intended. 


The Indulgences attached to the Devotion of the S. Heart 
are sufficiently known or accessible to dispense us here from 
repeating them. We merely take occasion to call attention 
to the error of attaching certain indulgences ^ to the favorite 
ejaculation : " Sweet Heart of Jesus, be my love," which is 
frequently found in prayer books, on pictures, etc., sometimes 
with the legend : " Pius IX., 13 May, 1875." It may be sup- 
posed that the above form of invocation was presented to 

' 300 days each time and a plenary once a month. 



the Holy Father for the purpose of attaching an indulgence 
thereto and granted by him. It appears, however, that it was 
not presented to the Secretariate of the S. Congregation of 
Indulgences for registry, and hence is not to be found in the 
authorized edition of the Roman Raccolta. According to 
decree of Benedict XIV., renewed by Pius IX. himself, the 
above-mentioned omission annuls the indulgence.* The gen- 
eral belief, however, that the prayer is indulgenced, and 
its popularity, make it desirable to have the Indulgence re- 


No more the organ vents its clamorous praise : 
The trembling air a moment dubious clings 

To arch and ceiling ; as on winter days 
The brooding snow-storm swings 

Silent above ; then falls in curious maze 
Of flaky echoings ! 

Now thrills the heart with longing thro* and thro', 
In the veiled presence of the Deity : 

O hidden God! more hidden yet from view 

, Than erst on Calvary, 

Thou makest still Thine elder promise true, 
And drawest all hearts to Thee ! 

And yet but darkly in this Sacred Bread, 

As through a glass, Thy glory we may trace : 

Ah ! what were Thabor's splendor there instead. 
And plenitude of grace ; 

And this poor heart, or living yet, or dead, 
Might see Thee face to face ! 

• Nonvelle Revue Thiol., Tom. xxi., n. 6, p. 686. 


Nor even thus in glory ; but as when, 
With mien of one that patient sufFereth, 

A Son of man, Thou vvalkedst among men ; 
Or with Thine every breath. 

In words of power unwrit of angels' pen, 
Commandedst Sin and Death. 

Yet seeing not, we see ! and sweetly render 
Incense of praise ; nor ever question " How? " 

But know and feel, O God ! Thy Presence tender, 
Veiled as we see Thee now, 

As though we gazed, lost in the lightning splendor 
Of the Eternal Brow ! 

Hugh T. Henry. 


Life of Father Charles Sire of the Society of Jesus. A simple Bi- 
ography compiled from his writings and the testimony of those who have 
known him best. By his Brother, Rev. Vital Sire, Professor of Moral 
Theology at the Theological Seminary of Toulouse. 

One day, not very many years ago, the parish priest of 
Saint-Jory, a pretty village in the South of France, not far 
from the Pyrenees, passing along the market-place, saw walk- 
ing before him a little man, who, though not quite twelve 
years of age, was measuring his steps with the serious air 
of one who has to solve a difficult problem. " What are 
you doing child," said the priest, " why so serious ? " — " I 
am thinking, " answered the boy. — " Thinking, and of what ? 
" I am thinking that if I go to Polignan this year, I ought to 
study very hard ; as you know, sir, we are a large family, 
and the education of so many will cost my parents many a 
sacrifice." — " You are right, my boy " said the priest, caress- 


ing him, " persevere in these sentiments, and you will some 
day be an honor to your family." 

The young sage went to the Preparatory Seminary of Our 
Lady of Polignan, which is situated near the railroad station 
of Montrejeau, in the lovely valley of the Upper Garonne. 
Charles Sire, as our hero is called, brought with him to the 
Seminary a spirit of perfect docility. He did not think that 
he was very good, but he was going to do whatever his 
superiors, or those whom he considered more exemplary 
than himself, might point out to him. He had indeed a gen- 
tle and courteous manner towards others, and what made 
him soon very much liked by his companions was a certain 
quiet thoughtfulness, which he showed occasionally when 
any one required a service. On the other hand there was 
nothing sleepy in him. He had an ardent nature, and 
beneath the boyish calm of his deportment in the hall and 
during class or study hours, there was an air of quick deci- 
sion, which told of courage and the power of sacrifice, a 
trait which became more apparent in the games at recrea- 
tion. When still a child, he once sent a letter to an elder 
brother, who afterwards became his teacher at the Seminary. 
To show his affection, he pricked a vein, and with his blood 
wrote the following simple lines : '* I love you very much, 
my dear brother, and to prove it I write this letter with my 
blood. Adieu." Perhaps this incident conveys a better 
idea of his generous disposition and a certain delicacy of 
sentiment in his soul than a larger description would do. 
He always studied very hard ; at least such is the testi- 
mony of some of the companions of his Seminary years 
who are still living. He may have done so as much 
from a sense of filial duty as from love for books, for Marcel, 
his brother and professor, appears to have been quite a hard 
taskmaster. Young Charles was obliged to give five hours 
daily to his books, even in vacation. However, he never 
demurred or flagged. He had made up his mind from the 
outset that he would cheerfully do whatever was prescribed 


by his superiors, and he held on to the resolution, sanctifying 
it by inwardly protesting that he meant to please first of all 
God, and not men, as the spiritual director had advised the 
boys to do. With the spirit of obedience comes the grace of 
habitual self-restraint, which is to say, a constant mortifica- 
tion in little things, which, imperceptibly growing in the 
soul, fits it for heroic actions. Nothing, indeed, has so pow- 
erful an effect in fashioning a strong character as the habit 
of obedience. It is the one quality in a youth which stamps 
him as a ruler and leader in the future. Surely, this must be 
the meaning of the inspired writer when he tells us : " The 
obedient man speaks of victory." By this virtue Charles ex- 
ercised a silent but strong infiuence over his little fellow-stu- 
dents. He was not particularly austere, as we said, but he 
kept the rule. " Fidelity to the rules," wrote Bishop Du- 
panloup in his notebook when he entered St. Sulpice as a 
student, *' fidelity to the rules — without this no virtue in the 
Seminary is possible." ' 

One point of his rule to which he attached the greatest 
importance, says his biographer, was silence. Whether the 
exercise at which he assisted was presided over by his supe- 
riors or one of his fellow-students mattered little to him ; if 
silence were prescribed, he kept it inviolably, and never spoke 
without permission. Later on, in the Theological Seminary, 
it was the same ; fear of displeasing a fellow-student had no 
weight in inducing him to the slightest deviation from the 
fundamental rule of silence. " On taking up the study 
of philosophy," says one of them, " I was put with Charles in 
a room where there were four beds, two of them occupied 
by two students who, though good and well-behaved in 
the main, were by no means scrupulous in observing the 
rule — one especially, who gave up his cassock at the end of 
the year. Hoping to gain him by gentleness, Charles 
would smile at his confrere's innocent nonsense, but never 
once did he break silence to please him." — " One day, " says 

' Life of Mgr. Dupanloup, trans., vol. I., p. 6l. 


Father Briot, " as he was returning to his room from even- 
ing class, modest and recollected as usual, he was confronted 
by a fellow-student, who, otherwise good and amiable, but 
more frolicsome at times than the rule allowed, had re- 
solved, it seems, to try the patience and charity of our dear 
brother. First he mimicked Charles's pious gravity, then 
pushed him to the right and left of the corridor, and finally 
blocked his way. To be sure, it was all done good-humored- 
ly, yet few would have preserved their composure as did 

Charles Finding all his resources fail, the young scamp 

at last cried out, " It's no go ! " And he was right. After- 
wards, at recreation, the mischievous friend said to Charles: 
** I fear you have a grudge against me ; 1 meant only a little 
fun." " No, I have no reason to be angry, " answered Charles, 
" but I really think you ought to observe the rule better ; you 
would be happier, and God would be more pleased with you." 
Thus throughout his whole Seminary-course obedience to the 
rule was the constant aim, as likewise the principal mortifica- 
tion, of young Charles. It was the secret cause of his ever 
happy and joyous manner. Fathers Lacomme and Senac, 
who were with him in the Preparatory Seminary in those 
days, tell us how he used to enjoy the cold winter days, 
which are sometimes very severe in this region, it being close 
to the mountains. When there was no fire, and he happened 
to see a student standing in some corner, disconsolate and 
shivering, he would rush up to him and provoke him to a 
lively tussle, by which the circulation of the blood and good 
humor were frequently and simultaneously restored. He 
was most ready for lusty sport on such occasions, although 
the older students used to see through these schemes ; for 
the little fellow had, as his biographer expresses it, in reality 
no fancy for such games, preferring the relaxation of a 
sedentary kind ; and herein he did violence to his own incli- 
nations in order to follow the spirit of the rule and to render 
service to others, (pag. 35.) 

It was whilst in his second Latin and Rhetoric class that 


he developed more marked signs of his future vocation, and 
began to show that fervent love for souls which is one of 
the characteristics of those who are truly called to the 
priesthood. He had completed his sixteenth year when he 
began his humanities. His studies were under the special 
protection of Our Blessed Lady, to whom he bore a very 
tender devotion. " Poor Charles ! I see him now, every- 
where as of yore — in recreation, in the evenings during the 
month of May, when he would speak so joyfully and affec- 
tionately of the Blessed Virgin." (pag. 39.) Another com- 
panion records his remembrance of the young student's 
beautiful love for the Mother of Our Saviour thus : " If 
there be a time when enthusiasm must needs prove conta- 
gious, it certainly is on distribution day, when, crowned and 
bearing their prizes, the scholars are surrounded by their 
relatives and friends. Yet, just amidst such excitement and 
joy, did I see Charles, the year of his second Latin and 
Rhetoric, calmly join some friends he had sought out amid 
the tumult and say to them with a mysterious air, easily 
understood by those who knew him : ' Let us go to the 
chapel for the last time and lay on the Bl. Virgin's altar the 
ribbons around our prizes ; we must separate in her pres- 
ence. — None of us have ever forgotten the silent tears of 
that adieu, nor the poetic charm of that first love at the feet 
of our good Mother. As for me, my heart reverts con- 
tinually to those early friendships, that sanctuary, the ten- 
derness of those impressions, and the enthusiasm that 
filled us youths of eighteen ; and I know that this mem- 
ory abides with me as a never-failing fountain of benedic- 
tion, strengthening and encouraging me when weary, 
and urging my faltering steps in the path of perfection." 

(pag. 39)- 

It is needless to say that, as he grew older, this habitual 
spirit of devotion left its decided mark upon his exterior. It 
was a pleasure and an edification to look upon him, and his 
mere presence checked and corrected many a rude outburst 


among his companions. This, too, is one of the fruits of the 
exercise of interior virtue. It acts upon others without 
being conscious thereof or making any particular eflfort in 
that direction. The veil of virtue is modesty. It hides the 
former, it is true, but at the same time lightens the effect of 
its beauty and preserves so to say its perfume. " He was 
in the second Latin class," says Father Dupuys, " when I 
entered Polignan. The impression produced upon me by 
his appearance is still quite fresh in my mind. There was a 
mingling of sweetness, goodness, and affability which served 
as a veil to something I could not tell, but the influence of 
which I felt." One of his- teachers during this period says 
of him : " I remember perfectly his unwavering sweetness 
of manner, his blind submission, his eagerness to execute my 
wishes. I do not know that I ever heard a complaint about 
his conduct or work, and I never had to correct him for any 
bad tendency ; on the contrary, his behavior Avas such that 
I used frequently to place him near some of the more giddy 
and thoughtless pupils, in hopes that his good example 
might happily influence them." Another of his professors 
tells us that of the many boys who passed through his class 
during the space of thirty-three years, he knew but two 
who during an entire year never once were known to have 
violated the rule of silence. One of these was Charles Sire, 
Having completed his seventh year in the Preparatory Semi- 
nary, he went home in order to prepare for the higher 
seminary. During the vacation he made a pilgrimage to the 
shrine of Our Lady at Garaison, to thank her for many past 
graces and also to obtain her special protection for him in 
his studies of philosophy and theology. Those who observed 
him in vacation were struck with the manner of the young 
student, especially when he received Holy Communion in the 
parish Church or served about the altar. They also speak 
of the great respect he showed his parents and the modesty 
and reserve in his conversation with those whom he had 
occasion to visit whilst at home, all of which strengthened 


the general impression that this boy was truly called to the 
sanctuary and priesthood. 

The theological seminary to which he had to go was 
at Toulouse. We are told that on entering it Charles put 
before him one only aim, namely, to become a good priest. 
This, of course, included the necessary preparation for the 
high estate of God's special service in the sanctuary. He 
again resolved to strive at being a perfect seminarist. 
He had no idea, indeed, of doing extraordinary things. 
Like that lovely patron of youth, St. John Berchmans, he 
said to himself : " For me the best of all penances shall 
be the ordinary life." When others seemed diffident and 
discontented, he would answer: "It seems to me very 
easy to become saints — we need merely observe our rule, 
which is lor us the infallible expression of God's will." (pag. 


Regarding all his superiors as the representatives of God, 
his respect, docility, and gratitude towards them never 
flagged. " This filial affection," says his biographer, " which 
he testified for his teachers during his stay at the seminary, 
by unequivocal marks of esteem, love, and reverence, never 
grew cold ; and all through life he was pleased frequently' to 
give expression to it." He likewise bore a sincere affection 
toward his fellow-students, all the more deep and lasting, 
because it rested upon the supernatural principle by which 
he sought to benefit them. " I shall never forget," says one 
of his fellow-students in the larger seminary, " the angelic 
expression of his face when he spoke to me of unity and 
charity among brethren. Oh ! the beautiful life of the 
seminary, he would say ; it is here we realize that admirable 
expression of holy Scripture : ' Behold how good and how 
pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity.'" 
There was in his conduct nothing exclusive. He walked or 
talked at recreation with any one who chanced to be his 
companion. " In his appearance he was scrupulously neat and 
clean," says one of his room-mates ; " his cell, his clothing, all 


his effects were ever in perfect order. His note-books were 
admirable specimens of neatness." " The life at our semina- 
ries," says Father Houbart, superior of the Theological 
Seminary in Angers, " is not that calculated to produce 
virtues commonly called brilliant. The best seminarians are 
they who make little display in spiritual matters, quietly 
working out their sanctification, whilst practising the beau- 
tiful maxim inculcated by the author o\ the Imitation^ 
* Love to be unknown and to be accounted as nothing.' " A 
trait which was very remarkable in Charles Sire, was his 
quick regard for the comfort and pleasure of others, mani- 
fested on so many occasions and under such a variety of 
circumstances that it won him the admiration and gratitude 
of all around him. When there was any complaint he would 
at once devise a remedy, or reason in his irrefutable and 
kindly way with those who were inclined to grumble. " I 
never heard him criticise the conduct or judgment of his 
superiors," writes one of the priests who was his fellow-stu- 

Charles was not a brilliant student. If we may believe 
his own account of himself, it cost him immeasurable diffi- 
culties to master the sciences. " Mental labor," he says, 
" has always been wearisome and fatiguing to me, so that I 
cannot apply myself seriously an}' length of time, without 
feeling it. It is thus especially in the evenings, the time at 
which I have least relish for Dogma and Hebrew. During 
the winter I suffered from cold, headaches, and for several 
days from violent palpitation of the heart ; and in Lent it was 
the same. Add to these obstacles the difficulty I have with 
Latin, my deficiency in the philosophy course, a lack of clear- 
ness in the lessons of one professor, and a lack of precision 
in another, the weariness and fatigue consequent on a peru- 
sal of the class-notes, some of them rather puzzling, and you 
will have an idea of what efforts and sacrifices study costs 
me." (pag. 179) However, we may take this account with a 
grain of salt, as they say, or lodge a good part of the blame 


upon the want of clearness and precision in the professor to 
whom he alludes. Father Bascourret, his teacher in philoso- 
phy, gives us the following judgment concerning his pupil, 
which is probably the more trustworthy of the two. He 
says : " Without having what is usually termed quickness 
and clearness of perception, or even a very ardent love of 
knowledge, he was capable of success in the more serious 
studies, and he had really an especial aptness for philo- 
sophy and theology by reason of his sound judgment, 
good memory, and truly practical mind, which never sac- 
rificed the main object to what is merely accessory, nor 
sought to entangle itself in systems. Yet, to attain this suc- 
cess, effort was necessary, and innumerable were the ob- 
stacles which hindered energetic and continuous study on 
his part." 

However, we are told that his note-books give evidence 
that aside of the necessary studies included in the course of 
ecclesiastical sciences, he managed to obtain a varied store 
of general information on all kinds of useful subjects. It 
was his maxim to neglect nothing, and, as Ecclesiasticus 
says: Particiila boni doni non te prcztereat. Let no good 
gift pass thee by. Hence, says his biographer, he appropri- 
ated mentally all that he heard or read. Nothing escaped 
his attention, not even things apparently most indifferent, such 
as Reviews, Annals, etc. His journals and note-books were 
filled with most valuable and beautiful extracts, (pag. i8i.) 

But we may not delay any longer upon the edifying de- 
tails in the life of this exemplary student. Later on he 
was called to higher perfection. The practice of obedience 
had prepared him for sacrifices which he had never sus- 
pected in his earlier days ; when they confronted him, there 
was no hesitation on his part in accepting them. He sub- 
sequently entered the Society of Jesus. 

We should not, however, think this sketch complete with- 
out referring to the manner in which he looked upon and ac- 
quitted his duty as subprefect. We have some memoranda 



wherein he traced certain resolutions in regard to this office, 
and which are among the things published by his brother. 
Towards his scholars he would be " uniformly dignified, 
gentle, modest." " In recreation," he writes, " I will not 
avoid such students as are uncongenial to me ; on the con- 
trary, repelling immediately any unfavorable thought regard- 
ing them, I will endeavor to show myself especially kind 
and considerate towards them. I will not only be very exact 
myself in keeping every point of the rule, punctual in obey- 
ing the first sound of the bell, but strive my utmost to have 
my students do the same." As regards his superiors, he 
wrote : " I will ever strictly adhere to authority, sustaining 
it under all circumstances, and frequently consult those who 
are placed over me." The maxims which he kept principal- 
ly in view, and by which he proposed to be guided, were com- 
prehended in few words as follows : " Activity, fervor, sacri- 
fice. Be energetic in all things. Age quod agis. Mercilessly 
eschew all reading prompted by mere curiosity." (P. 168.) 
Singularly enough, almost the same words are to be found in 
the note-book of young Dupanloup, written when he was pre- 
paring himself for ordination. We read there : " Age quod agis. 
Do little, if need be, but do it well. Be thorough in every- 
thing. Multiis labor ^ multa ifi labore methodus, multa in metJwdo 
constantia. One essential point in reading is to choose good 
models. I will never read a doubtful book. I shall take notes 
on all I read, and never hurry over it. If I do, I will not 
digest what I read. I will never read anything from mere 
curiosity." ' We see here how the same rules, the same 
principles suggest themselves to those who strive after great 
things and in reality accomplish them. Charles, whilst sub- 
prefect of his band of students, was at the same time prefect 
of music and store-keeper. All these duties kept him con- 
stantly employed ; and he assures his mother, who was 
very anxious concerning him, as she knew he was suffer- 
ing from habitual ill-health, that this is the cause why he 

' Mgr. Dupanloup's Second Year at St. Sulpice. Life, transl., 1. c, p. 63. 


writes her but rarely. " I am prefect of the corridor and 
courts," he says, " and must be always on the alert to see that 
silence is observed at the appointed times, and all other stip- 
ulated regulations of the house observed." In this he was 
extremely exact. Yet his considerateness, the gentlemanly 
manner in which he invariably corrected any error as soon 
as it came under his notice, made him greatly respected. 
Some did not at the time appreciate these methods in their 
prefect, but in later years they gladly acknowledged the bene- 
fit which they derived from the timely monitions of Charles 
Sire. There was nothing rigid, nothing forbidding in the 
manner of his supervision. He was uniformly kind, but 
without the slightest weakness or tendency to human re- 
spect. " Thanks to the salutary effects of obedience," says 
M. Beaune, " he knew how to clothe his beneficence with 
t^at character of authority befitting it ; and he who must 
needs be always on the alert throughout the college, watch- 
ing whatever went on, detecting the least disorder to remedy 
it, and seeing that all was in harmony in the workings of 
this living machinery, once appointed to the duty of main- 
taining order in the house, most scrupulously fulfilled it." 
" His duty placing him in the midst of his pupils, he never 
lost sight of them for an instant ; in the dormitory, the 
chapel, the refectory, the corridors and passages, during 
their recreations and walks, his eye was ever on them, kind 
and watchful." 

" And how many dangers did not his wise vigilance ward 
off his charges, the commission of how many faults did it 
not prevent, even on occasions the most likely to lead us 
astray ; for instance, on great holidays, when we all went 
out to enjoy ourselves, our youthful natures bubbling over 
with exuberant spirits, what was it but his gentle solicitude, 
acting as a salutary check, that restrained us within bounds 
and forbade our participation in those disorderly outbursts 
not unfrequently ending in disobedience and accident or 
disaster of some sort ? " A young Spanish student, who 


came to the college at this time, speaks with especial tender- 
ness of his prefect. " On entering La Sauve I was quite 
young, nearly the only one of my nationality, and utterly 
ignorant of the language of my companions. I tell it 
reluctantly, but few of them seemed to feel for my 
situation, and, indeed, I experienced from some of them 
vexations and annoyances, which their subsequent behavior, 
however, caused me to forget. Indulged and spoiled as I 
had been at home, even the warmest welcome from all at 
my new abode could scarcely have softened the rigors 
of the sudden transition from the family circle to college 
life. The Fathers evinced great interest in me and showed 
me many kindnesses ; but of all persons none could have 
been more thoughtful and considerate of me than Father 
Charles. — Divining how much I suffered, he promptly took 
measures for my relief, showing great and constant interest 
in me, protecting me more than once from the pranks of 
my little comrades, making efforts innumerable to divert 
my mind, striving to render the rule easier, and assisting 
me to follow my class in studies. Even later, when the 
first clouds were dispelled, I found him always disposed to 
grant me any privilege not opposed to the discipline of the 
school; although, being a true and sincere friend, having 
my real interest at heart, I often experienced the less agree- 
able but equally salutary effects of his friendship in the 
various admonitions, gentle or otherwise, the severe re- 
proaches and even punishments he gave me in his untiring 
efforts to correct my faults, which I remember with grati- 
tude." ' But we have reached the limits of our sketch. 
Charles Sire became a priest, fervent and true. God 
allowed him but a very brief career in the sacred ministry. 
He was sent to the foreign missions and died at sea, 
buried by the simple sailors in the deep, without ceremo- 
nial pomp, without a headstone to mark his grave in mid- 
ocean ; but the image of his fidelity and holy life are 

' Letter of Senor de Lardizabal, page 165. 



graven in the hearts of those who spent their days with 
him in the Seminaries at Polignan and Toulouse. • 


THE principal altar of the Catholic Church is both a 
table, the Eucharistic banquet of the Agape or love 
feast, and also a sepulchre. On it is laid the spotless lamb 
whence the soul is fed in Holy Communion. On it is also 
kept the eternal victim, wrapped in the sacred species, slain 
daily in unbloody sacrifice — yet living in the Tabernacle, a 
perpetual hostage to redeem the world deserting its Father's 
standard. Even though the Blessed Sacrament is not con- 
tinually kept on the altar, the relics of the martyrs are there 
enshrined in stone, by which the Church wishes to symbolize 
the union of the Victim on Calvary with those who present 
their ** bodies a living sacrifice," quorum rcliquics hie sunt. 
The apt decoration of so sacred a repositor}^ is clearly a 
duty if it were not also an instinct of sacerdotal love. In 
regulating the details of this decoration the Church has a 
double object in view : of worshipping God and of instructing 
and edifying her children. 

The general Rubrics of the Mass ' prescribe that the altar 
be of stone, etc., and "likewise ornamented with an antipen- 
dium of the same color, if possible, as that indicated by the 
feast of the day or the office." The antipendium is a veil 
hung in front of the altar, or, where the latter stands free, as 
is now rarely the case in our churches, surrounding it on all 
four sides. Hence we find it called antipendium, or velum, or 
vesiis, or front ale altaris. Rubricists generally, following the 
interpretation of the S. Congregation in various decrees on 
this subject, teach that if the altar be of precious material, 
and its front artistically wrought in marble, wood, metal, or 

» Miss. Roman. Rubr. General,, Tit. XX. 



the like, the antipendium is not required. ' Nevertheless, to 
supply a suitable decoration for the altar in the absence of 
precious material is not the sole purpose of the antipendium. 
Its further object is to indicate the special character of the 
festival or season which the Church celebrates in her mys- 
tic cycle of the ecclestical year with varying solemnity. 
This is done both by the color and also by the more or less 
highly ornamental character of the design. As in the vest- 
ments which the priest wears in the celebration of the 
sacred mysteries, so here the white or golden color indicates 
the triumph of innocence, and is worn on the great feasts and 
the anniversaries of virgins and confessors. Red reminds 
us of the martyr's sacrifice or the burning flood of the holy 
spirit which carries the soul along on its sacred bosom. 
Green tells the troubled Christian as he enters the temple gate 
that there on the altar dwells perennial hope, which faith en- 
genders tTirough Him Who has said: " Come to me all ye that 
labor and are heavily burdened." Purple, like the ray of the 
sun mingling with the shadow of night, speaks to the soul of 
the necessity of penance, of the fact that through darkness we 
come to light; and finally, black brings before us the grief of 
death. On occasions of great solemnity the antipendium 
should be more costly and beautiful, unless it be removed 
entirely to show the more magnificent decoration of the 
altar itself. In general it should harmonize with the office 
or rather with the Mass of the day; but if not changed each 
day, we are to do so on Sundays and holy-days of obligation, 
since the faithful will thus be prepared to take notice of the 
festival. * Authorities on the rubrics hold, as we said above, 
that the use of the antipendium is not of obligation in cases 
where the altar front is otherwise becomingly ornamented. 

* Requiritur ut anterior pars altaris decenter ornetur, nisi altare anro vel lapide 
pretioso ornatam aat per modum tumbre confectum sit.— De Herdt, Praxis, Vol. I., 
n. i8a 

* Color altaris pro officioram diversitate juxta rabricas missalis mutari quotidie 
debet aat saltern diebus dominicis. Testis de prsecepto ac dnplicibas. — De Herdt, 1. c 
n. 154. 


" Usus obtiiiuit ut sine pallio altaria esse possint dummodo 
anterior pars eorum sit congruenter ornata." * Although 
the antipendium, when used, should correspond with the 
office, allowance is made for certain circumstances under 
which this would not be necessary. Thus, if benediction of 
the Blessed Sacrament or procession immediately precedes or 
follows the Mass, the antipendium for the latter need not be 
changed, although its color be not that (white) which is used 
for the ritual of the Blessed Sacrament. This has been de- 
cided by the S. Congregation of Rites. " Black is excluded 
on the altar where the Blessed Sacrament is actually pre- 
served> i. e., both the antipendium and the veil covering the 
Tabernacle are to be violet for the celebration of Requiem 
Mass, although the other decorations of the altar may be 
black. ' The object of this distinction is to call forth prom- 
inently the effect which the real presence of Our Lord in the 
Blessed Sacrament has upon our earthly sorrow. 

The material of the antipendium is nowhere expressly pre- 
scribed. * Its costliness will naturally depend on the cir- 
cumstances of each church. As regards the patterns of orna- 
mentation, there is no especial rule limiting the use of symbols 
or images, provided they be expressive of the truth which 
the altar and the antipendium are intended to represent. 
Christian decorative art is above all others rich in designs of 
this kind. A well shaped cross will in all cases serve as a 
suitable centre piece ; but other figures, such as the holy 
Infant for Christmas, the Pelican for Passiontide, the Lamb 
or Phoenix, or a representation of the Last Supper for the 
Paschal season, the Dove for Pentecost, and a multitude of 
other sacred images, emblems, or monographs according to 
the different feasts or sacred season are more directly signi- 

' Ephemerides Liturgicse, Vol. I., p. 199. 

* Annecien., i Dec. 1882; Deer, auth., n. 5855, I. 

^ Turn sacri Tabernaculi conopeum turn pallium altaris esse debent violacei colons. 
— S. R. C. I Dec. 1882; Deer, auth., n. 5858. 

* De antipendii materia nihil prsescribitur, hsec tamen decori ac gravitati ecclesiae 
semper respondeat. — Ephemerid. Lit., Vol. I., 1. c. ; of. De Herdt, vol. I., n. 167. 


ficant. Forbidden are black antipendiums ornamented with 
skulls, crossbones, and the like. ' It goes without saying 
that whatever savors of tawdriness or the fashion of the hour 
is out of place in the sanctuary; still, a pastor may find it 
necessary to make use occasionally of all his tact and decision 
in preventing the zeal of generous and pious ladies from ex- 
hibiting their individual tastes in the decoration of the altar 
and its visible surroundings. Propriety of design for the 
church is a thing which good models rather than personal 
predilection should regulate. 

For the rest, no limit is set to the costliness and beauty, 
whether in stuffs or design, of the antipendium. " Gold, or sil- 
ver, or silk beautifully interwoven with gold and in the color 
of the day," are what the ceremonial mentions as the proper 
material. ' Some of the old basilicas exhibit in this line 
marvelous pieces of work, made by the devout hands of 
highborn women and representing in some cases the wealth 
of a family-fortune. An antipendium in St. Peter's at Rome, 
presented by the emperor Constantine, weighed 350 pounds, 
and was wrought of pure gold and silver thread, garnished 
with pearl and precious stones. 

There is no blessing required for the antipendium; ' al- 
though it can be blessed together with other vestments. * 


JUST now, in view of the proposed Liturgical Congress to 
^ be held this year at Rome in honor of St. Gregory the 
Great, who might be styled in some sense the Father of Litur- 

Omnia paramenta tarn altaris quara celebrantis et ministrorum, librorum et fal- 
distorii sint nigra, et in his nullx imagines mortuoram vel cruces albje ponantar. — 
Cserem. Episcop., Lib. II., cap. xi., n. I. 

' Caerem. Episcop., Lib. L, c. xii., n. ii. 

3 Bencdici non debent velum calicis, bursa, antipendium et manutergium.— De 
Herdf., I., n. 168. 

* Amberg, Past. Theol., II„ 365, 969. 


gical Science, a brief survey of the history and the characteris- 
tic features of the various liturgies in use in the Church will 
prove of especial interest to the readers of the Ecclesiastical 
Review. The object of the Congress so far as it is known 
will be not only to promote the study of this branch of 
ecclesiastical discipline but also to harmonize practically 
those differences in the public worship of the Church uni- 
versal as spring from local tradition rather than from fun- 
damental conditions of race and country. The study of 
Liturgy has indeed received considerable attention on the 
part of theologians within the last few centuries. To satisfy 
ourselves on this point we need only mention such names as 
Bona, Gavantus, Zaccaria, Merati, and others whose tomes 
bear witness to the erudition and patient research of iheir 
authors. Few of us have access to or, in any case, the time to 
peruse these learned sources, and we propose to condense in 
readable form what may there be found scattered in various 

Every well organized community has a constitution and 
laws by which it is governed. It is not surprising, therefore, 
that in the Church, the most perfect of all societies, we recog- 
nize this fundamental requisite of good government. In all 
her departments she prescribes most minutely the order to 
be observed, but she does so with particular care in regard 
to the actions of her divine worship. Liturgy may be defined 
as a complex of all the words, actions, and articles introduced 
by competent authority to regulate her external worship. It 
comprises two kinds of regulations, namely, rites and cere- 
monies. The words " rites" and " ceremonies " are derived from 
the old Romans. ' The latter term, according to Macer, ' 
signifies the action itself, whereas the former has reference to 
the manner in which the prescribed action must be performed. 

' They called the books which contained the order and form of their ceremonies 
Libri Riiuales. {Diet. Facciolati and Forcellint). Ceremonies, from the town of 
Care, in Tuscany, whose inhabitants kindly received the Vestal Virgins after the 
sacking of Rome by the Gauls. ( Valerius Mfixipius, Lib. T., cap. l.) 

" Hierolexicon, v. ceremonia. 


Suarez, Bellarmine, Quarti and others consider on the other 
hand as rites the essential parts of the Mass only, ' and as 
ceremonies all the other actions and prayers which were 
introduced by the Church. 

The origin of religious rites and ceremonies may be traced 
to the creation of man, for it is an incontestable fact that 
there is no nation without its peculiar rites, according to 
which it pays homage to its true or false God. A desire to 
appease an offended majesty, or to render thanks to a pro- 
pitious deity seems to be implanted in the human heart. 
Hence from the beginning we find sacrifices offered to a 
superior being, to whom nations believed themselves in- 
debted for favors received or calamities averted. 

The Church, sensible of the necessity of rites and ceremo- 
nies to excite in the hearts of the faithful veneration for 
divine things, to elevate their minds to heavenly things, ta 
nourish their piety, foment their charity, strengthen their 
faith, increase their devotion, and to inspire them with the 
highest esteem for religion, and, moreover, expressly com- 
manded by Almighty God, carried out this principle in all 
her services, and in a special manner in the adorable sacrifice 
of the Mass, at once the central and culminating doctrine 
of her faith. Her belief concerning the Blessed Eucharist 
is the same everywhere, and consequently the essential 
parts of this sacrificial rite, the Offertory, Consecration, and 
Communion, are to be found in all her Liturgies ; but in the 
performance of the Sacred Mysteries she accommodates her- 
self to the customs and genius of individual nations. Like St. 
Paul, she makes herself all to all, in order to gain all to 
Christ. Hence the origin of Liturgies, of the various rites 
and ceremonies, with which she celebrates the August 
Sacrifice. * These Liturgies may be grouped in two general 

' Offertory, Consecration, and Commnnion. 

* Another reason may be assigned for the diversity of Liturgies, viz., that during 
the days of persecution it was impossible for the pastors of the Church to meet, and 
by their united efforts to secure uniformity. 


classes, those of the Eastern and those of the Western Church. 
Down to the ninth century there were four great Liturgies in 
use in the West, the Roman, Ambrosian, Gallican, and Mo- 


The Roman Liturgy is that which is used throughout the 
West, if we except a few churches in Milan and Toledo.' It 
is employed also in many parts of the East, subject to the 
Vicars Apostolic of the Latin Rite. The tradition that St. 
Peter is its author is universal. Having established his See 
at Rome, which was to be the mother and teacher of all the 
other churches, it was necessary that he should prescribe a 
definite norm to be observed in offering the Holy Sacrifice. 
Innocent I., in his letter to Decentius, Bishop of Gubbio, * 
and Vigilius writing to Profuturus, Bishop of Braga, * give 
evidence of the universality of this tradition, which Honor6 
de Ste. Marie shows to have been constant.* The nature of 
this Liturgy, according to some authors, is described by 

^ There is a great diversity of opinion concerning the time in which these Litur- 
gies were first committed to writing. Mabillon, De Litiirgia GalUcana, is of opinion 
that none were written in the first three centuries ; Lienhart, De Ant. Lit., cap. III., 
$ vi., Argentorati, 1829, Renaudot, Prcrf. ad Lit. Orient., Tom. I. c. v. , not before 
the fourth century; Le Brun, Tract, de Missa, not before the fifth century; Lien- 
hart, ibid. ; Card. Bona, De Rev. Lit., Tom. L, c. viii., and Gavantus [Merati] 
Comment, in Ruhr., Pars. I., $ 4, on the other hand, give very good reasons for sup- 
posing that they were w^ritten during the first centuries. 

"^ At Milan the Ambrosian is used, and at Toledo the Mozarabic. 

^ Quis enim nesciat aut non avertat, id quod a Petro, apostolorum principe, 
romanse ecclesioe traditum est ac nunc usque custoditur in omnibus debere obser- 
vzxx.—Epist. RR. PP., Constant, Paris, 1 721, col. 856. 

* Nulli dubium est quod ecclesia romana fundamentum et forma sit ecclesiarum, 
a quo omnes ecclesias principiura sumpsisse nemo recte credentium ignorat. — Sacros. 
Concilia — Labbei et Cossartii studio, Paris, 1671, col. 313. 

* Cependant la tradition constante nous apprend que S. Pierre et S. Jacques ont 
donn^, au moins de vive voix, et par leur exemple, le module de toutes les Liturgies 
dans I'Eglise Grecque et Latine. Reflexions sur les rigles et sur Pusage de la cri- 
tique, Lib. v., Diss, iii., art. ii,, $ 2, Paris, 1720. 


St. Paul,* and must have been very lengthy. According to 
others it consisted of the essential parts of the Sacrifice, to 
which the Lord's Prayer was added. We may conjecture 
that both were in use: the latter, when persecutions, long 
journeys, etc., would not allow them to delay ; the former, 
when time and circumstances would permit. We must 
not suppose, however, that the rites and prayers, except 
those that are essential and of Christ's institution, used by 
the Apostles were always the same for all or even for 
each Apostle individually, otherwise there would be only 
one Liturgy in the Church. St. Peter celebrated the Divine 
Mysteries in Jerusalem, Antioch, Pontus, Galatia, Rome, and 
other places. Had he made use of the same prayers, rites, 
and ceremonies, the Liturgy of all places would be identical. 
In course of time not only the Roman Pontiffs, but Bishops 
also, introduced many ceremonies to increase the reverence 
of the faithful towards this adorable Sacrament. Hence St. 
Gregory the Great gives St. Austin, the Apostle of the 
Angles, authority to add whatever ceremonies he may find 
in the various liturgies of his day, which may tend to en- 
hance the celebration of the Divine Mysteries among the 
people. ' 

The first Pontiff who is supposed to have collected the va- 
rious prayers and rites used in the Holy Sacrifice was St. 
Leo the Great, A. D. 440, in his Codex Sacramentorum Vetus 
Romano: EcclcsicB. It was discovered in Verona, and pub- 
lished at Rome by Joseph Blanchini, in 1735. He asserts 
that it is not only the oldest of all the codices, but also the 
purest, as it contains nothing that was introduced after the 
fifth century. St. Leo is acknowledged by him to be the 
author of a large portion of it, though in substance it is the 

' I desire therefore first of all that sapplications, prayers, intercessions, and 
thanksgivings be made. — I. Tim. ii. I. 

* Sed mihi placet, nt sive in Romana. sive in Galliaram, sive in qaalibet Ecclesia 
aliqaid invenisti, quod plus omnii>otenti Deo possit placere, soUicite eligas et in 
Anglorum Ecclesia .... infundas. Migne, Pair. Lat., 1849, col. 1 187. 



work of his predecessors. The Roman Breviary attributes 
to this Pope the words sanctum sacrificium, iinmaculatam Jios- 
tiam, found in the canon of the Mass. We said, that it is 
supposed to be work of Leo the Great, for Gavantus [Merati] 
and others are of opinion, that it is the production of St. 
Gelasius. ' 

The second codex was compiled by Pope St. Gelasius, 
A. D. 492. It is divided into three parts. The first part, 
entitled De Anni Circulo sive de Mysteriis, contains the pray- 
ers used in the celebration of the Divine Mysteries from 
Christmas to the octave of Pentecost. The second, entitled 
Dc Natalitiis Sanctorum, contains the Masses of the feasts of the 
Saints throughout the year. The third, entitled Pro Domi- 
nicis Diebus, contains the services of the Sundays after Pen- 
tecost and the Canon of the Mass. Morinus, commenting 
on this work, assures us, that many of the prayers con- 
tained therein must have been composed during the pontifi- 
cates of St. Sylvester I., A. D. 314-335, and St. Julius, 
A. D. 337-352, and judging from the phraseology and style 
are anterior to the reign of Constantine, A. D. 306-337. 

The third codex is that of St. Gregory the Great, A. D. 
590. According to John the Deacon, who wrote St. Grego- 
ry's life, he corrected and abridged the codex of Pope Gela- 
sius, reducing the three parts to one, and arranged the 
offices of the Mysteries, Saints, and Sundays 2iS we find them 
in the Missals at present. The Creed was not recited after 
the Gospel of St. JoJm at the end of Mass. " 

From the second century four distinct books were used in the 
celebration of the Holy Sacrifice. The first contained the 

' Post accuratius examen codicis, Sacramentarium illud non Leoninum sed purum 
putumque esse Gelasianum nullo additamento interpolatum compertum est. — Com- 
ment, in Rubricas. Venetiis, 1 791. Pars. I., § iii. 

* Sed et Gelasianum Codicem de Missarum solemniis multa subtrahens, pauca 
convertens, nonnuUa adiiciens pro exponendis evangelicis lectionibus in unius libri 
volumine coarctavif, et Mysteriorum, Dominicariim, et Sanctorum missas una serie 
et eo quo celebrantur per anni circulum ordine congessit. — Joannes Diaconus, in 
Vita Gregorii, lib. ii., c. 17. — Patr. Lat,, Migne, Paris, 1862. 


collects, secrets, prefaces, canon, and whatever had to be 
recited by the celebrant. It was called the Sacramentary. 
The second contained the gospels to be sung by the dea- 
con, and was styled the Evangelistary. The third contained 
the lessons of the Old and New Testaments, sung by the 
other ministers at the altar, and was called the Lectionary, 
The fourth, styled the Antiphonary, contained the tracts, 
graduals, responses, and antiphons, sung by the choir. At 
Low Mass the celebrant experienced great difficulty in hand- 
ling these volumes, and in consequence Plenary Missals, or 
one volume containing the matter of all four, were intro- 
duced. St. Leo IV"., in the ninth century, prescribed that 
every church should have its Plenary Missal. ' The Fa- 
thers of the Council of Trent decreed a revision of this Mis- 
sal. St. Pius V. performed this task, and in 1570 ordered 
the new Missal to be used by all. Clement VIII., in 1604, 
and Urban VIII., in 1634, after having expunged the errors 
that crept into it, enjoined the use of their expurgated edi- 
tions on all. It is this we use at the present day. In its 
preparation the aforesaid Pontiffs employed the Sacrament- 
ary of St. Gregory the Great as a model and pattern. 


The Ambrosian Liturgy, or that of Milan, is almost as old 
as that of Rome. It is uncertain who is its author. Vice- 
comes, attributes it to St. Barnabas, the Apostle. His 
opinion, however, is based upon the authority of a few writ- 
ers only, and these are comparatively unknown, of the 
eleventh century. Since it is doubtful whether St. Barnabas 
was ever in Milan, we may safely doubt whether he was the 
author of its liturgy. * Moreover, the name of St. Barnabas 

' At Rome, in the library of the convent adjoining St. Augustine's Church, 
Biblioteca Angelica, a very old codex of this missal is preserved. 

* Lib. I., De Ritibus Jffissce, cap. 22, .\pad Gavantus [Merati] in Rubr. Miss.y 
Pars. I., c. xxL 

' St. Ambrose, writing against Auxentias concerning the rites of the Church of 
Milan, does not go beyond Mirocles, his fifth predecessor. 



is not found in the Canon of the Mass before the time of St. 
Charles Borromeo, and on his feast-day there is no reference 
made to his having been the founder of the Milanese 
Church, which is without doubt an index that he was not 
supposed to have established its rite. 

Others attribute it to St. Ambrose, whose name it bears. 
Neither can this opinion be accepted. For when he was 
elected he was still a catechumen. Only eight days inter- 
vened between his baptism and consecration. It is at least 
improbable, that during the first years of his incumbency he 
could have acquired, even by the closest application, such a 
knowledge of the sacred rites, as to be able to compose a 
thoroughly new liturgy, which during his life would have 
been so universally used in the province of Milan. More- 
over, he had many predecessors in his See, men of estab- 
lished sanctity and known for their zeal in the divine 
services. It is almost incredible, that they should not have 
had a definite form of worship, and if so, it is still less cred- 
ible, that he would have entirely changed it during his 
episcopate. Again, it is improbable, that at so short a dis- 
tance from Rome he would have followed a rite so at vari- 
ance with hers, had he not found it already established at 
his election. 

Probably the opinion of almost all liturgists at the present 
day is the most satisfactory, namely, that he found a liturgy 
at Milan, resembling those of the Oriental Church, which 
he arranged in a new order and to which he added many 
ceremonies, such as the singing of psalms by alternate 
choirs, hymns, antiphons, prefaces, etc., which the Milanese, 
out of reverence to him, called by his name. Hence 
we may suppose, that he, as well as his predecessors, made 
use of the authority enjoyed by the Bishops of the early 
Church to select and introduce into their liturgies from the 
Eastern and VVestern Churches what they judged suitable. 
St. Ambrose assures us that he made use of this power. ' 

' In omnibus cupio sequi ecclesiam romanam, sed tamen et nos sensum habe- 



The successors ot St. Ambrose made numerous additions 
and corrections, which may be seen by comparing the old 
Missals with those published by the order of St. Charles, 
1560, Card. Monte, 1640, and Card. Archinti, 1712, and from 
the letters of St. Ambrose, in which many ceremonies are 
mentioned which are not used at present nor found in the 
manuscript codices. 

Attempts have often been made to abrogate this Liturgy, 
but without success. Nicholas II., 1060, sent St. Peter Da- 
mian to Milan for this purpose, but it is related that he was 
so well pleased with the decorum of the clergy and the 
majesty of the ceremonies, that he permitted it to be used. 
Eugene IV. sent Card. Branda-Castiglioni, in 1440, for the 
same purpose, but he was unceremoniously dismissed, with- 
out having accomplished his work. During the incumbency 
of St. Charles attempts of the same nature were made, but 
his protests were so energetic, that the Milanese were not 
only allowed to make use of their Liturgy, but it received 
also the solemn approbation of the Holy See. 

Among the peculiarities of this rite we may mention the 
following. I. The Scriptural texts are taken for the most 
part from the old Itala, and not from St. Jerome's version. 
This is especially the case in the Psalms. 2. On Sundays 
and solemn feasts a lesson from the Old Testament is read 
before the Epistle. 3. On the Sundays of Lent immediately 
after the Introit prayers are recited for peace for the Church, 
clergy and people, civil authorities and the army, and for 
people of all stations in life, to which the assistants answer 
Kyrie Eleison. These prayers are evidently taken from the 
Greek Church. 4. The Agnus Dei is recited in Requiem 
Masses only. 5. Before the Consecration the celebrant goes 
to the Epistle side of the Altar to wash his hands. 6. No 
Mass is celebrated on the Fridays of Lent, but in its stead 
the Cross is exposed for adoration, and a sermon is preached 

mas; ideo quod alibi rectius servatur hoc nos recte custodimus. Admonitio de 
Sacramentis, Migne, Patr. Lat., col. 430, 1880. 


on the Passion of Christ. 7. In the Canon we find the names 
of many saints not in the Roman Canon. 8. Though at 
present the words of consecration are the same as those used 
in the Roman Liturgy, yet in the ancient rite the form was 
shorter.' 9. During High Mass at the Cathedral the cele- 
brant, with deacon and subdeacon, and accompanied by the 
acolytes, proceeds to the entrance of the sanctuary, and 
receives from two old men ' oblations of bread and wine. 
He then descends to the entrance of the choir, and receives 
similar offerings from two matrons." 

This Liturgy, though it has many peculiar rites, which are 
evidently derived from the Oriental Liturgies, is of Roman 
origin. It is used in the Cathedral at Milan and in some of 
the churches of that city. In most churches, however, the 
Latin or Roman Liturgy has been introduced. 


That the Gauls had their peculiar Liturgy is evident from 
the question put by St. Austin to Pope Gregory the Great. 
Why does the Church of Gaul use a Liturgy at variance 
with that of Rome ? * To all appearances it is of Oriental 
origin. St. Innocent I., in his letters, enumerates many cere- 
monies which were not in use in the Roman, but were taken 
from the Eastern Liturgies.' That it differed from the Ro- 

' " Hoc est corpus meum quod pro multis confringetur " and " Hie est enim san- 
guis meus." 

* Veglones. ^ Veglonissae. 

* Cur cum una sit fides, sint ecclesiarum consuetudines diversae, et altera con- 
suetude Missarum sit in romana ecclesia, atque altera in Galliarum ecclessiis 
teneatur? — Migne, Pair. Lat., 1849, col. 1 186. 

' Card. Bona holds that it was taken from the Gothic or Mozarabic. In confir- 
mation of his opinion he adduces the following reasons. I. That the orations 
recited in the Mass of the Martyrs, like those of the Mozarabic, contain an account 
of their sufferings. 2. Before this Liturgy was finally abrogated, Charles the Bald 
had Mass celebrated by priests from Toledo, that he might perceive [ut oculis per- 
ciperet] the difference between the Mass celebrated in Gaul down to the time of 
Pepin and that of Rome, thereby giving us to understand, that the ancient Gallican 
Mass was similar to the one celebrated at Toledo and in Southern France. 3. He 


man Liturgy is evident from the fact, that during the reign 
of Charlemagne it began to be supplanted by the Roman. 
This prince, having received a copy of the Gregorian Sacra- 
mentary from Adrian I., ordained that in his kingdom the 
Sacred Mysteries should be celebrated according to this 
Liturgy. Charles the Bald, entering into the spirit of his 
grandfather, in his letter to the Clergy of Ravenna secured 
its final abolition.' The eflfect of this order was, that after 
his reign no vestige of the ancient Galilean Liturgy re- 

It is uncertain who was the author of this Liturgy. The 
opinion prevails, that it was instituted by the missionaries 
sent to convert the inhabitants of Gaul. Most of these came 
from the East, such as SS. Photimus, Saturninus, etc., who 
introduced many practices to which they were accustomed, 
and hence its similarity to the Oriental Liturgies. 

Before its abrogation there were various copies of it in 
use. The order maintained in all was the same, they differed 
in the prayers and less important ceremonies only. St. 
Jerome attributes one of his copies to St. Hilary of Poitiers." 
Gennadius ascribes one to Voconius, * and another to 
Musaeus, a priest of Marseilles.* A fourth is referred to in 
the Council of Rheims.* And St. Gregory of Tours makes 
mention of another, composed by St. Sidonius, Bishop of 

adduces the testimony of Abbot Berno, who, commenting on the diversity existing 
between the Gallican and Mozarabic Liturgies and the Roman, says, In nostri 
monasterii archivo habetur missatis longe aliter ordinatus quam Romance EccUsia se 
habeat usus. — Rer. Lit., Augustx Taurin., Lib. L, c. xi., % 5. 

' Sed nos sequendam ducimus Romanam Ecclesiam in Missaram celebratione ; 
Dam non expedit, ut quos conjunxit unicae fidei pia devotio, sejungat ofHcioram 
varia celebratio. — Lienhart, De Ant. Lit., Argentorati, 1829, p. 97. 

* Est ejas et liber hymnoram et liber mysteriorum alias. De Virit Illust., 
Migne, 1883. 

* Sacramentorum egreginm volumen composuit. — In Cat. Script. EccUs,, Migne, 

* Sacramentomm non parvam volumen composuit. — Ibid. 

* Codex cum patena et Sacramentorum liber cum vestibas sacerdotalibus sub sera 
recondantar. — Apod Burchardum, Lib. IIL, c. 97. 


Auvergne.' Although this Liturgy was discontinued after 
the reign of Charles the Bald, yet several codices of it were 
preserved in different libraries, and reproduced in the seven- 
teenth century. Card. Tommasi had the Missale GotJiicum, 
Missale Francorum, and Missale Gallicanum Vetus published 
in 1680. The first of these could not have been composed 
before the end of the seventh century, for it contains a Mass 
in honor of St. Leodegarius, who was martyred in 678, nor 
later than the beginning of the eighth century, as he is the 
latest saint of whom mention is made. The second was en- 
titled Missarum Francorum, because in it the civil authorities 
for whom prayers are offered are the kings and princes of 
the Franks. Morinus refers this codex to the sixth century, 
but Mabillon, more correctl}^ to the seventh. The third re- 
sembles the Roman Liturgy more closely, and is conse- 
quently of a later date. Mabillon published a Lectionary of 
this Liturgy in 1685, and later in his Muscsum Italicum the 
Sacramentarium Gallicanum, which he discovered at Bobbie 
in Lombardy. It bears a striking resemblance to the ancient 
Galilean Missals, and must be very old. It is worthy of note 
that the Canon of this Sacramentary is like the Roman, 
except that after the names of Cosmas and Damian those 
of SS. Hilary, Augustine, Ambrose, etc., are inserted, from 
which we have every reason to conjecture that the Roman 
Canon was introduced into the Church of Gaul before the 
whole Roman Liturgy. To these we may add an Exposition 
of the Mass bySt. Germaine of Paris, A. D. 555, extracted 
from two letters of this Saint, found in the monastery of St. 
Martin at Autun." 

From these monuments we learn what were the peculiarities 
of this Liturgy, i. After the Preface, corresponding with 
and similar to our Introit, the Lector read lessons from the 
Old and New Testaments. 2. The gospel was chanted from 
the Ambo or pulpit, placed generally in the nave of the 

' Lib. II., Hist. Francorum, c. 22, Migne, Patr. Lat., 1879. 

* Martene and Durandus, Thesaurus Nov. Anecdotorum, tome V. 


church. 3. After the Offertory the names of the Saints in 
whose honor the Holy Sacrifice was celebrated, and of the 
living and the dead for whom it was offered, were published, 
after which thediptychs' were read. 4. The kiss of peace 
was given before the Preface, which was transferred by 
order of Innocent I. to the Canon after the consecration. 5. 
The Canon was very short, and was different for every day. 
This Liturgy was used in France, except in the ancient 
Gallia Narbonensis, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Rhenish Prov- 
ince, Alsace, Lorraine, and the western extremity of Switzer- 
land. Jt went out of use in the ninth Century. A few pecu- 
liar ceremonies are still used in some of the churches of 
France, which may be referred to this Liturgy. 


Various are the opinions of historians concerning the foun- 
ders of the Church of Spain. Whoever it may have been, it 
is certain, that with the Christian religion they introduced a 
rite to be observed in offering the Holy Sacrifice. In sub- 
stance it agreed with all the other liturgies, but the prayers 
and ceremonies were regulated to suit the customs and 
genius of the Spanish people. It is undoubtedly of Roman 
origin. St. Isidore of Seville says, that the order of this 
Mass was regulated by St. Peter.* He hereby intimates, that 
St. Peter preached the gospel in Spain either in person, * or 
indirectly by others, whom he sent to evangelize that coun- 
try. This latter seems to be the true interpretation, and is 
confirmed by Innocent I., who in his letter to Decentius de- 

I Tablets on which were written the names of the Bishops who died in the com- 
manion of the Church. 

' Ordo autem missce vel orationum quibus oblala Deo sacrificia consecrantur pri- 
mum a S. Petro est institutus. De Eccles. officiisVib. I., c. 1$, Migne, Pair. Lat.^ 

* Gasper Sanchez is of this opinion. He also holds that St, Paul was one of the 
first evangelizers of Spain. Cum in Hispaniam proficisci capero. Rom. xx. 24. 
De prtrd. in Hispania, Tract IV. ; A pud Acta Sanct. Tom. VI. Julii Tract, pralim., 
c i., J I. 


Clares, that the Churches of the West were instituted by 
those whom St. Peter or his successors ordained priests.' 
In the fifth century Spain was invaded by the Van- 
dals and Visigoths, who brought with them an Eastern 
Liturgy which was infected with Arianism. This Liturgy 
was probably composed by Ulfilas," their bishop. Towards 
the end of the sixth century many Visigoths were converted 
to the faith. To win their confidence, many rites of the 
Eastern Church were added to the ancient Spanish Liturgy. 
This work of conciliation was begun by St. Leander, and 
continued and perfected by SS. Isidore and Ildefonse. In the 
Fourth Council of Toledo, at which St. Isidore presided, the 
Bishops decided that one and the same Liturgy should be 
used in all the churches of Spain and Southern France,' and 
hence was called the Gothic Spanish and Gothic Gallican 
Liturgy. During the eighth century the Arabs or Moors 
marched into Europe, and brought Spain under their domin- 
ion, and from that time it was called the Mozarabic Liturgy.* 
In course of time this Liturgy became tainted with so 
many errors, that Elipandus made use of it to prove that 
Christ was only the adopted Son of God. The Roman Pon- 
tiffs Alexander III and Gregory VII, with the assistance of 
the Kings of Aragon, succeeded in abolishing it, and in 1073 
the Roman Litury was introduced, except in the kingdoms 
of Leon and Castile and Navarre, in which it was not abro- 
gated until 1088. That this Liturgy might not be totally 
lost. Card. Ximenes in 1500 published the Mozarabic Missal ' 

' St. Peter ordained and sent to Spain SS. Torquatus, Secundus, Indaletius, Ctesi- 
phon, Csecilius, Esitins, and Euphrasius. Prudentius de Sandoval, De Fund. Mo- 
nasi. S. Benedicti. 

* He translated the Bible, except four Books of Kings, into the Gothic, a language 
which up to his time had not been used for any literary composition of importance. 

^ At that time Gallia Narbonensis was under the sway of the Goths. 

^ Mostarabes or Mozarabes, i. e., Mixti Arabes or Extra Arabes, were the inhabi- 
tants of Spain not of Arabic origin. 

' Missale mixtum {^Plenary) secundum regulam Beati Isidori dictum Mozarabes. 
Toleti, P. Hagembach. 


and instituted a college of priests, who with permission of 
the Holy See even to this date celebrate Mass according to 
this rite in a chapel of the Cathedral of Toledo and in several 
parish churches of that city. 

The order of the Mass observed in this Liturgy bears on 
most points a striking resemblance to the Roman. Many 
prayers, though they differ in composition, are the same in 
sentiment. As peculiarities we may notice: i. A prophecy 
is read before the Epistle. 2. Between the Oflfertory and 
Consecration six distinct orations are recited. 3. Like in 
the Gallican Liturgy the diptychs are read and the kiss of 
peace is given before the Preface. 4. Many prayers, which 
in the Roman are recited in a subdued tone, are prescribed 
to be read aloud. 5. The Sacred Host is never placed on 
the Corporal, but always on the Paten. 6. The celebrant 
turns towards the people only once, namel}', when giving the 
blessing at the end of Mass. 

It may be remarked that the Roman Liturgy is shorter 
than the Ambrosian, Gallican, and Mozarabic. This, no 
doubt, is owing to the fact that the Oriental Liturgies, from 
which many of their ceremonies are taken, are invariably 
very long. The Roman, which at present is used throughout 
the West and in many parts of the East, is celebrated in the 
Latin language,' in which all the Western Liturgies were 
originally written. 

Besides the above mentioned Liturgies there were many 
others in use during the first centuries. They were com- 
posed by the persons or for the churches whose names they 
bear. Of some no vestige remains, of others a few fragments 
are extant, and some remain in their entirety. Several of the 
Religious Orders, such as the Carmelites, Carthusians, 

• Except in Istria, Libarnia, and maritime Dalmatia. where by special permission 
of the Holy See the Illyrian or Slavonic tongue is used. During the pontificate of 
John XXII the Latin rite was introduced at //akgivan, in Greater Armenia, but the 
Armenian language was retained. In 1757 these Christians fled to Smyrna in Ana- 
tolia, where about 1000 still exist. 


Friar Preachers, etc., have their peculiar Liturgies, but the 
difference between them and the Roman is so unimportant, 
that they cannot be called distinct Liturgies. 

S. L. E. 


VERONICA, cupieiis religionem catholicam amplecti, at 
simul timens ne ipsius parentes, qui methodistarum 
sectag toto animo adhaerent, hac de re valde irascantur ipsam- 
que e domo ejiciant, rogavit Patrem Antonium ut omnia 
secrete fierent, atque ipsius conversio occulta omnibus re- 
maneret, non ultra tamen unius anni spatium. Annuit Pater 
Antonius, ac proinde Veronica, suscepto baptismo alto sub 
secreto, degensque inter methodistas, quasi methodistice 
pergit agere : quare diebus abstinentias a carnibus non ab- 
stinet ; ecclesiam seethe quandoque adit sive cum matre, sive 
cum sororibus, cumque una ex istis nuper matrimonio con- 
juncta esset, ipsa partem egit primae assistentis puellae {first 
bride s-maid), et dein nata prole, functa est officio matrinae. 


L Utrum permitti possit alicui haeretico ut occulte ingre- 
diatur veram ecclesiam, ita ut in asstimatione hominum re- 
maneat hasreticus ? 

IL Utrum et in quonam improbanda sit ratio agendi 
Veronicae ? 

Resp. \. Ut melius pateat quid sit respondendum quaes- 
tioni primo loco propositae, in mentem revocandum est 
principium quod ex Card, de Lugo stabilitum fuit in solutione 
casus praecedentis : adesse nempe duplex praeceptum circa 
externam manifestationem fidei, negativum unum, quod 
obligat singulis momentis, et alterum positivum, cujus ob- 
ligatio ad duos tantum casus, vel forte etiam ad unicum, 
reduci potest, ad tempus scilicet quo aliquis vitam christia- 


nam socialiter ingreditur. Porrocum quaeriturnum permitti 
possit alicui haeretico, ut occulte recipiatur in veram eccle- 
siam itaut in aeslimatione hominum perseveret essemembrum 
sectae ad quam antea pertinuit, duo possunt significari. Unum 
est num ipsi liceat ea externe praestare quae cum professione 
verae fidei sunt certo incompatibilia, et hoc, quia est contra 
prasceptum negativum, neque per unum annum, neque per 
unam diem aut horaequadrantem, permitti aut tolerari potest. 
Alterum autem est num ei liceat silere de sua conversionc, et 
omittere positivos illos actus catholicae religionis ex quibus 
certo concludi posset ipsum evasisse catholicum, et praeterea 
vacando operibus quas sunt bona aut indifferentin, sed 
ab haereticis fieri solita, occasionem praebere ut remaneat 
apud suos amicoset consanguineos popularis persuasio se ad- 
huc esse haereticum. — Quod si iste sit sensus propositae qnae- 
stionis, affirmative respondendum esse videtur etiamsi ad 
integrum annum, aut etiam ultra protrahatur talis ratio 
agendi. Etenim praeceptum positivum externe manifestandi 
veram fidem ad quod unice, ex facta hjpothesi, attendendum 
nunc est, non postulat ut statim ac vera fides recipitur mani- 
festa fiat. Praeterea malitia, si quae inveniri posset in pras- 
dicta ratione agendi, oriretur vel ex eo quod omitterentur 
positivi quidam actus a catholica religione pracscripti, vel ex 
eo quod ponerentur opera quaedam indifferentia, sed apud 
haereticos consueta, vel tandem ex eo quod permitteretur 
popularis aliqua persuasio divini honoris iaesiva. Atqui 
nequit urgeri primuvt, quia praecepta positiva humana, inter- 
veniente gravi incommodo, cessant vel potius suspenduntur ; 
non secundum, quia malitia tunc tantum sese haberet ex parte 
agentis non autem ex parte actus, scilicet tota esset subjecti- 
va ; non demum tcrtiuni^ quia permittere aliquid contra Dei 
honorem aut legem non est aliquid intrinsece malum et certe 
non idem est ac illud procurare, prouti passim theologi ex- 
plicite docent. Quod si dicas hanc doctrinam esse contra 
communem sententiam theologorum, quorum aliqui requirunt 
ut singulis mensibus aut diebus festis, et alii ut saltem semel 


in anno eliciatur actus fidei, respondetur eos loqui oe actu 
interne, non autem de externa fidei manifestatione. Si vero 
urgeas quod nequeat quis non manifestare veram fidem dum 
Eucharistiam devote suscipit, et haec suscipienda sit saltern 
in Paschate ex praecepto divino, responderi potest i° ne- 
gando praeceptum paschale esse proprie divinum, etsi per 
illud satisfiat praecepto divino, et 2° posse aliquem devote 
suscipere Eucharistiam, quin illam publice suscipiat coram 
suis amicis et consanguineis. 

At vero nonne juxta Card, de Lugo et certam omnium 
doctrinam tenemur externe profiteri veram fidem cum vitam 
christianam socialiter ingredimur ? Tenemur profecto, ac 
proinde quoniam ingressus iste tunc proprie, pro adulto, lo- 
cum habet cum ei confertur baptismus, sequitur hunc non 
posse secreto conferri. Si enim adultus ille clanculum ageret 
aperte sibi contradiceret : vellet scilicet socialiter ingredi 
vitam christianam, sed hanc non profiteri socialiter. Haec 
difficultas, quae sane seria apparet, solvi potest ex iis quae 
ipse de Lugo habet in Disput. XIV., Sect. IV., n. 17, ubi post 
haec verba " Supposita vita sociali et politica cum aliis fides 
ipsa obligat ad sui manifestationem, et quidem in ipsa peti- 
tione et susceptione baptism! debet quilibet adultus fidem 
suam profiteri," addit sequentia: " et de facto satis eam pro- 
fitetur (adultus) cum petat baptismum quo ingrediatur in 
Ecclesiam et fidelium numero adjungatur." Conceditur 
igitur adesse obligationem profitendi fidem externe cum quis 
socialiter ingreditur vitam christianam ; conceditur insuper 
hunc ingressum socialem locum habere in ipsa susceptione 
baptismi, sed negatur solam petitionem et susceptionem 
baptismi publice factam in Ecclesia coram populo esse soci- 
alem protestationem verae fidei. Scilicet, quoniam Sacerdos 
cum sacramenta administrat, agit vere nomine Christi et 
Ecclesiae, sequitur ipsum vere esse personam publicam seu so- 
cialem, ac proinde dum quis ab eo petit et suscipit baptismum, 
actum socialem elicit et veram fidem socialiter profitetur. 
Neque huic sententiae deest pondus auctoritatis. Etenim 


inter casus a Gury propositos legitur unus de quodam Pa- 
terno ministro potestante, qui " dum extreme occumberet, ra- 
tus religionem catholicam esse solam veram, postulavit ut ad 
se advocaretur secreto Sacerdos hujus religionis, qui tamen 
sub vestibus secularibus adveniret, ad declinandam omnem 
suspicionem abjurandae haereseos. Itaque Sacerdoti prae- 
senti aperuit mentem suam, petens humiliter baptizari, sed 
cum duabus appositis conditionibus, scilicet: I. ut si ex 
morbo decumberet, sibi liceret moriendo dissimulare fidem 
catholicam et baptismum susceptum ; II. ut si convalesceret, 
sibi permitteretur expectare occasionem opportuniorem ad 
fidem, sine periculo bonorum, exterius profitendam." Porro 
clarissimus moralista, rejecta, ut par est, prima conditione, 
concedit posse admitti secundam ex hac ratione, " quia licet 
veram fidem ad tempus dissimulare ob maxima incommoda 
quae ex professione publica sequerentur." 

II. Videamus nunc magis practice et directe utrum et in 
quonam improbanda sit ratio agendi Veronicas. Haec ratio 
agendi ad quatuor puncta reduci potest; nam 1° a camibus 
non abstinet diebus in quibus earum esus ab Ecclesia pro- 
hibetur; 2° quandoque adit ecclesiam methodistam sive 
cum matre sive cum sororibus ; 3° functa est munere 
primae puellae assistentis cum una ex suis sororibus matrimo- 
nio conjungeretur ; 4° officium matrinae peregit erga 
prolem suae sororis. Porro dico ipsam in uno tantum esse 
improbandam, scilicet cum functa est officio matrinae, sed in 
casteris non esse inquietandam, quod, ut clarius pateat, sin- 
gula sunt examinanda. 

1° Veronica eximenda est ab omni peccato circa mandu- 
cationem carnium ex eo quod lex ecclesiastica, de qua sola 
hie agitur, cessat urgere in casu necessitatis. Particularem 
hanc quaestionem fuse tractat Card, de Lugo in cit. Disp. 
XIV., Sect, v., a n. 99 ad n. 107, ubi facta distinctione in 
duplicem necessitatem, ab intrinseco unam, aliam ab extrin- 
seco, de prima quae iterum duplex est prouti procedit a 
deficientia ciborum esurialium, vel ab infirmitate subjecti, 


docet tantam habere vim ut " ea stante perinde est ac si non 
esset dies prohibitionis sed alia dies." Necessitas autem ab 
extrinseco iterum, juxta ipsum, duplex distinguitur. Prima 
est cum tyrannus in contemptum legis ecclesiasticae prsecipit 
carnium prohibitarum esum, et ex hac certum est nullam 
oriri posse excusationem, quia contemptus ille est aliquid 
intrinsece malum et consequenter nunquam admittendum : 
altera autem necessitas ab extrinseco locum habet cum 
degens inter hasreticos, ubi omnes carnes comedunt, "tu 
etiam eas comedis, ne, si abstineas, prodas te ipsum catholi- 
cum et ea de causa pericliteris." Ut patet, hie est proprie 
casus de quo agimus, et in eo, ut testatur Card, de Lugo, 
theologi communiter et verius concedunt licitum esse carnes 
manducare, etiamsi agatur de iis locis ubi talis abstinentia 
habeatur veluti signum et tessera fidei catholicae. Ratio est 
quia, etsi illi qui animadvertunt te a carnibus abstinere 
recte dicere possint et de facto dicant te esse catholicum, 
nequeunt tamen legitime concludere, et de facto non con- 
cludunt te esse hasreticum cum vident te eas manducare. 
En verba ipsius Lugonis : " Comestio ilia nee secundum se, 
nee in iis circumstantiis est signum determinate significans 
fidei negationem vel formalem contemptum prsecepti, cum 
multi etiam catholici carnes ex gula sive necessitate come- 
dant, et cum possis morbo occulto laborare quo a prsecepto 
excuseris ; quare licet alii suspicentur te esse haereticum 
id sine sufficienti fundamento judicabunt ; Catholici vero, 
vel etiam hasretici, qui te Catholicum esse sciunt, judica- 
bunt potius te id facere, ne te periculose prodas, quare 
sicut ob similem causam poteris breviarium non deferre, et 
officium divinum omittere, quando id sine periculo deferre 
non posses, ita poteris abstinentiaip ecclesiasticam ob simile 
periculum omittere, cum neutra lex cum tanto periculo 

2° Adire templa hasreticorum per se est actus indifferens, 
et malus evadere potest vel ex fine, vel ex speciali positiva 
prohibitione, vel demum ex circumstantiis, ex quibus quan- 


doque fieri posset ut talis ingressus haGeatur tanquam pro- 
testatio cultus haeretici. At quoniam finis Veronicae non est 
malus, neque pro ea supponitur adesse positiva prohibitio, 
tota solutio casus dependet ex consideratione circumstan- 
tiarum. Hseautem ipsi evidentur favent ; nam non dicitur 
quod semper, scilicet singulis diebus dominicis, nee saepe, 
sicut forte antea solebat agere, sed solum quandoque adit 
ecclesiam methodistam ; nee sola, sed vel cum matre vel 
eum sororibus, scilicet ut eas comitetur ; nee dicitur quod 
ibi genua fleetat, aut eantet, aut aliquem alium actum cul- 
tus methodistici eliciat ; ae proinde recte supponitur ipsius 
aditum ad ecclesiam esse tantum materialem et positum 
causa urbanitatis et benevolentise erga matrem et sorores. 
Hue facit declaratio C. S. O., data 4 Jan., 1818, prouti 
habetur apud Cretoni, Vol. I., not. C. ; nam ad Dubium " an 
liceat catholicis adire templa hasreticorum? " — S. Congr. 
respondit : " Licere si adeant merae curiositatis causa, 
absque uUa communicatione in sacris, in qua talis aditus 
eommuniter habeaturpro actu protestativo falsae religionis ; 
quandoquidem sicut profana aedificia, sic et templa hasre- 
ticorum adire, est actus per se indifferens, qui nonnisi a 
pravo fine, vel ex eircumstantiis efficitur malus." 

3° De assistentia matrimonio eadem danda est solutio; 
nam hujusmodi actio apud nos reputatur ut merum officium 
civile et signum amicitiae. Nee circumstantia quod Vero- 
nica egerit partes principalis assistentis puellas — first bride s- 
maid — ullam facere debet difficultatem ; siquidem illae ad 
tale munus seligi solent quae ex una parte sunt ad illud im- 
plendum aptiores ratione setatis et civilis conditionis, et ex 
alia majori amicitia et strictiori vinculo benevolentias feruntur 
erga sponsam. Hoe autem ostendit hujusmodi officium 
juxta mores nostros non reputari religiosum, nee ullam im- 
portare cultus participationem. Et haec est doctrina claris- 
simi Kenrick, qui Tract. XIII., n. 33, ait: " adstare nuptiis 
ab iis (haereticis) eelebratis non habetur signum professionis 
fidei, quamvis ab iis abstinendum sit." Quod autem illud 


" abstinendum " ex ipsius mente sit tantum de consilio, vel 
ad evitandum aliquod aliud periculum extrinsecum fidei, 
satis ostenditur ex eo quod inferius absque uUo addito 
dicat : " adstare nuptiarum celebrationi aestimatur plerum- 
que obsequii erga sponsos indicium, quin ritus hasretici 
probentur." Imo Kenrick eo usque procedit ut permittat, 
aut saltern permittere videatur parentibus, et iis qui sunt 
sanguine magis conjuncti, adstare nuptiis initis ab aliquo 
catholic© coram praecone haeretico " spretis Ecclesiae legi- 
bus. " Hoc revera nimium videtur, nee satis intelligitur 
quomodo pater et mater excusari possint a cooperatione 
tanti criminis. 

4° Quod ultimo loco remanet examinandum est, num 
Veronica licite potuerit fungi officio matrinae erga prolem 
suae sororis. Ut per se patet, totus ritus hie supponitur 
haereticus : supponitur scilicet prolem natam esse a paren- 
tibus methodistis, et nunc methodistice baptizari a ministro 
methodista. Porro, hisce stantibus, responderi debet, 
prouti jam dictum est, Veronicam hac in re non posse ex- 
cusari. Ratio duplex est et deducitur tum ex injuria facta 
Sacramento, tum quia matrina, quascumque tandem sit ipsius 
intentio, revera spondet, aut saltem spondere apprehenditur 
a circumstantibus, se educaturam prolem in ea fide quam 
indicat prsesens baptismus. Hoc autem promissionem ini- 
quam, utpote veras fidei repugnantem aperte continet, et 
consequenter catholicis permitti nequit : quare Kenrick ab- 
solute haec habet : " Hasreticorum infantes non debent 
catholici in baptismo a prascone coUato suscipere." 

At forte objicies ex doctrina Busembaum, qui apud S. 
Alphonsum, f^^k" Pr esc. Fidei, n. i6, ita loquitur: " Patrinum 
fieri talis infantis (hasreticorum) videtur potius optandum, 
seclusis aliis, quia non est aliud, quam obligare se ad eum 
olim erudiendum in fide catholica." Verum respondetur 
negando omnino talem esse naturalem significationem et 
communem hominum asstimationem de promissione et ver- 
bis matrinae, dum baptismus confertur. Verba autem et 


actiones quae turn a natura turn ab usu sunt ad aliquid 
determinatae non sunt explicandae juxta id quod in mente 
habetur. Praeterea cum quaestio ista jam fuerit a suprema 
auctoritate definita, nequit adduci in contrarium auctoritas 
Busembaum aut aliorum theologorum. Et re quidem vera 
die 10 Maji, 1770, Congr. S. O. sequens dedit responsum : 
" Sanctissimus decrevit catholicis non licere hasreticorum 
aut schismaticorum concionibus, baptismis, et matrimoniis 
interesse ; absolute autem non licere, nee per se, nee per 
alios fungi officio patrini in baptismis qui haereticorum filiis 
ab haereticis ministrantur." Exinde colligitur interesse 
concionibus, baptismis et matrimoniis haereticorum quando- 
que, vi circumstantiarum, posse evadere licitum, et ideo 
non prohiberi absolute ; sed fungi officio patrini esse absolute, 
scilicet semper et ubique illicitum, non alia forte de causa 
nisi quia videtur continere aliquid cjuod verae fidei adver- 
satur. - 

Cf. Lugo, de Fide, Disp. XIV., Sect. V. §. II.— S. Alphons. 
de Prcecepto Fidei, n. 12 et seqq. — Nouvelle Revue Th6ol., 
Vol. III., pag. 302 et seqq. — Kenrick, Tract. XIII. de Fide, 
Cap. III. — Gury, Casus Conscientice, Vol. I., n, 197. — Lehm- 
kuhl. Vol. I., n. 291 et seqq. — Konings, n. 251 et seqq. — 
Sabetti, n. 154. 

A. Sabetti, S. J. 



{Seventy-four Churches in 1888.) 

Maj. 31, Pro utroq. clero. Vesp. de seq. Com. Dom. tant 

Jun. I, Alb. Dom. i. Pent, festum SS. Trinitatis. Dupl. i. cl. cum 

Oct. ut in Calend. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. et Dom. tant 
Pro Clero Romano, omnia ut supra. NihU fit de S. Eleu- 

ther. hoc anno. In 2. Vesp. com. seq. et Dom. tant. 


a, Fer. 2. Alb. Fest. B. M. V. sub. tit, Auxil. Christian. Dupl. 
maj. (fuit 24 Maj.) ut in Calend. cum com. Oct. ante com. SS. 
Mart, in Laud, et Miss. In 2. Vesp. com. Oct. 

Pro Clero Romano, Alb. S. Eugenii ut in Calend. cum com. 
Oct. in Laud, et Miss, in qua Cr. Prsef. Trin. Vesp. a cap. de 
seq. com. prsec. et Oct. 

3, Fer. 3. Alb. de Oct. Semid. ut in fest. Lectt. i. Noct. Incip. 
Lib. I. Reg. ex heri 2. et 3. Noct. ex Octavar. vel ut in fest. 
In Miss. 2. or. B. M. V. Concede 3. Eccl. vel. pro Papa Praef. 

Trinitat. Vesp. de seq. com. Oct. 

Pro Clero Romano, Alb. S. Anastasii ut in Calend. cum com. 
Oct. in Laud, et Miss, in qua Cr. et Praef. Trinitat. Vesp. a 
cap. de seq. com. prsec. et Oct 

4, Fer. 4. Pro utroq. clero ut in Calend. cum com. Oct. Cr. et 
Praef. SS. Trinit. Nihil de S. Boni/ac. hoc